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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449528/the-link-between-tuberculosis-and-body-mass-index
#1
EDITORIAL
Aaron R Casha, Marco Scarci
The evidence behind the strong correlation between reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) and low body mass index (BMI) was reviewed. This strong association between TB and BMI occurred only with pulmonary TB and not extra-pulmonary TB, indicating that a low-BMI body build may in some way predispose to TB reactivation in the lungs. A possible explanation may be the congenital apical lung bullae that occur in 15% of the population and are likely to enlarge in young low-BMI males since biomechanical modeling of pleural stress has shown a massive 40x increase in apical pleural stress in low antero-posterior (AP) diameter chests associated with a low-BMI build...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449494/clinical-outcomes-for-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-with-adjunctive-resectional-lung-surgery-in-beijing-china
#2
Yan Ma, Yu Pang, Jian Du, Yuhong Liu, Liang Li, Weiwei Gao
The objective of this study was to assess the performance of adjective resectional lung surgery for multidrug resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients in Beijing, China. Between October 1992 and October 2012, 21 MDR/XDR patients undergoing pulmonary resection at Beijing Chest Hospital were enrolled in this study. The clinical outcomes of MDR- and XDR-TB patients were analyzed with a 3-year surgical follow-up. Out of 21 patients enrolled in this study, 20 patients (95.2%) had unilateral cavitary disease, and 1 patient (4...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449358/incident-rate-and-risk-factors-for-tuberculosis-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-retrospective-cohort-study-in-shanghai-china
#3
Hanbi Qiu, Yan Shi, Yanyun Li, Xin Shen, Rui Li, Qundi Yang, Qichao Pan, Fei Yan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incident rate of tuberculosis (TB) and its associates among adults with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 170,399 type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥18 years who were registered in Shanghai Community-Based Diabetes Management System between 2004 and 2009. Their TB status was tracked until December 31, 2014. Cox regression was performed to identify the risk factors for TB RESULTS: We documented 785 new TBcases during 654,977 person-years of follow-up...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448721/triplicate-sputum-cultures-for-efficacy-evaluation-of-novel-anti-tuberculosis-regimens
#4
Andreas H Diacon, Elana van Brakel, Nacer Lounis, Paul Meyvisch, Ben Van Baelen, Tine De Marez, Eilidh Jenkins, Brian Dannemann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448585/impact-of-temperature-and-soil-type-on-mycobacterium-bovis-survival-in-the-environment
#5
Elodie Barbier, Murielle Rochelet, Laurent Gal, Maria Laura Boschiroli, Alain Hartmann
Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of the bovine tuberculosis (bTB), mainly affects cattle, its natural reservoir, but also a wide range of domestic and wild mammals. Besides direct transmission via contaminated aerosols, indirect transmission of the M. bovis between wildlife and livestock might occur by inhalation or ingestion of environmental substrates contaminated through infected animal shedding. We monitored the survival of M. bovis in two soil samples chosen for their contrasted physical and-chemical properties (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448542/diminished-plasma-levels-of-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokines-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-reversal-following-treatment
#6
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: The immune response to tuberculosis (TB) is T cell dependent. T cells are the major facilitators of protection and effector functions with CD4+ T cells being the most important players, followed by CD8+ T cells. The common γ-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 play a vital role in peripheral T cell growth and survival. However, the role of common γ-chain cytokines in pulmonary TB (PTB) is poorly understood. AIM AND METHODS: To examine the association of circulating common γ-chain cytokines with TB disease or infection, we examined the systemic levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448028/system-for-efficacy-and-cytotoxicity-screening-of-inhibitors-targeting-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#7
Xingji Zheng, Yossef Av-Gay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. With the increased spread of multi drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), there is a real urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies against M. tuberculosis infections. Traditionally, compounds are evaluated based on their antibacterial activity under in vitro growth conditions in broth; however, results are often misleading for intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis since in-broth phenotypic screening conditions are significantly different from the actual disease conditions within the human body...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447869/mitigation-of-discordant-rifampicin-susceptibility-results-obtained-by-xpert-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rifampicin-and-mycobacterium-growth-indicator-tube
#8
Elmira Gurbanova, Rafail Mehdiyev, Kai Blondal, Rasim Tahirli, Fuad Mirzayev, Doris Hillemann, Asker Ismayilov, Alan Altraja
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous use of genotypic and phenotypic diagnostic tools for detection of rifampicin (RIF) susceptibility may yield discrepant results. OBJECTIVE: To measure the discordance between the RIF-susceptibility results by Xpert MTB/RIF and Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), to evaluate if application of both tests to the same sample affects the discrepancy, and to evaluate treatment outcome in patients with the discordant strains. DESIGN: Sputa from patients with tuberculosis managed in the penitentiary system of Azerbaijan during 2011-2015 were examined for RIF susceptibility using Xpert MTB/RIF and MGIT...
