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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546937/ocular-manifestation-and-their-associated-factors-among-hiv-aids-patients-receiving-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-southern-ethiopia
#1
Anteneh Amsalu, Kindie Desta, Demiss Nigussie, Demoze Delelegne
AIM: To assess the pattern of ocular manifestation and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2014 to April 2015. After obtaining informed written consent, 240 adult HIV/AIDS patients on HAART were randomly selected regardless of their ophthalmic symptoms, WHO status or CD4 count...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544728/index-case-finding-facilitates-identification-and-linkage-to-care-of-children-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv-aids-in-malawi
#2
Saeed Ahmed, Rachael A Sabelli, Katie Simon, Nora E Rosenberg, Elijah Kavuta, Mwelura Harawa, Spencer Dick, Frank Linzie, Peter N Kazembe, Maria H Kim
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a novel index case-finding and linkage-to-care program to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young adults (>15-24 years) to care. METHODS: HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home or facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up program offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs...
May 23, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542584/the-emergence-and-evolution-of-the-research-fronts-in-hiv-aids-research
#3
David Fajardo-Ortiz, Malaquias Lopez-Cervantes, Luis Duran, Michel Dumontier, Miguel Lara, Hector Ochoa, Victor M Castano
In this paper, we have identified and analyzed the emergence, structure and dynamics of the paradigmatic research fronts that established the fundamentals of the biomedical knowledge on HIV/AIDS. A search of papers with the identifiers "HIV/AIDS", "Human Immunodeficiency Virus", "HIV-1" and "Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" in the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), was carried out. A citation network of those papers was constructed. Then, a sub-network of the papers with the highest number of inter-citations (with a minimal in-degree of 28) was selected to perform a combination of network clustering and text mining to identify the paradigmatic research fronts and analyze their dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542239/projected-savings-through-public-health-voluntary-licences-of-hiv-drugs-negotiated-by-the-medicines-patent-pool-mpp
#4
Sandeep Juneja, Aastha Gupta, Suerie Moon, Stephen Resch
The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541371/knowledge-about-the-human-immunodeficiency-syndrome-among-elders-in-a-unit-for-the-care-of-the-elderly
#5
Giovanna Gaudenci Nardelli, Bruna Stephanie Sousa Malaquias, Eliana Maria Gaudenci, Carolina Silva Ledic, Nayara Freitas Azevedo, Vitória Eugênia Martins, Álvaro da Silva Santos
Objective: To analyze the knowledge of elders regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative study, with 457 elders from the Unit for the Care of Elders in Uberaba - Minas Gerais, lasting 3 months. The instruments used were the Mental State Mini-exam and a questionnaire on the human immunodeficiency virus for elders, together with frequency measures for their analysis. Results: Most participants were female (74%), between 60 and 69 y/o (51%)...
May 18, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541241/stigma-and-self-esteem-a-case-of-hiv-positive-sex-workers
#6
G Kalemi, S Gkioka, P Tsapatsari, G Tzeferakos, T Kandri, M L Psarra, F Konstantopoulou, A Douzenis
Stigma associated with sex work and HIV can be easily recognized in public reactions towards the members of discriminated groups. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies examining the impact of discrimination to the self-esteem of individuals who suffer the coexistence of multiple stigmatizing conditions. In our case, the unprecedented stigmatization of sex workers through the media as a menace of public health as well as criminals due to their seropositivity should be examined with respect and scientificity...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540221/circumcision-and-its-effects-in-africa
#7
REVIEW
Taiwo Akeem Lawal, E Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa
Male circumcision is one of the most commonly performed procedures in Africa, with a wide variation between the different regions on the practice. This is because circumcision is often done for religious and cultural or traditional reasons, which includes being part of rituals or rite of passage to adulthood. There had been few medical indications for the procedure until the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, which is prevalent in many of the countries in the region...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540084/body-composition-and-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-lipodystrophy-different-subtypes-associated-with-hiv
#8
Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Sílvia Justina Papini
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#9
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539755/practical-synthesis-of-the-bicyclic-darunavir-side-chain-3r-3as-6ar-hexahydrofuro-2-3-b-furan-3-ol-from-monopotassium-isocitrate
#10
REVIEW
Gary L Moore, Rodger W Stringham, David S Teager, Tai-Yuen Yue
A practical synthesis of (3R,3aS,6aR)-hexahydrofuro[2,3-b]furan-3-ol-a key intermediate in the synthesis of darunavir-from monopotassium isocitrate is described. The isocitric acid salt, obtained from a high-yielding fermentation fed by sunflower oil, was converted in several steps to a tertiary amide. This amide, along with the compound's ester functionalities, was reduced with lithium aluminum hydride to give, on acidic workup, a transient aminal-triol. This was converted in situ to the title compound, the bicyclic acetal furofuranol side chain of darunavir, a protease inhibitor used in treatment of HIV/AIDS...
