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Fatma Ben Abid, Mohammed Abukhattab, Hafedh Ghazouani, Obada Khalil, Ahmed Gohar, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Eman Al Masalamani, Said Al Dhahry, Samar Hashim, Faraj Howadi, Adeel A Butt
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) viral infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. No data are available regarding their epidemiology in Qatar. DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated all cerebrospinal fluid findings from January 2011-March 2015 at Hamad Medical Corporation. Those with abnormal CSF finding were included in our study. We excluded those with missing medical records, no clinical evidence of viral CNS infection or proven bacterial, fungal or tuberculosis CNS infection...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kenechukwu Chudy-Onwugaje, Fauzia Vandermeer, Sandra Quezada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Bernice J Klotoe, Barbara Molina-Moya, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Michel K Gomgnimbou, Lorenna Oliveira Suzarte, Maria H Féres Saad, Sajid Ali, José Dominguez, Edita Pimkina, Elena Zholdybayeva, Christophe Sola, Guislaine Refrégier
Several diagnostic tests are being developed to detect drug resistance in tuberculosis. In line with previous developments detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistance using microbead-based systems (spoligoriftyping and TB-SPRINT), we present here an assay called TB-EFI detecting mutations involved in resistance to ethambutol, fluoroquinolones and the three classical injectable drugs (kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The proposed test includes both wild-type and mutant probes for each targeted locus...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Lázaro Moreira Marques Neto, Nicholas Zufelato, Ailton Antônio de Sousa-Júnior, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Adeliane Castro da Costa, Andris Figueiroa Bakuzis, André Kipnis, Ana Paula JunqueiraKipnis
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) stimulate innate immunity; however, they have never been demonstrated to be capable of aiding the generation of specific cellular immune responses. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate whether iron oxide-based NPs have adjuvant properties in generating cellular Th1, Th17 and TCD8 (Tc1) immune responses. For this purpose, a fusion protein (CMX) composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens was used as a subunit vaccine. Citrate-coated MnFe2 O4 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy...
June 18, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Louis S Ates, Fadel Sayes, Wafa Frigui, Roy Ummels, Merel P M Damen, Daria Bottai, Marcel A Behr, Jeroen W J van Heijst, Wilbert Bitter, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch
Tuberculosis is the deadliest infectious disease worldwide. Although the BCG vaccine is widely used, it does not efficiently protect against pulmonary tuberculosis and an improved tuberculosis vaccine is therefore urgently needed. Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses different ESX/Type VII secretion (T7S) systems to transport proteins important for virulence and host immune responses. We recently reported that secretion of T7S substrates belonging to the mycobacteria-specific Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) proteins of the PGRS (polymorphic GC-rich sequences) and MPTR (major polymorphic tandem repeat) subfamilies required both a functional ESX-5 system and a functional PPE38/71 protein for secretion...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tatiana Metcalf, Jaime Soria, Silvia M Montano, Eduardo Ticona, Carlton A Evans, Luz Huaroto, Matthew Kasper, Eric S Ramos, Nicanor Mori, Podjanee Jittamala, Kesinee Chotivanich, Irwin F Chavez, Pratap Singhasivanon, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Joseph R Zunt
BACKGROUND: Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay versus traditional approaches for diagnosing tuberculosis meningitis (TBM). METHODS: Patients were adults (n = 37) presenting with suspected TBM to the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, during 12 months until 1st January 2015. Each participant had a single CSF specimen that was divided into aliquots that were concurrently tested for M...
2018: PloS One
Mónica Ramírez, Eduardo Cortés, José Betancur, Carlos Garcés
Cerebral tuberculosis TB (tuberculomas) without meningitis is an uncommon disease with a high morbidity and mortality. We report on a case that illustrates the complexity of this clinical presentation. An 11 month old, previously healthy male infant was brought to the clinic due to fever present during the last 1.5 months, associated with loss of neurodevelopmental goals and signs of endocranial hypertension. CT scan of the skull revealed dilatation of the ventricular system with transependimary edema; MRI showed multiple intra- and extra-axial micronodular images and hydrocephalus...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
M Alexandra Sánchez, Jessica Pino, Robinson Pacheco, José Fernando García
Background In 2016 tuberculosis (TB) was considered the ninth leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of a single infectious agent, with approximately 1.6 million deaths worldwide and a lethality of 15%. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries like Colombia. AIM: To describe the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who died during TB treatment in a high complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. METHODS: We conducted an analytic retrospective cohort during 2007-2016 in Fundación Valle del Lili...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Pravesh Yadav, Taru Garg, Sarita Sanke, Ram Chander, Divyanshu Singh
38-year-old married woman presented with multiple spontaneous painful ulcers that had involved both forearms for the previous month, along with a single episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, with no residual palsy or paresis. She complained of photosensitivity and diffuse hair loss for the past 6 months. She also had had arthralgia for the previous 3 years, which had initially involved the small joints of the fingers (especially the proximal interphalangeal joints) and gradually progressed to involve the larger joints...
2018: Skinmed
Ali Parsa, Maryam Mirzaie, Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh, Ali Birjandinejad, Abdolreza Malek, Alireza Mousavian
About 15 % of all musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) have hip involvement. Early anti-tubercular drug therapy and other conservative treatment including short-term traction and mobilization programs could prevent hip joint destruction. Reactivation of TB accounts for a significant of active TB incidence, especially in the developed countries with a low TB prevalence. The risk of TB activation for population with the latent form of disease is about 5-10%. According to the existing literature surgery in tubercular hip arthritis would be safe once sufficient debridement and precise anti tubercular chemotherapy has been done...
