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exercise training and cardiac disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152896/trimetazidine-restores-the-positive-adaptation-to-exercise-training-by-mitigating-statin-induced-skeletal-muscle-injury
#1
Ming Song, Fang-Fang Chen, Yi-Hui Li, Lei Zhang, Feng Wang, Ran-Ran Qin, Zhi-Hao Wang, Ming Zhong, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Lu Han
BACKGROUND: Exercise rehabilitation is demonstrated to improve the prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Statins, as the key medicine to lower cholesterol in CHD, result in skeletal muscle injury and impair exercise training adaptation. Energy metabolism dysfunction is identified as the potential mechanism underlying statin-induced skeletal muscle injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine on skeletal muscle energy metabolism and statin-associated exercise intolerance...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114529/rehabilitation-training-in-artificially-heated-environment
#2
Ping-Chung Leung
Sauna has become a popular club house facility where the dweller enjoys relaxation. Some exercise groups like yoga and Qigong practitioners, are making use of the heated environment to achieve quicker and better results of trainings. Sauna therapy is producing a thermal stress through hyperthermia. The cardiovascular system readily responds by increasing the heart rate which can become double the resting stage within minutes and cardiac output may have a 70% increase. The body's surface response to heat leads to a 40% of decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, thus allowing rapid peripheral blood flow which is responsible for greater heat dispersal directly from the skin...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098630/exercise-dosing-and-prescription-playing-it-safe-dangers-and-prescription
#3
Lei Wang, Dongmei Ai, Ning Zhang
Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary program, and exercise training is extremely crucial in the whole program. In the past decades, many researches have shown the beneficial effects of exercise for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is indisputable Nevertheless, only a well-designed exercise prescription may achieve the ideal benefits. In this chapter, we will have a discussion of what is exercise prescription and how to establish a scientific and appropriate exercise prescription for CVD patients depending on the current scientific evidence and recommendations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098624/no-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-exercise
#4
Tiago Fernandes, Camila V Gomes-Gatto, Noemy P Pereira, Yahya R Alayafi, Vander J das Neves, Edilamar M Oliveira
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule implicated in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. The identification of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and the subsequent characterization of the mechanisms of cell activation of the enzymes permitted the partial understanding of both the physiological and pathological processes. NO bioavailability plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and its reduction in endothelial cells is strictly associated to endothelial dysfunction which, in turn, correlates with cardiovascular mortality...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098623/the-igf1-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-mediating-exercise-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-protection
#5
Kate L Weeks, Bianca C Bernardo, Jenny Y Y Ooi, Natalie L Patterson, Julie R McMullen
Regular physical activity or exercise training can lead to heart enlargement known as cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy is broadly defined as an increase in heart mass. In adults, cardiac hypertrophy is often considered a poor prognostic sign because it often progresses to heart failure. Heart enlargement in a setting of cardiac disease is referred to as pathological cardiac hypertrophy and is typically characterized by cell death and depressed cardiac function. By contrast, physiological cardiac hypertrophy, as occurs in response to chronic exercise training (i...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098612/exercise-benefits-coronary-heart-disease
#6
Lei Wang, Dongmei Ai, Ning Zhang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a group of diseases that include: no symptoms, angina, myocardial infarction, ischemia cardiomyopathy and sudden cardiac death. And it results from multiple risks factors consisting of invariable factors (e.g. age, gender, etc.) and variable factors (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, etc.). Meanwhile, CHD could cause impact not only localized in the heart, but also on pulmonary function, whole-body skeletal muscle function, activity ability, psychological status, etc...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096886/long-term-results-of-high-intensity-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-revascularized-patients-for-symptomatic-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Birgitta Blakstad Nilsson, Pernille Lunde, Haakon Kiil Grøgaard, Inger Holm
Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival rate in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with improvements in the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of 3.5 ml/kg/min or more has been shown to be beneficial in earlier observational studies. Long-term results on VO2peak after CR are rare. The aim of this study was to assess if a 12-week outpatient CR program including high-intensity interval training would preserve or improve VO2peak 15 months after CR entry...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077960/locomotor-training-and-strength-and-balance-exercises-for-walking-recovery-after-stroke-response-to-number-of-training-sessions
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dorian K Rose, Stephen E Nadeau, Samuel S Wu, Julie K Tilson, Bruce H Dobkin, Qinglin Pei, Pamela W Duncan
Background: Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. Design: This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial...
