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Children and clinical trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829204/adalimumab-for-treating-childhood-plaque-psoriasis-a-clinical-trial-evaluation
#1
Vito Di Lernia
Most systemic therapies have not been systematically investigated in moderate to severe childhood plaque psoriasis. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of systemic treatments is limited and therapeutic guidelines are lacking. Recently adalimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha, was investigated in childhood psoriasis. Adalimumab is licensed for many inflammatory conditions including chronic plaque psoriasis in adults. Areas covered: A randomized phase III study published provided favourable efficacy and safety data of adalimumab in childhood psoriasis...
August 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828761/coblation-versus-other-surgical-techniques-for-tonsillectomy
#2
REVIEW
Melissa Pynnonen, Jennifer V Brinkmeier, Marc C Thorne, Lee Yee Chong, Martin J Burton
BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy is a very common operation and is performed using various surgical methods. Coblation is a popular method because it purportedly causes less pain than other surgical methods. However, the superiority of coblation is unproven. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of coblation tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy with other surgical techniques, both hot and cold, on intraoperative morbidity, postoperative morbidity and procedural cost...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828759/antibiotics-for-persistent-cough-or-wheeze-following-acute-bronchiolitis-in-children
#3
REVIEW
Gabrielle B McCallum, Erin J Plumb, Peter S Morris, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory condition with high prevalence worldwide. This clinically diagnosed syndrome is manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (≤ 14 days), antibiotics are not routinely prescribed unless the illness is severe or a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually self-limiting, some young children continue to have protracted symptoms (e...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828529/clinical-management-of-nocturnal-enuresis
#4
Eberhard Kuwertz-Bröking, Alexander von Gontard
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common health problem. Approximately 10% of 7-year-old children wet the bed regularly during sleep. Enuresis can be categorized into monosymptomatic (MEN) and nonmonosymptomatic (NMEN) forms. MEN occurs without any other symptoms of bladder dysfunction. NMEN is associated with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract with or without daytime incontinence. The rate of comorbid gastrointestinal, behavioral, and emotional disorders is elevated depending upon the subtype of NE. A careful clinical history is fundamental to the evaluation of enuresis...
August 21, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828011/effect-of-intranasal-sedation-using-ketamine-and-midazolam-on-behavior-of-3-6-year-old-uncooperative-children-in-dental-office-a-clinical-trial
#5
Majid Mehran, Sara Tavassoli-Hojjati, Nazila Ameli, Mehdi Salehi Zeinabadi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of intranasal ketamine and midazolam on behavior of 3-6 year-old children during dental treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized cross-over clinical trial, 17 uncooperative children requiring at least two dental treatments were selected and randomly received ketamine (0.5mg/kg) or midazolam (0.2mg/kg) prior to treatment. The other medication was used in the next visit. The children's behavioral pattern was determined according to the Houpt's scale regarding sleep, movement, crying and overall behavior...
January 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827496/cerebrospinal-fluid-cathelicidin-correlates-with-the-bacterial-load-and-outcomes-in-childhood-bacterial-meningitis
#6
Okko Savonius, Otto Helve, Irmeli Roine, Sture Andersson, Annika Saukkoriipi, Antonio González Mata, Heikki Peltola, Tuula Pelkonen
BACKGROUND: Large cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacterial load in bacterial meningitis (BM) relates to poor outcome. However, the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin seems important to host defense. We studied how cathelicidin concentrations and bacterial load in CSF relate in childhood BM and to what extent they may predict the disease outcome. METHODS: The patient data originated from a large prospective clinical trial in Latin America in 1996-2003 in which the CSF samples were collected on admission (CSF1) and 12-24 hours later (CSF2)...
August 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826842/retinoid-roles-and-action-in-skeletal-development-and-growth-provide-the-rationale-for-an-ongoing-heterotopic-ossification-prevention-trial
#7
Maurizio Pacifici
The majority of skeletal elements develop via endochondral ossification. This process starts with formation of mesenchymal cell condensations at prescribed sites and times in the early embryo and is followed by chondrogenesis, growth plate cartilage maturation and hypertrophy, and replacement of cartilage with bone and marrow. This complex stepwise process is reactivated and recapitulated in physiologic conditions such as fracture repair, but can occur extraskeletally in pathologies including heterotopic ossification (HO), Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME)...
