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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690924/the-effect-of-regularly-dosed-paracetamol-versus-no-paracetamol-on-renal-function-in-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-packnow-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Daniel J Cooper, Katherine Plewes, Matthew J Grigg, Giri S Rajahram, Kim A Piera, Timothy William, Mark D Chatfield, Tsin Wen Yeo, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas M Anstey, Bridget E Barber
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication. AKI of any cause can have long-term consequences, including increased risk of chronic kidney disease, adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality. Additional management strategies are therefore needed to reduce the frequency and severity of AKI in malaria. In falciparum malaria, cell-free haemoglobin (CFHb)-mediated oxidative damage contributes to AKI...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690878/efficacy-and-safety-of-methylene-blue-in-the-treatment-of-malaria-a-systematic-review
#3
G Lu, M Nagbanshi, N Goldau, M Mendes Jorge, P Meissner, A Jahn, F P Mockenhaupt, O Müller
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue (MB) was the first synthetic antimalarial to be discovered and was used during the late 19th and early 20th centuries against all types of malaria. MB has been shown to be effective in inhibiting Plasmodium falciparum in culture, in the mouse model and in rhesus monkeys. MB was also shown to have a potent ex vivo activity against drug-resistant isolates of P. falciparum and P. vivax. In preclinical studies, MB acted synergistically with artemisinin derivates and demonstrated a strong effect on gametocyte reduction in P...
April 25, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689734/evaluation-of-children-with-sma-type-1-under-treatment-with-nusinersen-within-the-expanded-access-program-in-germany
#4
Astrid Pechmann, Thorsten Langer, David Schorling, Sabine Stein, Sibylle Vogt, Ulrike Schara, Heike Kölbel, Oliver Schwartz, Andreas Hahn, Kerstin Giese, Jessika Johannsen, Jonas Denecke, Claudia Weiß, Manuela Theophil, Janbernd Kirschner
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and muscle atrophy. Nusinersen acts as a splicing modifier and has recently been approved for intrathecal treatment of SMA. OBJECTIVE: Prior to approval, nusinersen was provided to patients with SMA type 1 in Germany within an Expanded Access Program (EAP). In contrast to previous clinical trials, children of different age groups and different stages of the disease were treated with nusinersen...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688845/impact-evaluation-of-a-community-engagement-intervention-in-improving-childhood-immunization-coverage-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-assam-india
#5
Santanu Pramanik, Arpita Ghosh, Rituu B Nanda, Marlou de Rouw, Philip Forth, Sandra Albert
BACKGROUND: To improve immunization coverage, most interventions that are part of the national immunization program in India address supply-side challenges. But, there is growing evidence that addressing demand-side factors can potentially contribute to improvement in childhood vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Participatory engagement of communities can address demand-side barriers while also mobilizing the community to advocate for better service delivery. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel community engagement approach in improving immunization coverage...
April 23, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687642/development-and-validation-of-a-health-related-quality-of-life-questionnaire-for-pediatric-patients-with-interstitial-lung-disease
#6
Mandy Niemitz, Nicolaus Schwerk, Lutz Goldbeck, Matthias Griese
PURPOSE: Children's interstitial lung disease (chILD) is often associated with multiple burdens and chronic impairment of health-related quality of life. Patient reported outcomes describe the patients' perspective on medical conditions and their treatments. We aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a chILD-specific PRO (chILD-QoL) as an instrument for monitoring the patients' health status. METHODS: Items were generated through focus groups with parents, patients, and interviews with pediatric pulmonologists...
April 23, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685594/safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-intramuscular-administration-of-prp-crm-197-hib-vaccine-to-healthy-japanese-children-an-open-label-trial
#7
Takehiro Togashi, Nodoka Mitsuya, Shuji Sumino, Yohei Takanami
BACKGROUND: Japan licensed the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, Vaxem™ Hib, based on clinical studies using subcutaneous injection. The present study was performed to ensure this vaccine is suitable for intramuscular injection in Japanese children. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy 2-6-month-old infants received three doses of Vaxem™ Hib by intramuscular injection at 4-week intervals and a booster dose 1 year later, concomitant with routine infant (DTaP-IPV and pneumococcal) and toddler (measles-rubella) vaccines...
April 20, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684249/standard-head-down-tilt-versus-modified-without-head-down-tilt-postural-drainage-in-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Diana A Freitas, Gabriela Ss Chaves, Thayla A Santino, Cibele Td Ribeiro, Fernando Al Dias, Ricardo O Guerra, Karla Mpp Mendonça
BACKGROUND: Postural drainage is used primarily in infants with cystic fibrosis from diagnosis up to the moment when they are mature enough to actively participate in self-administered treatments. However, there is a risk of gastroesophageal reflux associated with this technique.This is an update of a review published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of standard postural drainage (15º to 45º head-down tilt) with modified postural drainage (15º to 30º head-up tilt) with regard to gastroesophageal reflux in infants and young children up to six years old with cystic fibrosis in terms of safety and efficacy...