April 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447476/mtbvac-from-discovery-to-clinical-trials-in-tuberculosis-endemic-countries
#9
Dessislava Marinova, Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Carlos Martin
BCG remains the only vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in use today and despite its impressive global coverage, the nature of BCG protection against the pulmonary forms of TB remains subject to ongoing debate. Because of the limitations of BCG, novel TB vaccine candidates have been developed and several have reached the clinical pipeline. One of these candidates is MTBVAC, the first and only TB vaccine in the clinical pipeline to date based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has successfully entered clinical evaluation, a historic milestone in human vaccinology...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447386/unraveling-the-pleiotropic-role-of-the-mceg-atpase-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#10
Julia García-Fernández, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Beatriz Galán, Christopher M Sassetti, José L García
The Mce systems are complex ABC transporters that are encoded by different numbers of homologous operons in Actinobacteria. While the four Mce systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are all energized by a single ATPase, MceG, each system appears to import different fatty acids or sterols. To explore if this behavior can be extended to saprophytic mycobacteria, whose more complex genomes encode more Mce systems, we have identified and characterized the MceG ortholog of Mycobacterium smegmatis. This bacterium relies on MceG to energize its 6 Mce systems that contribute to a variety of cellular functions including sterol uptake and cell envelope maintenance...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447377/lupus-miliaris-disseminatus-faciei-a-resistant-case-with-response-to-cyclosporine
#11
Kabir Sardana, Shikha Chugh, Rashmi Ranjan, Nita Khurana
Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology, characterized by multiple, monomorphic, symmetrical, reddish-brown papules over forehead, cheeks, and eyelids. Histopathology shows perifollicular epitheloid cell granuloma. Though numerous therapies, ranging from cyclines, macrolides, dapsone tranilast, isotretinoin, steroids, and tacrolimus have been tried, the results are inconsistent, except with systemic steroids. One approach is to administer therapies based on the histological findings and the corresponding mode of action of drugs, thus antibiotics and dapsone are effective in the early inflammatory stage while clofazamine can be used in the granulomatous stage of the disease...
April 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447236/the-history-of-an-unknown-dermatological-wax-collection-from-cluj-napoca-university-iuliu-hatieganu-romania
#12
Alexandru-Dumitru Tataru, Dan Tataru, Maria Grazia Roccia, Katlein França, Massimo Fioranelli, Torello Lotti
Among the dermatological wax collections across Europe, one of the latest created is the collection from Cluj-Napoca University, Romania. The initiator was Professor Coriolan Tataru and the moulage artist employed was Dr. Richard Hoffmann. Between the years 1923 and 1928, around 200 wax moulages were made, all realised after patients hospitalised in the clinic. The majority of cases represent the dermatological infectious pathology of that time: syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis and mycetomas. Other interesting moulages represent genodermatoses, pelagra, different cutaneous cancers, and atypical aspects of common diseases like psoriasis and eczemas...
April 26, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447045/association-of-vntr-polymorphism-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-tnfrsf1b-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#13
Mohammad Naderi, Mohammad Hashemi, Nazanin Moradi
This study was designed to find out the impact of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFRSF1B) on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk in an Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 159 PTB patients and 158 healthy subjects. Bi-allelic TNFRSF1B VNTR was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between TNFRSF1B VNTR and PTB risk (P>0.05). Our findings proposed that TNFRSF1B VNTR polymorphism is unlikely to confer susceptibility to PTB...
