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Children and clinical trials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908521/respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-non-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Tytti Vuorinen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a major burden to the health care system among children under-5 years worldwide. Information on respiratory viruses in non-severe CAP cases is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of respiratory viruses among non-severe CAP cases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Out of 820 children aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP diagnosed by pediatricians (respiratory complaints and radiographic pulmonary infiltrate/consolidation), recruited in a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908231/haploidentical-bone-marrow-transplantation-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-bendamustine-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#2
Emmanuel Katsanis, Lauren N Sapp, Nicole Varner, Shannon Koza, Baldassarre Stea, Yi Zeng
More than half of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation at our institution are ethnic or racial minorities, making the search for matched unrelated donors more challenging. Since the introduction of haploidentical bone marrow transplant (haplo-BMT) into our pediatric BMT program in 2015, 69.2% of the recipients have been minorities. Herein, we describe our experience with the first thirteen pediatric and young adult patients with hematologic malignancies who have undergone T-cell replete haplo-BMT following myeloablative conditioning (MAC) at our institution...
June 13, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907918/farnesyltransferase-inhibitor-and-rapamycin-correct-aberrant-genome-organisation-and-decrease-dna-damage-respectively-in-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-fibroblasts
#3
Mehmet U Bikkul, Craig S Clements, Lauren S Godwin, Martin W Goldberg, Ian R Kill, Joanna M Bridger
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal premature ageing disease in children. HGPS is one of several progeroid syndromes caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear structural proteins lamins A and C. In classic HGPS the mutation G608G leads to the formation of a toxic lamin A protein called progerin. During post-translational processing progerin remains farnesylated owing to the mutation interfering with a step whereby the farnesyl moiety is removed by the enzyme ZMPSTE24...
June 15, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907353/determinants-of-skeletal-muscle-protein-turnover-following-severe-burn-trauma-in-children
#4
Ioannis Malagaris, David N Herndon, Efstathia Polychronopoulou, Victoria G Rontoyanni, Clark R Andersen, Oscar E Suman, Craig Porter, Labros S Sidossis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Burns remain the fifth cause of non-fatal pediatric injuries globally, with muscle cachexia being a hallmark of the stress response to burns. Burn-induced muscle wasting is associated with morbidity, yet the determinants of muscle protein catabolism in response to burn trauma remains unclear. Our objective was to determine the effect of patient and injury characteristics on muscle protein kinetics in burn patients. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was performed using protein kinetic data from pediatric patients who had severe burns (>30% of the total body surface area burned) and underwent cross-limb stable isotope infusions between 1999 and 2008 as part of prospective clinical trials...
June 4, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907210/nonoperative-management-of-penetrating-abdominal-solid-organ-injuries-in-children
#5
Reid Sakamoto, Kazuhide Matsushima, Amory de Roulet, Kristine Beetham, Aaron Strumwasser, Damon Clark, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Nonoperative management (NOM) of penetrating solid organ injuries (SOI) has not been well described in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology, injury patterns, and factors associated with trial and failure of NOM. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank for the period of 2007-2014. The study population included patients ≤18 y with penetrating injury to the liver, spleen, or kidney...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906430/five-year-postoperative-outcomes-of-bilateral-aphakia-and-pseudophakia-in-children-upto-2-years-of-age-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Abhay R Vasavada, Vaishali Vasavada, Sajani K Shah, M R Praveen, Viraj A Vasavada, Rupal H Trivedi, Farida Rawat, Archana Koul
PURPOSE: Comparative evaluation of complications and visual outcomes following bilateral congenital cataract surgery in children upto 2 years of age with and without primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at 5 years follow-up DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, clinical trial METHODS: 60 children (120 eyes) upto 2 years of age undergoing bilateral congenital cataract surgery randomized to: group 1, primary aphakia (n=30) or group 2,primary IOL implantation (n=30). Single surgeon performed surgeries with identical surgical technique...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906242/angiotensin-ii-receptor-i-blockade-prevents-stenosis-of-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts
