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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107771/a-prospective-study-of-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-the-setting-of-cesarean-section-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Margo S Harrison, Omrana Pasha, Sarah Saleem, Sumera Ali, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A Carlo, Ana L Garces, Nancy F Krebs, K Michael Hambidge, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Bhala Kodkany, Sangappa Dhaded, Richard J Derman, Archana Patel, Patricia L Hibberd, Fabian Esamai, Edward A Liechty, Janet L Moore, Dennis Wallace, Elizabeth M McClure, Menachem Miodovnik, Marion Koso-Thomas, Jose Belizan, Robert L Goldenberg
Cesarean section (CS) rates are increasing globally with an unclear effect on pregnancy outcomes. The study objective was to quantify maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries associated with CS compared to vaginal delivery (VD) both within and across sites MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective population-based study including home and facility births in 337,153 women with a VD and 47,308 women with a CS from 2010 to 2015 was performed in Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Zambia, and Democratic Republic of Congo...
January 20, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107705/incorporation-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-nanostructured-lipid-membrane-mimetic-bilayer-cubosomes
#2
Thomas G Meikle, Alexandru Zabara, Lynne J Waddington, Frances Separovic, Calum J Drummond, Charlotte E Conn
The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107666/development-of-a-microwave-energy-delivery-system-for-reversible-stunning-of-cattle
#3
D McLean, L Meers, J Ralph, J S Owen, A Small
Stunning prior to slaughter is commonly used to render the animal insensible to pain. However, for certain markets, stunning is disallowed, unless the animal can fully recover if not slaughtered. There are very few available methods of inducing a fully recoverable stun. This paper describes the development of a microwave energy application system for stunning cattle. Cadaver heads were used to demonstrate that brain temperature could be raised to a point at which insensibility would be expected to occur (44°C), and to calculate the power and time combinations required to achieve this in a range of cattle weights...
January 7, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107664/safety-and-efficacy-of-cardiopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-post-infarction-left-ventricular-dysfunction-from-cardioprotection-to-functional-repair-in-a-translational-pig-infarction-model
#4
Maximilian Y Emmert, Petra Wolint, Andras Jakab, Sean P Sheehy, Francesco S Pasqualini, Thi Dan Linh Nguyen, Monika Hilbe, Burkhardt Seifert, Benedikt Weber, Chad E Brokopp, Dominika Macejovska, Etem Caliskan, Arnold von Eckardstein, Ruth Schwartlander, Viola Vogel, Volkmar Falk, Kevin Kit Parker, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Simon P Hoerstrup
To date, clinical success of cardiac cell-therapies remains limited. To enhance the cardioreparative properties of stem cells, the concept of lineage-specification through cardiopoietic-guidance has been recently suggested. However, so far, only results from murine studies and from a clinical pilot-trial in chronic heart-failure (CHF) are available, while systematic evidence of its therapeutic-efficacy is still lacking. Importantly, also no data from large animals or for other indications are available. Therefore, we here investigate the therapeutic-efficacy of human cardiopoietic stem cells in the treatment of post-infarction LV-dysfunction using a translational pig-model...
November 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107661/targeting-nf-kb-signaling-with-polymeric-hybrid-micelles-that-co-deliver-sirna-and-dexamethasone-for-arthritis-therapy
#6
Qin Wang, Hao Jiang, Yan Li, Wenfei Chen, Hanmei Li, Ke Peng, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
The transcription factor NF-kB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Here we attempt to slow arthritis progression by co-delivering the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and small-interfering RNA targeting NF-kB p65 using our previously developed polymeric hybrid micelle system. These micelles contain two similar amphiphilic copolymers: polycaprolactone-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEI) and polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PCL-PEG). The hybrid micelles loaded with Dex and siRNA effectively inhibited NF-kB signaling in murine macrophages more efficiently than micelles containing either Dex or siRNA on their own...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107660/guided-growth-of-auditory-neurons-bioactive-particles-towards-gapless-neural-electrode-interface
#7
Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Hisamitsu Hayashi, Olafur Gudjonsson, Niklas Danckwardt-Lillieström, Håkan Engqvist, Helge Rask-Andersen, Wei Xia
Cochlear implant (CI) is a successful device to restore hearing. Despite continuous development, frequency discrimination is poor in CI users due to an anatomical gap between the auditory neurons and CI electrode causing current spread and unspecific neural stimulation. One strategy to close this anatomical gap is guiding the growth of neuron dendrites closer to CI electrodes through targeted slow release of neurotrophins. Biodegradable calcium phosphate hollow nanospheres (CPHSs) were produced and their capacity for uptake and release of neurotrophins investigated using (125)I-conjugated glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