March 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446902/modulation-of-macrophage-responses-by-cmx-a-fusion-protein-composed-of-ag85c-mpt51-and-hspx-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#14
Adeliane C da Costa, Danilo P de Resende, Bruno de P O Santos, Karina F Zoccal, Lúcia H Faccioli, André Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis (TB). Due to the poor protection conferred by BCG in adults, new, more effective formulations have been developed. A recombinant BCG vaccine expressing the CMX fusion protein Ag85c_MPT51_HspX (rBCG-CMX) induced Th1 and Th17 responses and provided better protection than BCG. It has been shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing CMX also induces better protection than BCG and is a strong macrophage activator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macrophage activation by the recombinant CMX fusion protein and by rBCG-CMX and to evaluate their ability to generate vaccine-specific immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446822/anti-mycobacterium-activity-of-microbial-peptides-in-a-silkworm-infection-model-with-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#15
Akiho Yagi, Ryuji Uchida, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Ken-Ichi Kimura, Hiroshi Tomoda
An in vivo-mimic silkworm infection model with Mycobacterium smegmatis was established. When silkworms were raised at 37 °C following an injection of M. smegmatis cells (1.25 × 10(7) CFU larva(-1) g(-1)) into the silkworm hemolymph, they died within 48 h. Under these conditions, four microbial peptides with anti-M. smegmatis activity, lariatin A, calpinactam, lysocin E and propeptin, exerted therapeutic effects in a dose-dependent manner, and these are also clinically used agents that are active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
May 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446777/structural-investigations-on-orotate-phosphoribosyltransferase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-key-enzyme-of-the-de-novo-pyrimidine-biosynthesis
#16
Stefano Donini, Davide M Ferraris, Riccardo Miggiano, Alberto Massarotti, Menico Rizzi
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (MtOPRT) catalyses the conversion of α-D-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and orotate (OA) in pyrophosphate and orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP), in presence of Mg(2+). This enzyme is the only responsible for the synthesis of orotidine 5'-monophosphate, a key precursor in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, making MtOPRT an attractive drug target for the development of antitubercular agents. We report the crystal structures of MtOPRT in complex with PRPP (2...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446740/biological-risk-among-agriculture-and-construction-workers-in-molise-region-central-italy
#17
Manuela Tamburro, Vincenza Anzelmo, Paolo Bianco, Michela Lucia Sammarco, Francesco Salierno, Giancarlo Ripabelli
BACKGROUND: Biological risk is a significant issue in workplaces due to continuous modification of work organization and condition. OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, perception and knowledge of biological risk, as well as adoption of prevention measures were evaluated among construction and agriculture workers. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was administered to workers to collect socio-demographic and employment information, in addition to data on risk perception and knowledge, and adoption of preventive measures, including those related to work activities...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446576/diagnostic-value-of-the-galactomannan-antigen-test-in-serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-samples-from-patients-with-non-neutropenic-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Wei Zhou, Hongxing Li, Yan Zhang, Mei Huang, Qian He, Pei Li, Fang Zhang, Yi Shi, Xin Su
Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of galactomannan (GM) detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples from non-neutropenic patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and determine the optimal BALF GM cut-off value for pulmonary aspergillosis.Methods: GM detection in BALF and serum samples was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 128 patients with clinically suspected non-neutropenic pulmonary aspergillosis between June 2014 and June 2016. On the basis of the clinical and pathological diagnoses, 8 patients were excluded because their diagnosis was uncertain...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446574/the-use-of-genexpert-remnants-for-drug-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-libreville-gabon
#19
Amel Kévin Alame-Emane, Catherine Pierre-Audigier, Oriane Cordelia Aboumegone-Biyogo, Amandine Nzoghe-Mveang, Véronique Cadet-Daniel, Christophe Sola, Joël Fleury Djoba-Siawaya, Brigitte Gicquel, Howard E Takiff
Multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis are major problems in global health. The GeneXpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) rapidly detects resistance to rifampicin (RIF-R), but detection of the additional resistance that defines MDR and XDR-TB, and for molecular epidemiology, specimen cultures and biosafe infrastructure are generally required. We sought to determine whether the remnants of sputa prepared for Xpert could be used directly to find mutations associated with drug resistance and for molecular epidemiology, and thus provide a precise characterization of MDR-TB cases in countries lacking BSL3 facilities for M...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446486/delayed-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-13-year-old-malawian-boy
#20
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a significant global health burden. There are more than 1 million new cases of childhood TB annually. Despite this, many national TB control programs largely focus on identification and treatment of smear positive adults. Early case detection is essential if childhood TB is to be controlled and eradicated.Delayed diagnosis of TB is associated with more advanced disease and worse treatment outcomes. Younger children who go undiagnosed for long periods are at risk of developing severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease, such as meningitis...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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