#7
Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Yong-Ung Lee, Nathan Mahler, Tai Yi, Frank Robledo-Avila, Diana Martinez-Saucedo, Avione Y Lee, Toshihiro Shoji, Eric Heuer, Andrew R Yates, Jordan S Pober, Toshiharu Shinoka, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Christopher K Breuer
We previously developed a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) made by seeding autologous cells onto a biodegradable tubular scaffold, in an attempt to create a living vascular graft with growth potential for use in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Results of our clinical trial showed that the TEVG possesses growth capacity but that its widespread clinical use is not yet advisable due to the high incidence of TEVG stenosis. In animal models, TEVG stenosis is caused by increased monocytic cell recruitment and its classic ("M1") activation...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905824/milk-powder-added-to-a-school-meal-increases-cognitive-test-scores-in-ghanaian-children
#8
Reginald Lee, Lauren Singh, Danielle van Liefde, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Saalia, Carly Edwards, Anja Serena, Tamara Hershey, Mark J Manary
Background: The inclusion of milk in school feeding is accepted as good nutritional practice, but specific benefits remain uncertain. Objective: The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient-enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904907/systematic-review-and-guide-to-management-of-core-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-youth-with-autism
#9
REVIEW
S H Ameis, C Kassee, P Corbett-Dick, L Cole, S Dadhwal, M-C Lai, J Veenstra-VanderWeele, C U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based guidance of clinical decision-making for the management of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is lacking, particularly for co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This review evaluates treatment evidence for six common symptom targets in children/adolescents with ASD and provides a resource to facilitate application of the evidence to clinical practice. METHOD: A systematic search identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and high-quality systematic reviews published between 2007 and 2016, focused on: social interaction/communication impairment, stereotypic/repetitive behaviours, irritability/agitation, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, mood or anxiety symptoms, and sleep difficulties...
June 14, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904047/evaluation-of-independent-versus-integrated-effects-of-reciprocal-electrical-stimulation-and-botulinum-toxin-a-on-dynamic-limits-of-postural-stability-and-ankle-kinematics-in-spastic-diplegia-a-single-blinded-randomized-trial
#10
Ragab K Elnaggar, Mohammed F Elbanna
BACKGROUND: Combination of medical and physical therapy protocols are increasingly recommended for cerebral palsied children. However, the clinicians frequently choose between independent or integrated treatment delivery based on little empirical evidence. AIM: To analyze the independent versus the integrated effects of Reciprocal Electrical Stimulation (RES) and Botulinum Toxin-A (BoNT-A) in terms of dynamic limits of postural stability and ankle kinematics in spastic diplegia...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903802/study-protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-of-an-internet-administered-guided-cbt-based-self-help-intervention-engage-for-parents-of-children-previously-treated-for-cancer
#11
Joanne Woodford, Anna Wikman, Martin Cernvall, Gustaf Ljungman, Amanda Romppala, Helena Grönqvist, Louise von Essen
INTRODUCTION: A subgroup of parents of children previously treated for cancer report long-term psychological distress after end of treatment. However, needs for psychological support are commonly unmet and there is a lack of evidence-based treatments tailored to the specific needs of this population. An internet-administered, guided, cognitive-behavioural therapy-based, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer may provide a solution. The aim is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention ENGAGE and the study procedures for a future controlled trial...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901816/effect-of-modified-atkins-diet-in-adults-with-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Magnhild Kverneland, Ellen Molteberg, Per O Iversen, Marit B Veierød, Erik Taubøll, Kaja K Selmer, Karl O Nakken
OBJECTIVE: Ketogenic diets reduce seizures in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Whether adults benefit from similar treatment has not been clarified. We therefore examined the efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in adults with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. METHODS: We performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with patients >16 years who had at least 3 seizures per month despite having tried at least 3 antiepileptic drugs. They were randomized to either 12 weeks on the modified Atkins diet (diet group) or habitual diet (control group)...
