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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055013/a-synthetic-cd8%C3%AE-myd88-co-receptor-enhances-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-weakly-immunogenic-and-lowly-expressed-tumor-antigens
#1
Sabina Kaczanowska, Ann Mary Joseph, Jitao Guo, Alexander K Tsai, Jackline Joy M Lasola, Kenisha Younger, Yuji Zhang, Cruz Velasco Gonzalez, Eduardo Davila
T cell-based immunotherapies are a promising approach for patients with advanced cancers. However, various obstacles limit T cell efficacy, including suboptimal T cell receptor (TCR) activation and an immunosuppressive tumor environment. Here we developed a fusion protein by linking CD8α and MyD88 (CD8α:MyD88) to enhance CD8+ T cell responses to weakly immunogenic and poorly expressed tumor antigens. CD8α:MyD88-engineered T cells exhibited increased proliferation and expression of effector and co-stimulatory molecules in a tumor antigen-dependent manner...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054782/multi-level-spondylolysis-repair-using-the-smiley-face-technique-with-3d-intraoperative-spinal-navigation
#2
Mathew R Voisin, Christopher D Witiw, Ryan Deorajh, Daipayan Guha, Adetunji Oremakinde, Shelly Wang, Victor Yang
BACKGROUND / OBJECTIVE: Multi-level spondylolysis is a rare cause of progressive lower back pain and patients that fail conservative management are treated surgically. Direct repair methods can maintain mobility and lead to decreased morbidity compared with spinal fusion in single-level spondylolysis. In this paper, we present a patient with non-adjacent multi-level spondylolysis that underwent the 'smiley face' technique of direct multi-level repair without fusion using 3D intraoperative spinal navigation...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053192/dissociation-of-nnos-from-psd-95-promotes-functional-recovery-after-cerebral-ischaemia-in-mice-through-reducing-excessive-tonic-gaba-release-from-reactive-astrocytes
#3
Yu-Hui Lin, Hai-Ying Liang, Ke Xu, Huan-Yu Ni, Jian Dong, Hui Xiao, Lei Chang, Hai-Yin Wu, Fei Li, Dong-Ya Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo
Mechanisms underlying functional recovery after stroke are little known, and effective drug intervention during the delayed stage is desirable. One potential drug target, the protein-protein interaction between neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), is critical to acute ischaemic damage and neurogenesis. We show that nNOS-PSD-95 dissociation induced by microinjection of a recombinant fusion protein Tat-nNOS-N1-133 or systemic administration of a small molecule ZL006 from days 4 to 10 after photothrombotic ischaemia in mice reduced excessive tonic inhibition in the peri-infarct cortex and ameliorated motor functional outcome...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051509/the-transcriptional-regulator-ntrc-controls-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-expression-and-polyhydroxybutyrate-synthesis-through-nadph-availability-in-herbaspirillum-seropedicae
#4
Euclides Nenga Manuel Sacomboio, Edson Yu Sin Kim, Henrique Leonardo Ruchaud Correa, Paloma Bonato, Fabio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza, Leda Satie Chubatsu, Marcelo Müller-Santos
The NTR system is the major regulator of nitrogen metabolism in Bacteria. Despite its broad and well-known role in the assimilation, biosynthesis and recycling of nitrogenous molecules, little is known about its role in carbon metabolism. In this work, we present a new facet of the NTR system in the control of NADPH concentration and the biosynthesis of molecules dependent on reduced coenzyme in Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. We demonstrated that a ntrC mutant strain accumulated high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), reaching levels up to 2-fold higher than the parental strain...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050896/intraoperative-pedicle-screw-navigation-does-not-significantly-affect-complication-rates-after-spine-surgery
#5
Scott C Wagner, Patrick B Morrissey, Ian D Kaye, Arjun Sebastian, Joseph S Butler, Christopher K Kepler
Various forms of intraoperative computer-assisted navigation technologies exist, and have consistently been shown to improve pedicle screw accuracy. However, the overall clinical effects of inaccurate pedicle screw placement have been debated. We examined the clinical effects of improved pedicle screw accuracy with computer navigation technology in reducing complication rates in patients undergoing multi-level spinal fusion. We retrospectively reviewed the ACS-NSQIP registry utilizing Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 22843 + 22844 to identify patients undergoing spinal instrumentation of greater than 7 levels, as well as the CPT code 61783 to denote the use of intraoperative computer-assisted navigation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050891/is-stand-alone-peek-cage-the-gold-standard-in-multilevel-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-acdf-results-of-a-minimum-1-year-follow-up
#6
You-Sub Kim, Jae-Young Park, Bong Ju Moon, Sang-Deok Kim, Jung-Kil Lee
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and radiologic results of stand-alone synthetic polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages for two- or three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), with a focus on subsidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a total of 68 patients who underwent two- or three-level ACDF with a stand-alone PEEK cage between April 2005 and August 2016. Radiologic parameters were assessed on lateral radiographs, and fusion was assessed on computed tomography scans...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050722/adjacent-segment-disease-44-years-following-posterior-spinal-fusion-for-congenital-lumbar-kyphosis