March 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682851/effects-of-papacarie-on-children-with-dental-caries-in-primary-teeth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Yuejia Deng, Ge Feng, Bo Hu, Yunchun Kuang, Jinlin Song
BACKGROUND: Caries in primary teeth hinder the child to bite and chew and influence their development. Papacarie has the characteristics of selective removal of decayed tissue and can preserve healthy dentine to the maximum, but its efficiency has not been critically evaluated compared to conventional method. AIM: This review is aiming at comparing the Papacarie and traditional method in caries removal in primary dental caries with children. DESIGN: Comprehensive literature searching at PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science to January 2018...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681955/ropivacaine-has-no-advantage-over-bupivacaine-in-thoracic-epidural-analgesia-for-patients-with-pectus-excavatum-undergoing-the-nuss-procedure-a-single-blind-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-efficacy-and-safety
#10
Małgorzata Walaszczyk, Rafał Wiench, Maja Copik, Jacek Karpe, Małgorzata Łowicka, Anna Pióro, Piotr Knapik, Hanna Misiołek
Introduction: Pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure) is a painful procedure requiring effective postoperative analgesia. Aim: To establish whether thoracic epidural analgesia with ropivacaine is non-inferior to epidural analgesia with bupivacaine following the Nuss procedure in children. Material and methods: The prospective, randomized, controlled, single blind study included 81 children. Computer-generated random numbers were used to allocate treatment...
March 2018: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681489/video-diversion-improves-success-rate-of-fundoscopic-examination-in-children-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Michael M H Yang, Ash Singhal, Alexander R Hengel, John M Kerr, Godefroy Hardy St-Pierre, Shawn George, Katherine Muir, Paul Thiessen, Paul Enarson
BACKGROUND: Fundoscopy is an important component of the neurological examination as it can detect pathologies such as high intracranial pressure. However, the examination can be challenging in young children. This study evaluated whether playing a video during eye examination improves the success, duration, and ease of pediatric fundoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multipractitioner, multiclinic, randomized controlled trial. Patients aged one to four years were recruited in the emergency department, neurology clinic, spinal cord clinic, and general pediatric clinic...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680473/rituximab-in-the-management-of-pediatric-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#12
Manel Jellouli, Rim Charfi, Bayen Maalej, Abdelmajid Mahfoud, Sameh Trabelsi, Tahar Gargah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review evaluating the efficacy and safety of rituximab in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome was performed. Data from studies, performed before April 2017 were collected, from MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Study eligibility criteria included clinical trials and observational studies with a minimal sample size of 5 patients, regarding treatment with rituximab in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679441/feasibility-safety-and-outcome-of-recanalisation-treatment-in-childhood-stroke
#13
Sandra Bigi, Andrea Dulcey, Jan Gralla, Corrado Bernasconi, Amber Melliger, Alexandre N Datta, Marcel Arnold, Johannes Kaesmacher, Joel Fluss, Annette Hackenberg, Oliver Maier, Johannes Weber, Claudia Poloni, Urs Fischer, Maja Steinlin
Objective Intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy (IVT/EVT) are evidence-based treatments for adults with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, randomized controlled trials in pediatric patients are lacking. This study aimed to describe feasibility, safety, and outcome of IVT/EVT in children with AIS. Methods Retrospective study (01/2000-12/2015) of a multicenter, population-based consecutive cohort of patients aged 1 month - 16 years diagnosed with AIS presenting with a pedNIHSS ≥4. Clinical and radiological data of patients receiving IVT/EVT were compared to those receiving standard care (SC) using linear regression to adjust for potential confounders...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679141/ethical-considerations-of-researchers-conducting-pediatric-clinical-drug-trials-a-qualitative-survey-in-two-belgian-university-children-s-hospitals
#14
Wannes Van Hoof, Kevin Meesters, Lien Dossche, Daphné Christiaens, Pauline De Bruyne, Johan Vande Walle
There is a general consensus about the underlying theoretical ethical principles that ground the practice of pediatric clinical trials: scientific necessity, good risk/benefit ratio, minimized burden, and parental consent/child assent. However, these principles are so broadly construed that it is not always clear how they should be applied in clinical practice. We conducted a qualitative study at Ghent University Hospital and the hospital of the Dutch-speaking university of Brussels on how researchers weigh ethical principles, assess the risk/benefit balance, estimate patient experience, and experience informed consent procedures in pediatric drug studies...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678155/a-stepped-wedge-implementation-and-evaluation-of-the-healthy-active-peaceful-playgrounds-for-youth-happy-intervention
