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Extremely low birth weight

Tamas Jilling, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, C Michael Cotten, Colin A Martin, Akhil Maheshwari, Kurt Schibler, Joshua Levy, Grier P Page
BACKGROUND: Twin studies suggest that genetic factors may account for up to 50% increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for NEC are lacking. METHODS: Genotyping was done on Illumina BeadChip, followed by analysis using PLINK with logistic regression under an additive model. RESULTS: Among 751 extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, >401 g) neonates, 30 had surgical NEC. 261 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed association with NEC at P<0...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Kaia Skromme, Maria Vollsæter, Knut Øymar, Trond Markestad, Thomas Halvorsen
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have markedly increased the prospects of survival for infants born extremely preterm (EP). The aim of this study was to investigate hospitalisation rates and respiratory morbidity from five to 11 years of age in a prospective national cohort of EP children born in the surfactant era. METHODS: This was a national prospective cohort study of all children born in Norway during 1999 and 2000 with gestational age (GA) < 28 weeks or birth weight < 1000 grams, and of individually matched term-born controls recruited for a regional subsample...
March 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Miranda R Crealey, Louise Bowden, Evodia Ludusan, Mohammad Pathan, Brian Kenny, Ailish Hannigan, Roy K Philip
OBJECTIVE: To audit the demand and radiation exposure of conventional radiography in a regional neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective study of radiographs performed on all admissions to the NICU in university Maternity Hospital limerick (UMHL) over 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 1405 radiographs were performed on 506 infants. 153.5 radiographs per 1000 live births was the observed demand and 44% of radiographs were done out of hours...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Paola Gaio, Giovanna Verlato, Marco Daverio, Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Daniel Nardo, Alessandra Pasinato, Francesca de Terlizzi, Eugenio Baraldi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Preterm infants are exposed to a higher risk of developing Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD) with an increased bone fragility, a higher fracture risk and a long-term reduced linear growth and childhood height. Monitoring bone growth has become mandatory in neonatology. Several risk factors have been identified among the population of extremely low birth weight infants, but we still do not know which is the real incidence of MBD since its evaluation is not routinely performed worldwide...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Letizia Capasso, Angela C Borrelli, Maria R Pirozzi, Laura Bucci, Roberta Albachiara, Teresa Ferrara, Francesco Raimondi
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin supplementation is a debated strategy in fighting sepsis. We evaluated a polyclonal IgM and IgA enriched immunoglobulin (IgMeIVIG) preparation in reducing the short term mortality in extremely low birth weight neonates (ELBW) with proven infection. METHODS: ELBW infants born from January 2008 to December 2014 were eligible for this retrospective casecontrol analysis if they were symptomatic and had a positive blood culture after 72hours of life...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
F Carinci, M Martinelli, M Contaldo, R Santoro, F Pezzetti, D Lauritano, V Candotto, D Mucchi, A Palmieri, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
Infective endocarditis is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. The link to oral bacteria has been known for many decades and has caused ongoing concern for dentists, patients and cardiologists. The microbiota of the mouth is extremely diverse and more than 700 bacterial species have been detected. Half of them are uncultivable so far. Oral microbiota is not uniform, specific sites exist in the mouth such as tongue, palate, cheek, teeth and periodontal pockets that have their own microbiota...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
E Sabrina Twilhaar, Rebecca M Wade, Jorrit F de Kieviet, Johannes B van Goudoever, Ruurd M van Elburg, Jaap Oosterlaan
Importance: Despite apparent progress in perinatal care, children born extremely or very preterm (EP/VP) remain at high risk for cognitive deficits. Insight into factors contributing to cognitive outcome is key to improve outcomes after EP/VP birth. Objective: To examine the cognitive abilities of children of EP/VP birth (EP/VP children) and the role of perinatal and demographic risk factors. Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO were searched without language restriction (last search March 2, 2017)...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Bhawan Deep Garg, Anju Bansal, Nandkishor S Kabra
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common consequence of extreme prematurity (<28 weeks of gestation). BPD affects approximately 55% of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. AIMS: The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of BPD in ELBW neonates. METHOD: The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, and ongoing clinical trials...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shigeo Iijima
BACKGROUND: Fetal adrenal gland size is known to have a positive correlation with both gestational age and estimated body weight. In contrast, some clinical observations suggest that maturation of the adrenal stress response occurs after 30 weeks of gestation. In this study, adrenal gland size at birth in extremely preterm to term neonates was investigated using ultrasonography to evaluate the adrenal developmental pattern and the impact of prematurity and perinatal factors. METHODS: The area of the right adrenal gland was measured in the first 3 h of life in 350 neonates and corrected for birth weight (BW) to determine the corrected adrenal area index (cAI)...