#7
Avionna Baldwin, Addisu Mesfin
STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and imaging findings of a patient with lumbar stenosis 44 years after posterior spinal fusion for congenital lumbar kyphosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To our knowledge, there are no long-term follow-up reports after posterior spine fusion (PSF) for congenital kyphosis. Congenital kyphosis is an uncommon deformity with the potential to progress rapidly and result in deformity and neurologic deficits...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050720/does-intrathecal-baclofen-therapy-increase-prevalence-and-or-progression-of-neuromuscular-scoliosis
#8
Kevin R Walker, Susan A Novotny, Linda E Krach
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-matched review. OBJECTIVES: Compare a group of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) who had intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps to a group of individuals with CP who did not have ITB pumps in order to determine if there was a difference in the prevalence of new-onset neuromuscular scoliosis, an increased rate of progression of preexisting neuromuscular scoliosis, or an increased rate of posterior spine fusion surgery in skeletally immature individuals with CP who had ITB pumps...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050719/how-is-pulmonary-function-and-exercise-tolerance-affected-in-patients-with-ais-who-have-undergone-spinal-fusion
#9
Kelly A Jeans, John F Lovejoy, Lori A Karol, Anna M McClung
STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled AIS patients who underwent spinal fusion, with 2 year follow-up. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardiovascular fitness and activity level in patients with AIS pre- and post-spinal fusion and to determine if initial curve magnitude or pulmonary function is predictive of exercise capacity. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Researchers have tried to link pulmonary function testing (PFT) to exercise capacity; the results are mixed...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050715/the-effect-of-two-attending-surgeons-on-patients-with-large-curve-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-undergoing-posterior-spinal-fusion
#10
Liam Bosch, Carla Boan, Miranda Falk, Greg R White, M Wade Shrader
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, chart review. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of using two surgeons for posterior spinal fusion (PSF) in patients with AIS with large-magnitude curves (greater than 70°). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies have shown that intraoperative risk factors can be reduced by having two surgeons operate simultaneously. METHODS: A retrospective chart review identified 47 patients between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, who underwent a posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with AIS with large-magnitude curves (greater than 70°)...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050714/when-does-intraoperative-blood-loss-occur-during-pediatric-scoliosis-correction
#11
Sean Wahlquist, Montri Wongworawat, Scott Nelson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to assess the relationship between amount of blood loss and surgical stage in pediatric patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion for deformity correction to determine: (1) when the highest rate of blood loss occurred; (2) what percentage of total blood loss occurred during deformity correction and closure; and (3) how to predict remaining blood loss during a procedure. Blood loss following exposure and placement of the final pedicle screw is often underestimated, which may result in lack of sufficient blood product availability...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050711/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pediatric-patients-with-scoliosis-preparing-for-spinal-surgery
#12
Theresa Mayes, Jennifer M Anadio, Peter F Sturm
BACKGROUND: Establishing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elective scoliosis surgery may impact clinical outcomes. The objectives of this study were to document vitamin D status of patients with scoliosis preparing for surgical intervention in order to establish frequency of deficiency and determine characteristics influencing levels. METHODS: Records were queried for patients with scoliosis diagnosis who underwent posterior spinal fusion or initial growing rod placement and had serum vitamin 25 hydroxyvitamin D (D25) recorded in the preoperative period...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050297/cytochalasin-b-induced-membrane-vesicles-convey-angiogenic-activity-of-parental-cells
#13
Marina O Gomzikova, Margarita N Zhuravleva, Regina R Miftakhova, Svetlana S Arkhipova, Vladimir G Evtugin, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Andrey P Kiyasov, Jenny L Persson, Nigel P Mongan, Richard G Pestell, Albert A Rizvanov
Naturally occurring extracellular vesicles (EVs) play essential roles in intracellular communication and delivery of bioactive molecules. Therefore it has been suggested that EVs could be used for delivery of therapeutics. However, to date the therapeutic application of EVs has been limited by number of factors, including limited yield and full understanding of their biological activities. To address these issues, we analyzed the morphology, molecular composition, fusion capacity and biological activity of Cytochalasin B-induced membrane vesicles (CIMVs)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049388/an-inducible-mouse-model-of-podocin-mutation-related-nephrotic-syndrome
#14