#15
Dean Dudley, Wayne Cotton, Louisa Peralta, Matthew Winslade
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is a health priority. The Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY) study aimed to examine a multi-component playground intervention designed to increase the proportion of physical activity during recess and lunch of primary school students. METHODS: The 2016 Australian focused HAPPY Study was a 12-month, metropolitan primary school based intervention, which was evaluated using a stepped wedge design...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677451/treatment-features-associated-with-youth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-follow-up-effects-for-internalizing-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#16
Michael Sun, Leslie R Rith-Najarian, Timothy J Williamson, Bruce F Chorpita
Our aim was to investigate whether four treatment features (i.e., the inclusion of parental involvement, goal-setting strategies, maintenance/relapse prevention sessions, the addition of booster sessions) were associated with posttreatment and follow-up effect size of youth cognitive behavioral therapies (yCBTs) for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in age groups spanning young children to adolescents. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of 106 yCBTs tested in 76 randomized clinical trials from the PracticeWise Database to examine average effects of yCBTs posttreatment and at a later follow-up assessment...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676439/oral-and-sublingual-immunotherapy-for-egg-allergy
#17
REVIEW
Olga Romantsik, Maria Angela Tosca, Simona Zappettini, Maria Grazia Calevo
BACKGROUND: Clinical egg allergy is a common food allergy. Current management relies upon strict allergen avoidance. Oral immunotherapy might be an optional treatment, through desensitization to egg allergen. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of oral and sublingual immunotherapy in children and adults with immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated egg allergy as compared to a placebo treatment or an avoidance strategy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 13 databases for journal articles, conference proceedings, theses and trials registers using a combination of subject headings and text words (last search 31 March 2017)...
April 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676031/treatment-of-recurrent-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-post-kidney-transplantation-in-australian-and-new-zealand-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Anna Francis, Madeleine Didsbury, Hugh McCarthy, Tonya Kara
Disease recurrence affects around a third of renal transplants for children with FSGS and is associated with poor graft outcomes. Unfortunately, there are no large trials guiding treatment for recurrent FSGS. We aimed to describe current therapies and treatment response for recurrent FSGS in 4 centres in Australia and New Zealand. Data were collected on children (age <18 years) with recurrent FSGS (1990-2015). We reviewed patient charts to obtain clinical information. Ethics approval was obtained from the relevant boards...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675840/outcome-of-children-with-newly-diagnosed-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-cclg-all-2008-the-first-nation-wide-prospective-multicenter-study-in-china
#19
Lei Cui, Zhi-Gang Li, Yi-Huan Chai, Jie Yu, Ju Gao, Xiao-Fan Zhu, Run-Ming Jin, Xiao-Dong Shi, Le-Ping Zhang, Yi-Jin Gao, Rui-Dong Zhang, Hu-Yong Zheng, Shao-Yan Hu, Ying-Hui Cui, Yi-Ping Zhu, Yao Zou, Margaret Hl Ng, Yan Xiao, Jun-Hui Li, Yong-Hong Zhang, Hai-Long He, Ying Xian, Tian-You Wang, Chi-Kong Li, Min-Yuan Wu
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy among children. The trial Chinese Children Leukemia Group (CCLG)-ALL 2008 was a prospective clinical trial designed to improve treatment outcome of childhood ALL through the first nation-wide collaborative study in China. Totally 2231 patients were recruited from ten tertiary hospitals in eight cities. The patients were stratified according to clinical-biological characteristics and early treatment response. Standard risk (SR) and intermediate risk (IR) groups were treated with a modified BFM based protocol, and there was 25-50% dose reduction during intensification phases in the SR group...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675639/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-in-pediatric-drug-development-and-the-importance-of-standardized-scaling-of-clearance
#20
REVIEW
Eva Germovsek, Charlotte I S Barker, Mike Sharland, Joseph F Standing
Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling is important in the design and conduct of clinical pharmacology research in children. During drug development, PKPD modeling and simulation should underpin rational trial design and facilitate extrapolation to investigate efficacy and safety. The application of PKPD modeling to optimize dosing recommendations and therapeutic drug monitoring is also increasing, and PKPD model-based dose individualization will become a core feature of personalized medicine. Following extensive progress on pediatric PK modeling, a greater emphasis now needs to be placed on PD modeling to understand age-related changes in drug effects...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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