November 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073365/energy-expenditure-during-an-exercise-training-session-for-cardiac-patients
#9
Helena Santa-Clara, Xavier Melo, Romina Willi, Rita Pinto, Vanessa Santos, José P Almeida, Rodrigo Martins, Ron Clijsen, Miguel Mendes, Bo Fernhall
Background Increasing energy expenditure (EE) in cardiac patients remains a challenge. Exercise approaches in cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programs (CR/SP) have consistently resulted in minimal weight loss, due in part to the low exercise-related EE. Purpose To measure the EE among patients participating in a routine exercise session of Phase III maintenance CR/SP where a recreational activity was introduced. Methods Twelve overweight/obese male patients with coronary artery disease (62.6 ± 8...
October 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071072/effect-of-high-flow-nasal-therapy-during-acute-aerobic-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-after-exacerbation-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-trial
#10
Guillaume Prieur, Clement Medrinal, Yann Combret, Aurora Robledo Quesada, Fabrice Prieur, Jean Quieffin, Jean Christian Borel, Gregory Reychler
INTRODUCTION: Early pulmonary rehabilitation is recommended after a severe exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, this is difficult to implement, particularly for exercise training. High-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) may reduce the work of breathing and dyspnoea and may improve exercise tolerance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a single-centre, prospective, controlled, randomised, cross-over study. Eligible patients will have a diagnosis of COPD (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio of <0...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032504/resistance-exercise-improves-cardiac-function-and-mitochondrial-efficiency-in-diabetic-rat-hearts
#11
Tae Hee Ko, Jubert C Marquez, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Seung Hun Jeong, SungRyul Lee, Jae Boum Youm, In Sung Song, Dae Yun Seo, Hye Jin Kim, Du Nam Won, Kyoung Im Cho, Mun Gi Choi, Byoung Doo Rhee, Kyung Soo Ko, Nari Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jin Han
Metabolic disturbance and mitochondrial dysfunction are a hallmark of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Resistance exercise (RE) not only enhances the condition of healthy individuals but could also improve the status of those with disease. However, the beneficial effects of RE in the prevention of DC and mitochondrial dysfunction are uncertain. Therefore, this study investigated whether RE attenuates DC by improving mitochondrial function using an in vivo rat model of diabetes. Fourteen Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were assigned to sedentary control (SC, n = 7) and RE (n = 7) groups at 28 weeks of age...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025560/obesity-and-atrial-fibrillation-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-prognosis-effects-of-weight-loss-and-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Carl J Lavie, Ambarish Pandey, Dennis H Lau, Martin A Alpert, Prashanthan Sanders
Both obesity and atrial fibrillation (AF) are increasing in epidemic proportions, and both increase the prevalence of cardiovascular disease events. Obesity has adverse effects on cardiovascular hemodynamics and cardiac structure and function, and increases the prevalence of AF, partly related to electroanatomic remodeling in obese patients. However, numerous studies, including in AF, have demonstrated an obesity paradox, where overweight and obese patients with these disorders have a better prognosis than do leaner patients with the same degree of severity of cardiovascular disease/AF...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022267/cardiac-fibrosis-the-beneficial-effects-of-exercise-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#13
Jan Kyselovič, John J Leddy
Numerous scientific findings have concluded that individuals who are active tend to develop less cardiovascular disease than those who enjoy more sedentary lifestyles. Animal models have further demonstrated that the beneficial effects of training on the heart effects of training are related to the signaling pathways of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. As such, fibroblasts represent a very important population of cells within the myocardium as they play a crucial role in both cardiac development and response to injury...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022262/myocardial-infarction-and-exercise-training-evidence-from-basic-science
#14
Ivana C Moraes-Silva, Bruno Rodrigues, Hélio J Coelho-Junior, Daniele Jardim Feriani, Maria-Claudia Irigoyen
In 2016, cardiovascular disease remains the first cause of mortality worldwide [1]. Coronary artery disease, which is the most important precursor of myocardial infarction (MI), is the main component of total cardiovascular mortality, being responsible for approximately seven million of deaths [1]. In approximately 20% of infarcted patients, MI is recurrent in the first year after the event [2]. Moreover, among cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease accounts for the most increased index of life years lost due to morbidity and/or mortality [1]...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018408/levels-of-hepatic-activating-transcription-factor-6-and-caspase-3-are-downregulated-in-mice-after-excessive-training