June 14, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901610/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura-nephritis-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study-protocol
#13
Jun Zhang, Jing Lv, Shuang Pang, Xiaohong Bai, Fang Yuan, Yubin Wu, Hong Jiang, Guanqi Yang, Shaoqing Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) involves the renal impairment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and can easily relapse into life-threatening late nephropathy in severe cases. Although there is a lack of validated evidence for its effectiveness, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is one of the most commonly used methods in China to treat HSPN. It is thus need to report the protocol of a prospective cohort trial using CHM to investigate the effectiveness, safety and advantages for children with HSPN...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901560/health-status-and-health-related-quality-of-life-measurement-in-pediatric-cancer-clinical-trials-an-examination-of-the-dfci-00-01-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-protocol
#14
Charlene Rae, William Furlong, David Feeny, Rana Couchman, Lewis Silverman, Stephen Sallan, Caroline Laverdiere, Luis Clavell, Bruno Michon, Kara Kelly, Eric Larsen, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Uma Athale, Ronald Barr
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) improved progressively during therapy and beyond in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia on the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 95-01 protocol. This study aimed to validate that trajectory in a successor study (DFCI 00-01) and to compare the HRQL of patients in the 2 studies. Children aged above 5 years were assessed during each phase of treatment (N=4) and 2 years after completion of therapy. Health status and HRQL were measured using Health Utilities Index (HUI) instruments, HUI2 and HUI3...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900638/service-delivery-and-intervention-intensity-for-phonology-based-speech-sound-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Eleanor Sugden, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro, A Lynn Williams, Carol M Trivette
BACKGROUND: When planning evidence-based intervention services for children with phonology-based speech sound disorders (SSD), speech and language therapists (SLTs) need to integrate research evidence regarding service delivery and intervention intensity within their clinical practice. However, relatively little is known about the optimal intensity of phonological interventions and whether SLTs' services align with the research evidence. AIMS: The aims are twofold...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899384/reporting-of-interventions-and-standard-of-care-control-arms-in-pediatric-clinical-trials-a-quantitative-analysis
#16
Ashley M Yu, Bannuya Balasubramanaiam, Martin Offringa, Lauren E Kelly
BACKGROUND: In pediatric medicine, the usual treatment received by children ("standard of care") varies across centers. Evaluations of new treatments often compare to the existing "standard of care" to determine if a treatment is more effective, has a better safety profile, or costs less. The objective of our study was to evaluate intervention and "standard of care" control arms reported in published pediatric clinical trials. METHODS: Pediatric clinical trials, published in 2014, reporting the use of a "standard of care" control arm were included...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898933/pulled-elbow-in-children
#17
Syunsuke Yamanaka, Ran D Goldman
Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898710/placebo-by-proxy-expectations-toward-acupuncture-change-over-time-a-survey-comparing-parental-expectations-to-acupuncture-pre-and-postoperatively
#18
Ingrid Liodden, Are Hugo Pripp, Arne Johan Norheim
BACKGROUND: Patients entering a treatment have expectancy to outcome based on their previous experience, the information received, and the credibility of the treatment. Once the treatment has started, patients may detect and interpret contextual cues and somatic state. Influenced and conditioned by positive or negative interpretations, their reappraisal may improve or worsen the treatment outcome. The aims were to investigate whether parental pre-treatment expectancies towards acupuncture differ compared to post-treatment expectancies, and assess predictors for possible change of parental expectancy...
June 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898687/pd-l1-assessment-in-pediatric-rhabdomyosarcoma-a-pilot-study
#19
Giulia Bertolini, Luca Bergamaschi, Andrea Ferrari, Salvatore L Renne, Paola Collini, Cecilia Gardelli, Marta Barisella, Giovanni Centonze, Stefano Chiaravalli, Cinzia Paolino, Massimo Milione, Maura Massimino, Michela Casanova, Patrizia Gasparini
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents, defined by skeletal muscle differentiation and the status of FOXO1 fusions. In pediatric malignancies, in particular RMS, scant and controversial observations are reported about PD-L1 expression as a putative biomarker and few immune checkpoint clinical trials are conducted. METHODS: PD-L1 assessment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) utilizing two anti-PDL1 antibodies, in a pilot cohort of 25 RMS...
June 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898449/evaluation-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-suppression-following-cutaneous-use-of-topical-corticosteroids-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#20
Lauren K Wood Heickman, Ladan Davallow Ghajar, Mark Conaway, Alan D Rogol
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A meta-analysis was performed to determine the likelihood of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression following short-term cutaneous treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical corticosteroids (TCS) in pediatric patients. METHODS: All published pediatric clinical trials evaluating TCS use with pre- and post-treatment HPA axis assessment by cosyntropin stimulation testing were included. RESULTS: Of 128 eligible trials, 12 were selected for meta-analysis with a total of 522 participants...
June 13, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
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