February 14, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Jae Hyun Park, Yun Sil Chang, So Yoon Ahn, Se In Sung, Won Soon Park
We explored GA, BW, Apgar score, CRIB II score, and serum albumin levels as univariate predictors of mortality in extremely low birth weight infants. Medical records of 564 extremely low birth weight infants were reviewed retrospectively. The infants were grouped as survivors (group I), expired ≤ 7th postnatal day (group II), and expired > 7th postnatal day (group III). The predictive value for mortality of gestational age, birth weight, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, clinical risk index for babies II score, and first and lowest serum albumin levels was assessed by calculating the associated area under the curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves...
2018: PloS One
Emma M McCall, Fiona Alderdice, Henry L Halliday, Sunita Vohra, Linda Johnston
BACKGROUND: Newborn admission temperature is a strong predictor of outcomes across all gestations. Hypothermia immediately after birth remains a worldwide issue and, if prolonged, is associated with harm. Keeping preterm infants warm is difficult even when recommended routine thermal care guidelines are followed in the delivery room. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room, compared with routine thermal care or any other single/combination of intervention(s) also designed for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and/or low birth weight infants applied within 10 minutes after birth in the delivery room...
February 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Muhammad Waseem Khan, Päivi Roivainen, Mikko Herrala, Maria Tiikkaja, Markku Sallmén, Maila Hietanen, Jukka Juutilainen
PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Katri Korpela, Elin W Blakstad, Sissel J Moltu, Kenneth Strømmen, Britt Nakstad, Arild E Rønnestad, Kristin Brække, Per O Iversen, Christian A Drevon, Willem de Vos
The intestinal microbiota is an important contributor to the health of preterm infants, and may be destabilized by a number of environmental factors and treatment modalities. How to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in preterm infants is largely unknown. We collected fecal samples from 45 breastfed preterm very low birth weight (birth weight < 1500 g) infants from birth until 60 days postnatal age to characterize the intestinal microbiota development during the first weeks of life in preterm infants...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cheung Leung
OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal endotracheal tube insertion depth in extremely low-birth-weight infants based on the association between endotracheal tube depth and gestational age, body weight, body length, and head and chest circumferences at birth. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Neonatal ICU at a medical center. PATIENTS: Fifty-two hospitalized extremely low-birth-weight infants in our neonatal ICU...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Seiichi Tomotaki, Tetsuo Naramura, Junko Hanakawa, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Koji Muroya, Masanori Adachi
Infants with an ileostomy can be at high risk of hypoglycemia because of inadequate nutritional intake; however, there are no reports investigating blood glucose (BG) in infants with ileostomy. We experienced a case of an extremely low birth weight infant who was born at 24 wk of gestation and weighted 623 g. He received an ileostomy because of an intestinal perforation. After the ileostomy, he had recurrent hypoglycemia. Continuous glucose monitoring showed fluctuation of BG levels (postprandial BG elevations and subsequent declines) and non-fasting hypoglycemia, which were undetectable with intermittent fasting BG measurement...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Nozomi Matsuda, Atsuko Taki, Atsumi Tsuji, Keisuke Nakajima, Kei Takasawa, Chikako Morioka, Yoshihiro Minosaki, Kikuko Oku, Kenichi Kashimada, Tomohiro Morio
Factors affecting growth and development in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) born small for gestational age (SGA) have not been precisely elucidated. We performed a retrospective analysis of ELBWIs born SGA who were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Centre, Japan. A total 244 ELBWIs were born from 2003 to 2010, and 31 were born with weight and height below the 10th percentile for their gestational age. Among the 31 ELBWIs born SGA, we excluded 9 who died before they reached 3 yr of age or who had severe developmental retardation...
2018: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Chin Yee Ho, Zong-Rong He, San-Nan Yang, Yung-Ning Yang
RATIONALE: Late-onset transient adrenal insufficiency with circulatory collapse is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants. Although the incidence of late-onset transient adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants has been reported in Japan, reports from Western countries are lacking. In addition, no study has investigated the effect of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in monozygotic twins. PATIENT CONCERNS: A pair of extremely low birth weight twins presented with TTTS...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marie Janaillac, Thierry P Beausoleil, Keith J Barrington, Marie-Josée Raboisson, Oliver Karam, Mathieu Dehaes, Anie Lapointe
Haemodynamic assessment during the transitional period in preterm infants is challenging. We aimed to describe the relationships between cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (CrSO2), perfusion index (PI), echocardiographic, and clinical parameters in extremely preterm infants in their first 72 h of life. Twenty newborns born at < 28 weeks of gestation were continuously monitored with CrSO2 and preductal PI. Cardiac output was measured at H6, H24, H48, and H72. The median gestational age and birth weight were 25...
January 27, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
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