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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672113/chlorfenapyr-a-potent-alternative-insecticide-of-phoxim-to-control-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae
#1
Yunhe Zhao, Qiuhong Wang, Yao Wang, Zhengqun Zhang, Yan Wei, Feng Liu, Chenggang Zhou, Wei Mu
Bradysia odoriphaga is the major pest affecting Chinese chive production, and in China, it has developed widespread resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. However, the effect of chlorfenapyr on organophosphate-resistant B. odoriphaga is not well understood. The present study evaluated the potential of chlorfenapyr for the control of phoxim-resistant B. odoriphaga...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610012/a-new-species-of-i-chaetolonchaea-i-czerny-diptera-lonchaeidae-from-china-a-larval-pest-on-chives
#2
Ting-Ting Zhang, Fang Liu, Iain Macgowan, Ming Xue
A new species, Chaetolonchaea alliumi sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The larvae of this species are found in the bulbs of chives (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng.), and the species is an important pest of liliaceous vegetables. A key to the eight known species of world Chaetolonchaea Czerny, 1934 is included. The egg, larva and larval skeleton of genus Chaetolonchae are illustrate for the first time. Photographs of the puparium, host plant and injury symptoms are also provided.
April 6, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536793/detection-of-insecticide-resistance-in-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-et-zhang-diptera-sciaridae-in-china
#3
Chengyu Chen, Xueyan Shi, Nicolas Desneux, Peng Han, Xiwu Gao
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang is a destructive insect pest of Chinese chives. To understand the current status of insecticide resistance of B. odoriphaga in China, the sensitivity variation of eight field populations to six commonly used insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phoxim, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and beta-cypermethrin were evaluated. The results showed that almost all the tested B. odoriphaga populations had developed moderate to high resistance to chlorpyrifos and phoxim. There were different resistance levels found in the eight field populations among the three neonicotinoids, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin...
May 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506035/simultaneous-molecular-detection-of-cryptosporidium-and-cyclospora-from-raw-vegetables-in-korea
#4
Seobo Sim, Jua Won, Jae-Whan Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Woo-Yoon Park, Jae-Ran Yu
Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are well-known coccidian protozoa that can cause waterborne and foodborne diarrheal illnesses. There have been a few reports regarding contamination in different vegetables with Cryptosporidium, but no data are available regarding the sources of Cyclospora infections in Korea. In the present study, we collected 6 kinds of vegetables (perilla leaves, winter-grown cabbages, chives, sprouts, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes) from July 2014 to June 2015, and investigated contamination by these 2 protozoa using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334285/control-of-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae-with-allyl-isothiocyanate-under-field-and-greenhouse-conditions
#5
Cai-Hua Shi, Jing-Rong Hu, Wen Xie, Yu-Ting Yang, Shao-Li Wang, You-Jun Zhang
The botanical compound allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is toxic to many microorganisms and insects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of AITC on the Bradysia odoriphaga Yang et Zhang (Diptera: Sciaridae) and the seeds and seedlings of the Chinese chive. Allyl isothiocyanate was toxic to all four developmental stages of B. odoriphaga. The adult was significantly more sensitive to AITC than the other three stages, which exhibited no significant differences to one another in sensitivity to the chemical...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279489/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-critically-ill-patients-in-spain-the-procrid-study
#6
Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Luis Martín-Villén, Luis Alcalá-Hernández, Mercedes Marín Arriaza, Bárbara Balandín-Moreno, César Aragón-González, José Ferreres-Franco, Miguel Ángel Chiveli Monleón, Paloma Anguita-Alonso, Emilio Bouza-Santiago, José Garnacho-Montero
INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in critically ill patients and to determine C. difficile PCR-ribotypes. METHODS: Prospective, observational study in 26 Spanish ICUs. Patients with diarrhea meeting ESCMID criteria for CDI were included. Molecular characterization of isolates was performed using PCR ribotyping. RESULTS: Of 4258 patients admitted to the ICUs, 190 (4...