December 23, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107619/peptide-based-stealth-nanoparticles-for-targeted-and-ph-triggered-delivery
#8
Alessandro Ranalli, Melissa Santi, Luigi Capriotti, Valerio Voliani, David Porciani, Fabio Beltram, Giovanni Signore
Stealth agents are extensively investigated as means to prolong nanostructures residence time in the bloodstream by avoiding uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. Unfortunately, commonly used agents such as poly(ethylene glycol) can adversely impact on targeting efficiency and promote immune reaction by the host organism. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing biocompatible, non-PEGylated organic nanostructures able to perform targeted delivery, to increase the efficacy of liposomal technology...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107404/patterns-of-contraceptive-adoption-continuation-and-switching-after-delivery-among-malawian-women
#9
Dawn M Kopp, Nora E Rosenberg, Gretchen S Stuart, William C Miller, Mina C Hosseinipour, Phylos Bonongwe, Mwawi Mwale, Jennifer H Tang
Women who report use of postpartum family planning may not continue their initial method or use it consistently. Understanding the patterns of method uptake, discontinuation, and switching among women after delivery is important to promote uptake and continuation of effective methods of contraception. This is a secondary analysis of 634 Malawian women enrolled into a prospective cohort study after delivery. They completed baseline surveys upon enrollment and follow-up telephone surveys 3, 6, and 12 months post-delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107350/maternal-and-newborn-health-in-karnataka-state-india-the-community-level-interventions-for-pre-eclampsia-clip-trial-s-baseline-study-results
#10
Mrutynjaya B Bellad, Marianne Vidler, Narayan V Honnungar, Ashalata Mallapur, Umesh Ramadurg, Umesh Charanthimath, Geetanjali Katageri, Shashidhar Bannale, Avinash Kavi, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Sumedha Sharma, Tang Lee, Jing Li, Beth Payne, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Richard Derman, Shivaprasad S Goudar
Existing vital health statistics registries in India have been unable to provide reliable estimates of maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity, and region-specific health estimates are essential to the planning and monitoring of health interventions. This study was designed to assess baseline rates as the precursor to a community-based cluster randomized control trial (cRCT)-Community Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) Trial (NCT01911494; CTRI/2014/01/004352). The objective was to describe baseline demographics and health outcomes prior to initiation of the CLIP trial and to improve knowledge of population-level health, in particular of maternal and neonatal outcomes related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in northern districts the state of Karnataka, India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107322/on-body-injector-an-administration-device-for-pegfilgrastim
#11
Linda J Mahler, Regina DiBlasi, Anielka Perez, Jeannie Gaspard, Dayna McCauley
Many chemotherapy regimens used today require the support of a 
granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for the prevention of 
life-threatening neutropenia. In March 2015, a delivery method was introduced for Neulasta® (pegfilgrastim) through an on-body injector (Onpro®), which may eliminate the need for patients to return for injection after chemotherapy, increase workflow, and allow more patients to be seen. The purpose of this study was to monitor the implementation of the Onpro delivery system in an outpatient facility...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107195/a-new-hdac-inhibitor-cinnamoylphenazine-shows-antitumor-activity-in-association-with-intensive-macropinocytosis
#12
Bing-Yan Zhu, Bo-Yang Shang, Yue Du, Yi Li, Liang Li, Xian-Dong Xu, Yong-Su Zhen
Previous studies have shown that intensive macropinocytosis occurs in cancer cells and neutral red (NR) is noted for its capability to enter into the cell massively through a process mimetic to macropinocytosis. In addition, trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) has been found to be an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). In the present study, cinnamoylphenazine (CA-PZ) that consists of NR and tCA moieties was synthesized and evaluated. As shown, CA-PZ massively entered into colon carcinoma HT-29 cells and pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2 cells and this entry was blocked by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis), indicating a macropinocytosis-mediated uptake...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107173/electronic-cigarettes-and-indoor-air-quality-a-review-of-studies-using-human-volunteers
#13
Najihah Zainol Abidin, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Aziemah Zulkifli, Karmegam Karuppiah, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin
OBJECTIVE: This paper is primarily aimed to review articles on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) focusing on indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment that were conducted using human volunteers under natural settings that mimic actual vaping scenarios. Such studies may give a better representation of the actual potential exposure towards e-cigarettes emissions in indoor settings. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed search engine database...