#15
Ana P Pinto, Alisson L da Rocha, Luciana da C Oliveira, Gustavo P Morais, Larissa G de Vicente, Dennys E Cintra, José R Pauli, Leandro P Moura, Eduardo R Ropelle, Adelino S R da Silva
Recently, we demonstrated that different running overtraining (OT) protocols with the same external load, but performed downhill (OTR/down), uphill (OTR/up), and without inclination (OTR), led to hepatic fat accumulation. As the disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is linked to animal models of fatty liver disease, we investigated the effects of these OT models on the proteins related to ER stress (i.e., BiP, inositol-requiring enzyme 1, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, eIF2alpha, ATF6beta, and glucose-regulated protein 94) and apoptosis (C/EBP-homologous protein, Caspase-3, 4, and 12, Bax, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2) in livers of C57BL/6 mice...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993402/exercise-intolerance-in-hfpef-diagnosing-and-ranking-its-causes-using-personalized-o2-pathway-analysis
#16
Nicholas E Houstis, Aaron S Eisman, Paul P Pappagianopoulos, Luke Wooster, Cole S Bailey, Peter D Wagner, Gregory D Lewis
Background -Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common syndrome with a pressing shortage of therapies. Exercise intolerance is a cardinal symptom of HFpEF, yet its pathophysiology remains uncertain. Methods -We investigated the mechanism of exercise intolerance in each of 134 patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET): 79 with HFpEF and 55 controls. We performed CPET with invasive monitoring to measure hemodynamics, blood gases, and gas exchange during exercise. We used these measurements to quantify 6 steps of oxygen transport and utilization (the "O2 pathway") in each HFpEF patient, identifying the defective steps that impair each one's exercise capacity (peak VO2)...
October 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992936/-short-term-exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-induced-changes-in-cardiorespiratory-mechanical-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-progressive-exercise-testing
#17
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, N Jaunet, L Gaillard, A Barnabé, T Porcher, T Weissland
Previous studies showed that changes in peak of oxygen uptake value (VO2peak) with training were poorly related to changes in Maximal Tolerated Power output (MTP) among patients with cardiovascular disease. This result could be due to a difference between cardiopulmonary adaptation to training and the skeletal muscle conditioning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the responses to exercise training of electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis (rms-EMG) and respiratory parameters...
November 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976397/-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-the-elderly-patient
#18
Bahar Boydak
As it is the case globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) make up the most frequent cause of death in Turkey also. Due to this fact, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has gained a highly important role in the treatment of coronary artery diseases. In Turkey, mortality and morbidity rates among the elderly patients are significantly high. Disability due to coronary artery diseases is more frequent in the elderly compared to young patients. So, it is clear that CR has a considerable importance in this special group of patients...
September 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954501/gender-and-age-dependent-differences-in-body-composition-changes-in-response-to-cardiac-rehabilitation-exercise-training-in-patients-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#19
Małgorzata Socha, Krzysztof Wronecki, Krzysztof A Sobiech
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is the standard procedure in persons after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Its basic aim is to combat coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors through physical activity and normalization of body mass. Many authors highlight the differences in response to training in CR as dependent on gender, age and occurrence of accompanying disease. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a three-week early CR in reference to changing body composition parameters in patients over 50 years of age...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948538/the-right-heart-acute-and-chronic-issues
#20
REVIEW
Timothy W Churchill, Aaron L Baggish
Cardiovascular remodeling in response to sustained moderate and high-intensity exercise is a well-established phenomenon. Following more than a century of work focused on the left ventricle (LV), remodeling of the right side of the heart has recently become a topic of considerable scientific and clinical interest. Morphologic and functional changes have now been well documented in the right ventricle (RV) after isolated bouts of endurance exercise and in association with long-term sustained training. Although exercise-induced cardiac remodeling is classically viewed as an adaptive, clinically benign process, it has recently been hypothesized that repetitive bouts of intense exercise may trigger pathologic changes in the RV characterized by patchy fibrosis and a predisposition to arrhythmia...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
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