March 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261311/therapeutic-role-of-functional-components-in-alliums-for-preventive-chronic-disease-in-human-being
#7
REVIEW
Yawen Zeng, Yuping Li, Jiazhen Yang, Xiaoying Pu, Juan Du, Xiaomeng Yang, Tao Yang, Shuming Yang
Objectives. Functional components in alliums have long been maintained to play a key role in modifying the major risk factors for chronic disease. To obtain a better understanding of alliums for chronic disease prevention, we conducted a systematic review for risk factors and prevention strategies for chronic disease of functional components in alliums, based on a comprehensive English literature search that was conducted using various electronic search databases, especially the PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI for the period 2007-2016...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216165/isolation-and-identification-of-new-chemical-constituents-from-chinese-chive-allium-tuberosum-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-raw-and-cooked-chinese-chive
#8
Quan Gao, Xia-Bing Li, Jia Sun, Er-Dong Xia, Feng Tang, Hai-Qun Cao, Hang Xun
Chinese chive (jiu cai) is a popular vegetable in China and has a unique flavour and aroma. The molecular basis of the characteristic fragrance and nutritional properties of Chinese chive has not been previously identified. Sequential extractions in a series of solvents and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate 40 compounds from Chinese chive. The compounds were identified based on high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, and circular dichroism spectra...
February 20, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187835/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-the-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-chlorfluazuron-on-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-and-zhang-diptera-sciaridae
#9
Peng Zhang, Yun-He Zhao, Qiu-Hong Wang, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang is the primary insect pest that affects Chinese chive in northern China. Nevertheless, very few studies have been conducted on the use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) for the control of B. odoriphaga. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of the CSI chlorfluazuron on B. odoriphaga were studied to explore the use for integrated pest management (IPM) of B. odoriphaga. A contact and ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorfluazuron was more active against B. odoriphaga than three other CSIs, with a 72h LC50 of 0...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131716/nosocomial-fungemia-by-candida-auris-first-four-reported-cases-in-continental-europe
#10
Alba Cecilia Ruiz Gaitán, Ana Moret, José Luis López Hontangas, José Miguel Molina, Ana Isabel Aleixandre López, Alicia Hernández Cabezas, Juan Mollar Maseres, Rabat Chouman Arcas, María Dolores Gómez Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Chiveli, Emilia Cantón, Javier Pemán
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that can cause invasive infections and is associated with high mortality. It is typically resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole and, some cases, also to echinocandins and amphotericin B. This species, phylogenetically related to Candida haemulonii, is frequently misidentified by commercial identification techniques in clinical laboratories; therefore, the real prevalence of C. auris infections may be underestimated...
January 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103027/isolation-colonization-and-chlorpyrifos-degradation-mediation-of-the-endophytic-bacterium-sphingomonas-strain-hjy-in-chinese-chives-allium-tuberosum
#11
Fayun Feng, Jing Ge, Yisong Li, Jinjin Cheng, Jianfeng Zhong, Xiangyang Yu
The endophyte-plant interaction can benefit the host in many different ways. An endophytic bacterium strain (HJY) capable of degrading chlorpyrifos (CP) was isolated from Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng). The isolated bacterium HJY classified as Sphingomonas sp. strain HJY could use CP as the sole carbon source. After being marked with the gfp gene, the colonization and distribution of strain HJY-gfp were directly observed in different tissues of Chinese chives with a confocal laser scanning microscope...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915147/highly-sensitive-optical-interferometric-technique-reveals-stress-dependent-instantaneous-nanometric-growth-fluctuations-of-chinese-chive-leaf-under-heavy-metal-stress
#12
Kokge Thilini Kanchana Muthumali DeSilva, Uma Maheswari Rajagopalan, Hirofumi Kadono
Plant growth apart from being a complex and highly dynamic is dependent on its immediate environment. Leaf expansion measurements using Statistical Interferometry Technique, a sensitive interferometric technique at nanometric accuracy and at sub-second levels revealed the presence of characteristic nanometric intrinsic fluctuations [Plant Biotechnology 31, 195 (2014)]. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nanometric intrinsic fluctuations are sensitive enough that they change under exposure of heavy metals, essential micronutrient zinc and non-essential element cadmium, at relatively low concentrations in the leaves of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum)...