January 20, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107101/enhancing-human-milk-production-with-domperidone-in-mothers-of-preterm-infants
#14
Elizabeth V Asztalos, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Orlando P da Silva, Shinya Ito, Alex Kiss, David Knoppert
BACKGROUND: Mothers of preterm infants often are at risk of expressing an inadequate amount of milk for their infants and the use of galactogogues is often considered. Domperidone is a widely used galactogogue with little information available to guide clinicians regarding initiation, timing, and duration of treatment. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether administration of domperidone within the first 21 days after delivery would lead to a higher proportion of mothers achieving a 50% increase in the volume of milk at the end of 14 days of treatment compared with mothers receiving placebo...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107096/implementation-of-an-aggressive-enteral-nutrition-protocol-and-the-effect-on-clinical-outcomes
#15
Daniel Dante Yeh, Catrina Cropano, Sadeq A Quraishi, Eva Fuentes, Haytham M A Kaafarani, Jarone Lee, Yuchiao Chang, George Velmahos
BACKGROUND: Macronutrient deficiency in critical illness is associated with worse outcomes. We hypothesized that an aggressive enteral nutrition (EN) protocol would result in higher macronutrient delivery and fewer late infections. METHODS: We enrolled adult surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving >72 hours of EN from July 2012 to June 2014. Our intervention consisted of increasing protein prescription (2.0-2.5 vs 1.5-2.0 g/kg/d) and compensatory feeds for EN interruption...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107023/doxorubicin-delivery-into-tumor-cells-by-stable-cavitation-without-contrast-agents
#16
Kamel Chettab, Jean-Louis Mestas, Maxime Lafond, Djamel Eddine Saadna, Cyril Lafon, Charles Dumontet
Doxorubicin, alone or in combination with other anticancer agents, is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents and is administered in a wide range of cancers. However, the use of doxorubicin is limited due to its potential serious adverse reactions. Previous studies have established the ability of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with various contrast agents to increase intracellular doxorubicin delivery in a targeted and noninvasive manner. In this study, we developed a new sonoporation device generating and monitoring acoustic cavitation bubbles without any addition of contrast agents...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106955/cypate-mediated-thermosensitive-nanoliposome-for-tumor-imaging-and-photothermal-triggered-drug-release
#17
Zhihao Han, Liwei Lv, Yi Ma, Zhaohui Wang, Yuxi Liu, Min Zhang, Siwen Li, Yueqing Gu
It is an emerging focus to explore controlled release drug delivery systems for simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. Herein, we synthesized a photothermal sensitive multifunctional nano-liposome drug delivery system, with doxorubicin wrapped in the hydropholic layer as the therapeutical agent and cypate doped in the hydrophobic layer as the diagnostic agent. A series of in vitro and in vivo characterization demonstrated the stability of synthesized liposome, as the DL% was 9 ± 1.5 and the EE% was 82.7 ± 2...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106947/3d-bioprinting-and-its-in-vivo-applications
#18
REVIEW
Nhayoung Hong, Gi-Hoon Yang, JaeHwan Lee, GeunHyung Kim
The purpose of 3D bioprinting technology is to design and create functional 3D tissues or organs in situ for in vivo applications. 3D cell-printing, or additive biomanufacturing, allows the selection of biomaterials and cells (bioink), and the fabrication of cell-laden structures in high resolution. 3D cell-printed structures have also been used for applications such as research models, drug delivery and discovery, and toxicology. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to fabricate tissues and organs by using various 3D printing techniques...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106913/efficacy-of-50%C3%A2-hz-electromagnetic-fields-on-human-epidermal-stem-cell-transplantation-seeded-in-collagen-sponge-scaffolds-for-wound-healing-in-a-murine-model
#19
Wen-Fang Bai, Wei-Cheng Xu, Hong-Xiang Zhu, Hong Huang, Bo Wu, Ming-Sheng Zhang
To explore the possible efficacy of electromagnetic fields (EMF) for skin tissue engineering, effects of EMF exposure on epidermal stem cells (ESC) seeded in collagen sponge scaffolds for wound healing in a murine model were investigated. The wound models of a full-thickness defect established with 36 7 ∼ 8-week-old nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, an ESC-only group, and an ESC with EMF exposure group (frequency of 50 Hz, magnetic induction of 5 mT, 60 min per day for 20 days)...
January 20, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106904/planned-early-delivery-versus-expectant-management-for-hypertensive-disorders-from-34-weeks-gestation-to-term
#20
REVIEW
Catherine Cluver, Natalia Novikova, Corine M Koopmans, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are significant contributors to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These disorders include well-controlled chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and mild pre-eclampsia. The definitive treatment for these disorders is planned early delivery and the alternative is to manage the pregnancy expectantly if severe uncontrolled hypertension is not present, with close maternal and fetal monitoring...
January 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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