August 18, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826627/neurostimulation-for-abdominal-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-adolescents-a-randomised-double-blind-sham-controlled-trial
#8
Katja Kovacic, Keri Hainsworth, Manu Sood, Gisela Chelimsky, Rachel Unteutsch, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, Adrian Miranda
BACKGROUND: Development of safe and effective therapies for paediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders is needed. A non-invasive, US Food and Drug Administration-cleared device (Neuro-Stim, Innovative Health Solutions, IN, USA) delivers percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation (PENFS) in the external ear to modulate central pain pathways. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PENFS in adolescents with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders...
August 18, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822720/juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-practice-patterns-among-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeons
#9
Brian E Kinard, Shelly Abramowicz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation is to assess the current clinical practices by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) in the United States regarding diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We implemented a cross-sectional survey of academic OMSs in the United States via an electronic survey. The survey included respondent demographic data, patient volumes, diagnostic methods, and management practices for children with JIA and TMJ involvement...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822437/-predictive-effect-of-neonatal-morbidities-on-the-poor-outcomes-at-12-months-corrected-age-in-very-low-birth-weight-premature-infants
#10
Y B Rao, J Yang, B Cao, D M Chen, P M Gao, Q Zhong, M X Li, J H Gao, Y J Chen, X M Zhong, Z X Ren
Objective: To investigate the prognostic effect of neonatal morbidities on poor outcomes at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants . Method: From November 2013 to October 2014, a multi-center retrospective study was conducted in 8 tertiary Maternal and Children's hospitals in Guangdong, Hunan and Fujian. The premature infants survived to a postmenstrual age (PMA) of 36 weeks with birth weight less than 1 500 g and without congenital diseases were included, and divided into two groups according to poor outcomes...
August 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821985/impact-of-processing-methods-on-urinary-biomarkers-analysis-in-neonates
#11
Michelle C Starr, David J Askenazi, Stuart L Goldstein, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Zahra Afsharinejad, Patrick D Brophy, Sandra E Juul, Dennis E Mayock, Sangeeta R Hingorani
BACKGROUND: In neonates, the validation of urinary biomarkers to diagnose acute kidney injury is a rapidly evolving field. The neonatal population poses unique challenges when assessing the collection, storage, and processing of urinary samples for biomarker analysis. Given this, establishing optimal and consistent sample processing in this population for meaningful use in ongoing clinical trials is important. METHODS: Urine from a cohort of 19 hospitalized neonatal intensive care unit patients enrolled in the Preterm Erythropoietin Neuroprotection Trial (Clinical Trial NCT01378273) was collected for biomarker analysis by indirect techniques using Fisher-brand cotton balls placed in the diapers...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821522/evidence-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-interventions-for-the-management-of-dental-fear-in-paediatric-dentistry-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Stefano Cianetti, Luigi Paglia, Roberto Gatto, Alessandro Montedori, Eleonora Lupatelli
INTRODUCTION: Several techniques have been proposed to manage dental fear/dental anxiety (DFA) in children and adolescents undergoing dental procedures. To our knowledge, no widely available compendium of therapies to manage DFA exists. We propose a study protocol to assess the evidence regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to relieve dental anxiety in children and adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In our systematic review, we will include randomised trials, controlled clinical rials and systematic reviews (SRs) of trials that investigated the effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to decrease dental anxiety in children and adolescents...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821468/design-and-development-of-a-stepped-care-behavioral-intervention-to-support-parents-of-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#13
Marisa E Hilliard, Carrie Tully, Maureen Monaghan, Jichuan Wang, Randi Streisand
One of the most common chronic conditions of childhood, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children is increasing. Early childhood development complicates optimal T1D management and glycemic outcomes. Parents are at risk for elevated psychological distress, especially immediately following diagnosis. Few empirically supported interventions are available to support parents and promote optimal T1D management during this vulnerable period. This paper reports on the development and study design of First STEPS: Study of Type 1 in Early childhood and Parenting Support...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821263/protocol-for-a-scoping-review-to-map-evidence-from-randomised-controlled-trials-on-paediatric-eye-disease-to-disease-burden
#14
Lucinda J Teoh, Ameenat L Solebo, Jugnoo S Rahi
BACKGROUND: Currently, about 2 per 1000 children in the industrialised world are severely visually impaired or blind (SVI/BL) due to diverse uncommon conditions that are usually present from early infancy. The impact of SVI/BL is lifelong and life-changing. Thus, children are a priority in the WHO-led global initiative against avoidable blindness. The aim of this scoping review is to assess the current evidence base on interventions to prevent or treat the major causes of childhood SVI/BL, specifically the degree of alignment between robust interventional research (RCTs) and the burden (relative frequency) of the key causative disorders, identifying gaps in the evidence base for tackling childhood blindness...