March 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816287/contamination-and-health-risk-assessment-of-pahs-in-soils-and-crops-in-industrial-areas-of-the-yangtze-river-delta-region-china
#13
Jian Wang, Xiaofang Zhang, Wanting Ling, Rui Liu, Juan Liu, Fuxing Kang, Yanzheng Gao
This is the first investigation into both soil and crop contamination and associated health risks by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial areas of the Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR). Soil and crop samples were collected from farmland surrounded by three typical industries (a steelworks [SW], a petrochemical facility [PF] and a power plant [PP]), and the concentrations and health risks of PAHs in soils and crops were evaluated. The average concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface soil and subsoil were 471...
February 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809818/essential-oils-from-two-allium-species-exert-effects-on-cell-proliferation-and-neuroblast-differentiation-in-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus-by-modulating-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-acetylcholinesterase
#14
Hyo Young Jung, Kwon Young Lee, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Miyoung Yoo, Sanghee Lee, Ki-Yeon Yoo, Yeo Sung Yoon, Jung Hoon Choi, In Koo Hwang
BACKGROUND: In the present study, we investigated the effects of oil products from two Allium species: Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium hookeri (Chinese chives) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the mouse dentate gyrus. METHODS: Using corn oil as a vehicle, the essential oil from garlic (10 ml/kg), or Chinese chives (10 ml/kg) was administered orally to 9-week-old mice once a day for 3 weeks. One hour following the last treatment, a novel object recognition test was conducted and the animals were killed 2 h after the test...
November 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585263/plants-of-the-genus-allium-as-antibacterial-agents-from-tradition-to-pharmacy
#15
REVIEW
J Sharifi-Rad, D Mnayer, G Tabanelli, Z Z Stojanović-Radić, M Sharifi-Rad, Z Yousaf, L Vallone, W N Setzer, M Iriti
Plants belonging to the genus Allium are widely cultivated and used all over the world as food and medicinal plants. Since ancient times, these plants, particularly garlic (Allium sativum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.), have represented important components of typical recipes and traditional healing systems. Not the least of which, their use as food biopreservatives is well documented, due to the relevant antibacterial activity of their extracts and essential oils. In addition to garlic and onion, this review article deals with the main members of the genus Allium, including A...
August 29, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579018/the-effects-of-applying-sewage-sludge-into-jiangxi-red-soil-on-the-growth-of-vegetables-and-the-migration-and-enrichment-of-cu-and-zn
#16
Wang Rrong, Tang Aiping, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Jiangxi red soil was used as the tested soil and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic) and Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) were used as the tested vegetables in this study to investigate the effects of different amounts of sewage-sludge application on the growth of vegetables and the migration and enrichment patterns of Cu and Zn in vegetables using the potted method. The results indicated that the application of sewage sludge could improve the properties of red soil and promote vegetable growth. The dry weight of water spinach and Chinese chive reached the maximal levels when treated with the amount of sewage sludge at 4% and 10%, which was 4...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399679/evaluation-of-housekeeping-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-analysis-of-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae
#17
Caihua Shi, Fengshan Yang, Xun Zhu, Erxia Du, Yuting Yang, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Youjun Zhang
The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm...
July 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382720/-determination-of-250-pesticide-residues-in-vegetables-using-quechers-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
Aizhi Zhang, Quanlin Wang, Lili Cao, Yu Li, Hao Shen, Jian Shen, Shufen Zhang, Zhengyin Man
A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent...
February 2016: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374533/a-new-kinetic-model-of-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-chinese-chive
#19
Wei-Nan Zhang, Hai-Lin Zhang, Chao-Qun Lu, Jian-Ping Luo, Xue-Qiang Zha
Chinese chive, a famous green vegetable, is widely cultivated in the Asia. In the present study, we found that ultrasound caused the degradation of Chinese chive polysaccharides (CCP) in the process of extraction. Since lacking the consideration of polysaccharide degradation, the traditional kinetic models can not reflect the real extraction process of CCP. Therefore, a modified kinetic model was thus established by introducing a parameter of degradation coefficient based on the Fick's second law, suggesting the diffusion and degradation of CCP is highly dependent on the ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and solid-liquid ratio...
December 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342792/a-nano-silver-enzyme-electrode-for-organophosphorus-pesticide-detection
#20
Qiqi Zheng, Yonghua Yu, Kai Fan, Feng Ji, Jian Wu, Yibin Ying
A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh)...
August 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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