January 20, 2017: Organic Process Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538786/routine-hiv-testing-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-risk-to-prevention
#11
Bruna Robba Lara Redoschi, Eliana Miura Zucchi, Claudia Renata Dos Santos Barros, Vera Silvia Facciolla Paiva
We conducted a critical review of the literature on recurrent use of HIV testing in men who have sex with men (MSM). We performed a narrative review of the literature in which we analyzed the various conceptions on frequent testing over time, the implications for health programs, and the main social markers that influence the incorporation of HIV testing as routine care. Although it has existed since the 1990s, recurrent testing among MSM was frequently interpreted as increased exposure to HIV due to lack of condom use, and therefore as "unnecessary" testing...
May 18, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537651/the-burden-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-in-post-haart-era-a-multidisciplinary-review-of-the-literature
#12
G Caruana, G Vidili, P A Serra, P Bagella, A Spanu, V Fiore, D F Calvisi, R Manetti, G Rocchitta, S Nuvoli, S Babudieri, M M Simile, G Madeddu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present multidisciplinary review is to give an updated insight into the most recent findings regarding the pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search, through electronic databases (Pubmed - MEDLINE) and search engines (Google Scholar), of peer-reviewed publications (articles and reviews) and conferences proceedings on HAND pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy, from 1999 to 2016...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536344/aptamer-technology-adjunct-therapy-for-malaria
#13
REVIEW
Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Kamarudin, Nurul Adila Mohammed, Khairul Mohd Fadzli Mustaffa
Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic infection occurring in the endemic areas, primarily in children under the age of five, pregnant women, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV)/(AIDS) as well as non-immune individuals. The cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the host endothelial surface receptor is a known factor that contributes to the increased prevalence of severe malaria cases due to the accumulation of IEs, mainly in the brain and other vital organs...
January 4, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536303/implementing-a-fee-for-service-cervical-cancer-screening-and-treatment-program-in-cameroon-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Geneva DeGregorio, Simon Manga, Edith Kiyang, Florence Manjuh, Leslie Bradford, Preetam Cholli, Richard Wamai, Rebecca Ogembo, Zacharie Sando, Yuxin Liu, Lisa Kennedy Sheldon, Kathleen Nulah, Thomas Welty, Edith Welty, Javier Gordon Ogembo
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening is one of the most effective cancer prevention strategies, but most women in Africa have never been screened. In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health care system in Cameroon, initiated the Women's Health Program (WHP) to address this disparity. The WHP provides fee-for-service cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC), prioritizing care for women living with HIV/AIDS...
May 23, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536264/exosomes-from-uninfected-cells-activate-transcription-of-latent-hiv-1
#15
Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Benjamin Lepene, Seble Kassaye, Sergey Iordanskiy, Fatah Kashanchi
HIV-1 infection causes AIDS, infecting millions worldwide. The virus can persist in a state of chronic infection due to its ability to become latent. We have previously shown a link between HIV-1 infection and exosome production. Specifically, we have reported that exosomes transport viral proteins and RNA from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells. These viral products could then elicit an innate immune response, leading to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB pathways. In this study, we asked whether exosomes from uninfected cells could activate latent HIV-1 in infected cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536104/development-and-validation-of-qrisk3-risk-prediction-algorithms-to-estimate-future-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland, Peter Brindle
Objectives To develop and validate updated QRISK3 prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease in women and men accounting for potential new risk factors.Design Prospective open cohort study.Setting General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database.Participants 1309 QResearch general practices in England: 981 practices were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 328 practices were used to validate the scores. 7.89 million patients aged 25-84 years were in the derivation cohort and 2...
May 23, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535397/quality-of-life-anxiety-and-depression-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-who-present-poor-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-a-cross-sectional-study-in-salvador-brazil
#17
Mónica Narváez Betancur, Liliane Lins, Irismar Reis de Oliveira, Carlos Brites
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical, demographic and psychological characteristics, and quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy...
May 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#18
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534032/cooking-fuel-and-respiratory-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#19
Crystal M North, Linda Valeri, Peter W Hunt, A Rain Mocello, Jeffrey N Martin, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load...
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533167/performance-of-the-antiretroviral-treatment-program-in-ethiopia-2005-2015-strengths-and-weaknesses-toward-ending-aids
#20
Yibeltal Assefa, Charles F Gilks, Lutgarde Lynen, Owain Williams, Peter S Hill, Taye Tolera, Alankar Malvia, Wim Van Damme
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is one of the countries which has scaled up antiretroviral treatment (ART) over the past decade. This study reviews the performance of the ART program in Ethiopia during the past decade, and identifies successes and weaknesses toward ending AIDS in the country. METHODS: A review and synthesis of data was conducted using multiple data sources: reports from all health facilities in Ethiopia to the Federal Ministry of Health, HIV/AIDS estimates and projections, and retrospective cohort and cross-sectional studies conducted between 2005/6 and 2014/15...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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