August 18, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820439/efficacy-and-safety-of-letibotulinum-toxin-a-for-the-treatment-of-dynamic-equinus-foot-deformity-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Hyun Jung Chang, Bo Young Hong, Sang-Jee Lee, Soyoung Lee, Joo Hyun Park, Jeong-Yi Kwon
The objective of this clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of letibotulinum toxin A and onabotulinum toxin A for improving dynamic equinus foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In total, 144 children with spastic CP who had dynamic equinus foot deformity were assigned randomly to the Botulax group (injection of letibotulinum toxin A) or the Botox group (injection of onabotulinum toxin A). The Physician's Rating Scale (PRS), ankle plantar flexor spasticity using the Modified Tardieu Scale, the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, and the GMFM-66 were completed before injection and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injection...
August 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819992/insulin-delivery-and-nocturnal-glucose-control-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
Martin Tauschmann, Roman Hovorka
Nocturnal glucose control remains challenging in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to highly variable overnight insulin requirements. The issue may be addressed by glucose responsive insulin delivery based on real-time continuous glucose measurements. Areas covered: This review outlines recent developments of glucose responsive insulin delivery systems from a paediatric perspective. We cover threshold-based suspend application, predictive low glucose suspend, and more advanced single hormone and dual-hormone closed-loop systems...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819777/qingkailing-injection-for-treatment-of-children-pneumonia-induced-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Shuai He, Wen-Shi Li, Ya-Jun Luo, Chen-Li Ye, Zhong-Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Qingkailing Injection (, QKL) for treatment of children pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing QKL with ribavirin injection in the treatment of children pneumonia induced by RSV were searched in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Chinese VIP database, CNKI and Wanfang databases from their inception to March 2014. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan 5...
August 17, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818509/the-use-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#18
REVIEW
Katherine N Slain, Steven L Shein, Alexandre T Rotta
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the current literature describing high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) use in children, the components and mechanisms of action of a HFNC system, the appropriate clinical applications, and its role in the pediatric emergency department (ED). SOURCES: A computer-based search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar for literature on HFNC use in children was performed. DATA SUMMARY: HFNC, a non-invasive respiratory support modality, provides heated and fully humidified gas mixtures to patients via a nasal cannula interface...
August 14, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818049/post-treatment-haemolysis-in-african-children-with-hyperparasitaemic-falciparum-malaria-a-randomized-comparison-of-artesunate-and-quinine
#19
C Fanello, M Onyamboko, S J Lee, C Woodrow, S Setaphan, K Chotivanich, P Buffet, S Jauréguiberry, K Rockett, K Stepniewska, N P J Day, N J White, A M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. Recently, haemolytic anaemia occurring 1 to 3 weeks after artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria has been reported in returning travellers in temperate countries. METHODS: To assess these potential safety concerns in African children, in whom most deaths from malaria occur, an open-labelled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. 217 children aged between 6 months and 14 years with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and parasite densities over 100,000/μL were randomly allocated to intravenous artesunate or quinine, hospitalized for 3 days and then followed for 42 days...
August 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817419/the-association-of-fat-and-lean-tissue-with-whole-body-and-spine-bone-mineral-density-is-modified-by-hiv-status-and-sex-in-children-and-youth
#20
Denise L Jacobson, Jane C Lindsey, Brent A Coull, Kathleen Mulligan, Priya Bhagwat, Grace M Aldrovandi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected (HIV-pos) male children/youth showed lower bone mineral density at sexual maturity than HIV-uninfected (HIV-neg) females. It is not known whether complications of HIV disease, including abnormal body fat distribution, contribute to lower bone accrual in male HIV-pos adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the relationship between body composition (fat and lean mass) and bone mass in HIV-pos and HIV-neg children/youth and determined if it is modified by HIV status and sex...
August 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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