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Yusuf Ransome, Ichiro Kawachi, Sarah Braunstein, Denis Nash
In the United States, research is limited on the mechanisms that link socioeconomic and structural factors to HIV diagnosis outcomes. We tested whether neighborhood income inequality, socioeconomic deprivation, and black racial concentration were associated with gender-specific rates of HIV in the advanced stages of AIDS (i.e., late HIV diagnosis). We then examined whether HIV testing prevalence and accessibility mediated any of the associations above. Neighborhoods with highest (relative to lowest) black racial concentration had higher relative risk of late HIV diagnosis among men (RR=1...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
Wai Jia Tam, Philip Yap
Approximately two-thirds of the world's older adults live in developing nations. By 2050, as many as 80% of such older people will live in low- and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, the number of individuals aged 60 and older is projected to reach 163 million. Despite this demographic wave, the majority of Africa has limited access to qualified geriatric health care.(3) Although foreign aid and capacity-building efforts can help to close this gap over time, it is likely that failure to understand the unique context of Africa's older adults, many of whom are marginalized, will lead to inadequacies in service delivery and poor health outcomes...
October 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Zachary Tanner, Nathan Lachowsky, Erin Ding, Hasina Samji, Mark Hull, Angela Cescon, Sophie Patterson, Jason Chia, Alia Leslie, Janet Raboud, Mona Loutfy, Curtis Cooper, Marina Klein, Nima Machouf, Christos Tsoukas, Julio Montaner, Robert S Hogg
BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to dramatically decrease progression to AIDS, premature death and HIV transmission. However, there are no comprehensive data regarding combination antiretroviral therapy outcomes among this population. We sought to identify socio-demographic and clinical correlates of viral suppression and rebound. METHODS: Our analysis included MSM participants in the Canadian Observational Cohort, a multi-site cohort of HIV-positive adults from Canada's three most populous provinces, aged ≥18 years who first initiated combination antiretroviral therapy between 2000 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Sok Chamreun Choub, Carinne Brody
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM) project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cambodia. METHODS: We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352) and endline (n = 394)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Chilala Cheelo, Selestine Nzala, Joseph M Zulu
BACKGROUND: In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. METHODS: This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Diane Gu, Yurong Mao, Zhenzhu Tang, Julio Montaner, Zhiyong Shen, Qiuying Zhu, Roger Detels, Xia Jin, Ran Xiong, Juan Xu, Walter Ling, Lynda Erinoff, Robert Lindblad, David Liu, Paul Van Veldhuisen, Albert Hasson, Zunyou Wu
BACKGROUND: Patients who are newly screened HIV positive by EIA are lost to follow-up due to complicated HIV testing procedures. Because this is the first step in care, it affects the entire continuum of care. This is a particular concern in rural China. OBJECTIVE(S): To assess the routine HIV testing completeness and treatment initiation rates at 18 county-level general hospitals in rural Guangxi. METHODS: We reviewed original hospital HIV screening records...
2016: PloS One
Tabor E Flickinger, Claire DeBolt, Ava Lena Waldman, George Reynolds, Wendy F Cohn, Mary Catherine Beach, Karen Ingersoll, Rebecca Dillingham
Social support can improve outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH) and could be provided through online support groups. The Positive Links smartphone app is a multicomponent intervention that allows users to interact in a clinic-affiliated anonymous online support group. We investigated how social support was exchanged in a group of 55 participants over 8 months, using an adaptation of the Social Support Behavior Code. Participant interviews assessed their experiences and perceptions of the app. Of 840 posts analyzed, 115 (14 %) were coded as eliciting social support and 433 (52 %) as providing social support...
October 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eveline Xavier Pereira de Souza, Eduardo Netto, Eda Vinhaes Dantas, Maiara Timbó, Isabella Nóbrega, Tatiana Haguihara, Júlia Maria de Oliveira Neumeyer, Nathalia Araújo Lisboa, Maria Angela Soidan, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil...
October 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Sauman Singh, Boniface Dongmo-Nguimfack, Jean-Paul Moatti
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to provide a landscape of the global antiretroviral (ARV) market by analyzing the transactional data on donor-funded ARV procurement between 2003 and 2015, and the ARV price determinants. DESIGN: The data were obtained from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism (GPRM) managed by the AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service of the WHO, and it consists of information that covers approximately 80% of the total donor-funded adult ARV transactions procurement...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
J Jiang, X H Pan, J Z Yang, Q Q Ma, L Chen, L He, Y Xu, J L Zheng
Objective: To understand the willingness of HIV test uptake and associated factors among sexual active college students. Methods: A cross-sectional study were conducted among college students from 11 cities in Zhejiang province, and those who had sexual behaviors were included in this study. Results: A total of 9 615 students completed the questionnaire, and 6.5% (619/9 468) of them had sexual behaviors. A total of 535 students were recruited in this study. And 77.2% of them were willing to receive HIV test...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Christina Ludema, Stephen R Cole, Joseph J Eron, Andrew Edmonds, G Mark Holmes, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer Cocohoba, Mardge Cohen, Hannah L F Cooper, Elizabeth T Golub, Seble Kassaye, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Lisa Metsch, Joel Milam, Tracey E Wilson, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression. METHODS: We used existing cohort data from the HIV-infected participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the time from 2006 to unsuppressed HIV viral load (>200 copies/mL) among those with Medicaid, private, Medicare, or other public insurance, and no insurance, stratified by the use of ADAP...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rafael E Pedro, Débora A Guariglia, Sidney B Peres, Solange M Moraes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a major problem among people living with HIV/aids. The exercise training has been used for its treatment; however, the knowledge about benefits and safety still is emerging. The aim was systematically review the literature for physiological, metabolic, immunologic, and morphologic adaptations to aerobic, resistance, and concurrent training in people living with HALS. METHODS: A search of the Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library and PEDro was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
G MuŽíková, R Laga
Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Sheena Mary McCormack, Veronica Noseda, Jean-Michel Molina
INTRODUCTION: In contrast to the global trend showing a decline in new HIV infections, the number reported in the World Health Organization (WHO) region of Europe is increasing. Health systems are disparate, but even countries with free access to screening and treatment observe continuing high rates of new infections in key populations, notably men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is only available in France. This commentary describes the European epidemics and healthcare settings where PrEP could be delivered, how need might be estimated for MSM and the residual barriers to access...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Clare Barrington, Caitlin Kennedy, Martha Perez, Yeycy Donastorg, Deanna Kerrigan
This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
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