May 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Fábio M Oliveira, Adeliane C Da Costa, Victor O Procopio, Wanius Garcia, Juscemácia N Araújo, Roosevelt A Da Silva, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, André Kipnis
Mycobacterium abscessus complex has been characterized in the last decade as part of a cluster of mycobacteria that evolved from an opportunistic to true human pathogen; however, the factors responsible for pathogenicity are still undefined. It appears that the success of mycobacterial infection is intrinsically related with the capacity of the bacteria to regulate intracellular iron levels, mostly using iron storage proteins. This study evaluated two potential M. abscessus subsp. massiliense genes involved in iron storage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Adrie Bekker, Karen R Steingart, Danae Black, David J Horne, Eyal Oren, Sherri Pals, Surbhi Modi, Jyoti Mathad
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Diagnostic test accuracy). The objectives are as follows: To assess the accuracy of the four-symptom screen (cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss) for identifying active TB in pregnant PLHIV who are screened in an outpatient or community setting. To investigate potential sources of heterogeneity of the accuracy of the four-symptom screen between studies including: ART status, CD4 cell count, gestational age, pregnancy stage (pregnancy vs. postpartum), screening test definition of cough (any cough vs...
2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Quanjing Mei, Peipei Luo, Yi Zuo, Jidong Li, Qin Zou, Yubao Li, Dianming Jiang, Yaning Wang
Purpose: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of elderly people worldwide, which is difficult to be treated by traditional methods because of the peculiarity of skeletal system and liver damage caused by high-dose administration. In this research, a porous drug release system has been attempted to encapsulate rifampicin (RIF) into poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) microspheres to improve the efficacy and benefit of anti-tuberculosis drug in skeletal system...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Theodore Robert Mellors, Mavra Nasir, Flavio Antonio Franchina, Agnieszka Smolinska, Lionel Blanchet, JoAnne Flynn, Jaime A Tomko, Melanie Joy O'Malley, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, Jeffrey Wagner, Jane E Hill
In this pilot study, volatile molecules produced by cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were evaluated to determine whether they could be used to discriminate between uninfected and M. tuberculosis-infected macaques. Thirty seven of the culture biomarkers were detectable in macaque breath and were shown to discriminate between uninfected and infected animals with an area under the curve (AUC) of 87%. An AUC of 98% was achieved when using the top 38 discriminatory molecules detectable in breath. We report two newly discovered volatile biomarkers, not previously associated with M...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Gibril J Njie, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Ruth N Moro, Andrew A Vernon, Andrey S Borisov
CONTEXT: Latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and treatment is a strategic priority for eliminating tuberculosis in the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended the short-course regimen of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine administered by directly observed therapy. However, longer-duration regimens remain the most widely prescribed latent tuberculosis infection treatments. Limitation on adoption of 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine in the U.S. might be because of patients' preference for self-administered therapy, providers' lack of familiarity with 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine, or lack of resources to support directly observed therapy...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Qinying Yan, Zhigang Cheng, Houming Liu, Wanshui Shan, Zhide Cheng, Xuyong Dai, Yun Xue, Fan Chen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem. New immunization methods against TB are urgently needed. Plasmid DNA with a microneedle patch is a potentially attractive strategy to improve the immune effect. A DNA vaccine encoding the secreted protein Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was immunized in the skin using microneedles, which can improve protective immunity compared to conventional intramuscular (IM) injection. There is no significant difference between microneedle patch (MNP) and IM immunization when the immunizing dose is low (4...
June 14, 2018: Vaccine
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
Bai Xuejuan, Wang Dongfang, Yinping Liu, Xiao Li, Yan Liang, Yourong Yang, Junxian Zhang, Minggui Lin, Wu Xueqiong
There is an urgent need for a more effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). The identification of novel CTL epitopes is essential for the design of peptide-based vaccines. In this study, we predicted CTL epitope peptides of M.tb antigen Rv2629 restricted by HLA-A2, using bioinformatics methods. The affinity and stability of binding of these peptides with HLA-A2 molecules were detected by flow cytometry. Their ability to induce CTLs generation was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy uninfected subjects, Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) subjects, and TB patients ex vivo...
June 14, 2018: Immunology Letters
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Mohammad Varahram, Gert Folkerts, Johan Garssen, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major threat to human health. Understanding the strategies mycobacteria take to overcome immune defense is important in order to control the infection. Micro (mi)RNAs are master regulators of most pathways in the human body.  Infection with mycobacterium impacts upon the host metabolic pathways as they are subverted to obtain the nutrition for intracellular TB survival. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection on the expression of three miRNAs (miR-1224, -484 and -425), which are important in infection and in the regulation of metabolic pathways...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Talia Robledo-Gil, Kaoru Harada, Ichiro Ikuta, Merceditas Villanueva
BACKGROUND Paradoxical reactions to tuberculosis (TB) are clinical or radiological worsening of prior tuberculous lesions or the development of new lesions upon treatment with appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). This phenomenon has been described in both HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Although historically estimated to occur in 6-30% of HIV-seronegative patients with TB, the phenomenon is often under-recognized in the current era, particularly in countries of low TB prevalence. We describe a case of a TB paradoxical reaction affecting the CNS and spine in an HIV-seronegative individual who received clinical care in the U...
June 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
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