Mansoureh Tabatabaeifar, Tanja Wlodkowski, Ivana Simic, Helga Denc, Geraldine Mollet, Stefanie Weber, John Julius Moyers, Barbara Brühl, Michael Joseph Randles, Rachel Lennon, Corinne Antignac, Franz Schaefer
Mutations in the NPHS2 gene, encoding podocin, cause hereditary nephrotic syndrome. The most common podocin mutation, R138Q, is associated with early disease onset and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. Knock-in mice carrying a R140Q mutation, the mouse analogue of human R138Q, show developmental arrest of podocytes and lethal renal failure at neonatal age. Here we created a conditional podocin knock-in model named NPHS2 R140Q/-, using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase, which permits to study the effects of the mutation in postnatal life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049346/biological-activity-and-dimerization-state-of-modified-phytochrome-a-proteins
#15
Peng Liu, Robert A Sharrock
To assess potential physical interactions of type I phyA with the type II phyB-phyE phytochromes in vivo, transgenes expressing fusion gene forms of phyA were introduced into the Arabidopsis phyA mutant background. When a single c-Myc (myc) epitope is added to either the N- or C-terminus of phyA, the constructs completely complement phyA mutant phenotypes. However, addition of larger tags, such as six consecutive myc epitopes or the yellow fluorescent protein sequence, result in fusion proteins that show reduced activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049269/long-term-surgical-outcomes-after-early-definitive-spinal-fusion-for-early-onset-scoliosis-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-at-mean-follow-up-of-14-years
#16
Ryoji Tauchi, Noriaki Kawakami, Michael Anton Castro, Tetsuya Ohara, Toshiki Saito, Kazuaki Morishita, Ippei Yamauchi
BACKGROUND: Several authors mentioned surgical outcome for scoliosis associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). However, no studies have summarized long-term surgical outcomes after surgical treatment of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) with NF-1. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term surgical outcome after early definitive spinal fusion for EOS in NF-1 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review on a cohort of 11 patients diagnosed with EOS associated with NF-1 between 1990 and 2009 in our hospital...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049210/topical-use-of-tranexamic-acid-can-effectively-decrease-hidden-blood-loss-during-posterior-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery-a-retrospective-study
#17
Zhinan Ren, Shugang Li, Lin Sheng, Qianyu Zhuang, Zheng Li, Derong Xu, Xin Chen, Pengxiang Jiang, Xiao Zhang
In spinal fusion surgery, total blood loss (TBL) is composed of visible blood loss from the surgical field and wound drainage, and hidden blood loss (HBL). Until now, no published studies exist reporting the effect of topical use of tranexamic acid (tTXA) on HBL in patients undergoing posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery. This study aimed to explore the effect of tTXA on HBL during primary posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Between September 2014 and September 2016, 100 adult patients (age > 18 years) with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis undergoing primary posterior lumbar instrumented spinal fusions at 1 institution were divided into tTXA and control groups...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049131/comparison-of-surgical-outcomes-narcotics-utilization-and-costs-after-an-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-stand-alone-cage-versus-anterior-plating
#18
Ehsan Tabaraee, Junyoung Ahn, Daniel D Bohl, Michael J Collins, Dustin H Massel, Khaled Aboushaala, Kern Singh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively maintained registry. OBJECTIVE: To compare the surgical outcomes, narcotic utilization, and costs between a stand-alone (SA) cage and anterior plating (AP) with an interbody device for 1-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF with a SA cage has gained popularity as a potential alternative to anterior cervical plating. Few studies have compared the surgical outcomes, narcotic utilization, and costs of ACDF utilizing a SA cage versus AP with an interbody device...
November 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048566/deciphering-the-theobroma-cacao-self-incompatibility-system-from-genomics-to-diagnostic-markers-for-self-compatibility
#19
Claire Lanaud, Olivier Fouet, Thierry Legavre, Uilson Lopes, Olivier Sounigo, Marie Claire Eyango, Benoit Mermaz, Marcos Ramos Da Silva, Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano, Xavier Argout, Gabor Gyapay, Herman Ebai Ebaiarrey, Kelly Colonges, Christine Sanier, Ronan Rivallan, Géraldine Mastin, Nicholas Cryer, Michel Boccara, Jean-Luc Verdeil, Ives Bruno Efombagn Mousseni, Karina Peres Gramacho, Didier Clément, Zoe Wilson
Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046930/asfotase-alfa-treatment-for-1%C3%A2-year-in-a-16%C3%A2-year-old-male-with-severe-childhood-hypophosphatasia
#20
S A Bowden, B H Adler
We describe the clinical outcome of asfotase alfa therapy in a 16-year-old boy with severe childhood hypophosphatasia (HPP), who began therapy at age 15 years. The patient was diagnosed with HPP at age 2 years when he presented with genu varum and premature loss of primary teeth. He had a history of multiple fractures requiring 16 orthopedic surgeries with rod and pin placement in his lower extremities. He had chronic skeletal pain and used cane to ambulate with great difficulty. His height Z score at age 15 years was - 5...
October 18, 2017: Osteoporosis International
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