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Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#1
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614446/-factors-associated-with-tb-hiv-coinfection-evidence-from-notification-data-in-the-state-of-amazonas-brazil-2001-2012
#2
Evela da Silva Magno, Valeria Saraceni, Alexandra Brito de Souza, Regma da Silva Magno, Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva, Samira Bührer-Sékula
Tuberculosis (TB) in persons living with HIV (PLHIV) is the leading infectious cause of AIDS-related death. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection, evaluate notification of the two diseases over time by probabilistic database linkage, and identify factors associated with AIDS and TB notifications. Prevalence of TB/HIV coinfection was 7.7%. The group of PLHIV with subsequent TB diagnosis was the most representative, despite available preventive measures. Underreporting of TB among AIDS cases was 35%, and 19...
June 12, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#3
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591334/-evaluation-of-implementation-of-the-protocol-for-managing-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection-in-specialized-care-services-in-cear%C3%A3-state
#4
Silvia Helena Bastos de Paula, Telma Alves Martins, Sheila Maria Santiago Borges, Christiana Maria de Oliveira Nogueira, Valderina Ramos Freire
Objectives: Identify barriers and strategies for implementation of the protocol for managing tuberculosis/ human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) coinfection in specialized care services in Ceará state, through evaluation research. Methods: The study followed iPIER methodology, a new initiative to help improve the implementation of health programs through the use of research that is conducted as a part of the implementation process. Data were collected on the structure and processes of 22 services and barriers were explored in four focus groups with 28 participants, from the standpoint of the health team, administrators, and users...
May 25, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591330/-access-barriers-to-comprehensive-care-for-people-affected-by-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection-in-peru-2010-2015
#5
Lisset García-Fernández, Carlos Benites, Byelca Huamán
Objective: Identify the programmatic barriers that hinder access to comprehensive care of patients with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) coinfection. Methods: This is a mixed-method study. Qualitative research was conducted via in-depth interviews with key actors and the quantitative component involved cross-sectional descriptive analysis of programmatic data from 2010-2015 on tuberculosis and HIV programs at health facilities in the cities of Lima and Iquitos...
May 25, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575319/translational-research-in-the-nonhuman-primate-model-of-tuberculosis
#6
Taylor W Foreman, Smriti Mehra, Andrew A Lackner, Deepak Kaushal
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis predominantly establishes subclinical latent infection over the lifetime of an individual, with a fraction of infected individuals rapidly progressing to active disease. The immune control in latent infection can be perturbed by comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and coinfection with helminthes or HIV. Modeling the varying aspects of natural infection remains incomplete when using zebrafish and mice. However, the nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis offers a unique and accurate model to investigate host responses to infection, test novel therapeutics, and thoroughly assess preclinical vaccine candidates...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575238/does-disseminated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-cause-false-positive-determine-b-lam-lateral-flow-assay-results-a-retrospective-review
#7
Jeremy S Nel, Christopher K Lippincott, Rebecca Berhanu, David C Spencer, Ian M Sanne, Prudence Ive
We retrospectively reviewed the Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay (LF-LAM) results among HIV-infected patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. LF-LAM was positive in 19/21 patients without evidence of tuberculosis coinfection. Although tuberculosis-NTM coinfection may have been underdiagnosed, our results suggest that disseminated NTM disease may cause false-positive LF-LAM results.
June 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553288/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-is-dependent-on-oxidative-stress-and-reflects-treatment-outcomes
#8
Neesha Rockwood, Diego L Costa, Eduardo P Amaral, Elsa Du Bruyn, Andre Kubler, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Charles A Scanga, JoAnne L Flynn, Sharon H Jackson, Katalin A Wilkinson, William R Bishai, Alan Sher, Robert J Wilkinson, Bruno B Andrade
The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) and has been proposed as a biomarker of active disease. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) induces HO-1 as well as how its expression is affected by HIV-1 coinfection and successful antitubercular therapy (ATT) are poorly understood. We found that HO-1 expression is markedly increased in rabbits, mice, and non-human primates during experimental Mtb infection and gradually decreased during ATT...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536578/expansion-of-cd25-negative-forkhead-box-p3-positive-t-cells-during-hiv-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#9
Matías T Angerami, Guadalupe V Suarez, María B Vecchione, Natalia Laufer, Diego Ameri, Graciela Ben, Hector Perez, Omar Sued, Horacio Salomón, María F Quiroga
Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV alter the immune system, and coinfected (HIV-TB) individuals usually present deregulations of T-lymphocytic immune response. We previously observed an increased frequency of "unconventional" CD4(+)CD25(-)FoxP3(+) Treg (uTreg) population during HIV-TB disease. Therefore, we aimed to explore the phenotype and function of uTreg and conventional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Treg subsets (cTreg) in this context. We evaluated the expression of CD39, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), and the effector/memory distribution by flow cytometry in cTreg and uTreg...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492776/tuberculosis-mortality-in-brazilian-capitals-2008-2010
#10
Roger Flores Ceccon, Rosana Maffacciolli, Andréia Burille, Stela Nazareth Meneghel, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de Oliveira, Tatiana Engel Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the association between tuberculosis mortality and socio-demographics and health indicators in the capitals of Brazilian states and the Federal District. METHODS: this is an ecological study whose outcome was the standardized coefficient of tuberculosis mortality in the 2008-2010 period; the independent variables comprised 16 indicators, grouped into three blocks; Pearson correlation test and multiple linear regression were applied for analysis...
April 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482020/hiv-coinfection-influences-natural-selection-on-myobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Joseph Caspermeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475709/matrix-degradation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-tuberculosis-and-tuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-a-prospective-observational-study
#12
Naomi F Walker, Katalin A Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Liku B Tezera, Rene Goliath, Janique M Peyper, Rebecca Tadokera, Charles Opondo, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Jon S Friedland, Paul T Elkington
Background.: Extensive immunopathology occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. Excessive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity is emerging as a key process but has not been systematically studied in HIV-associated TB. Methods.: We performed a cross-sectional study of matrix turnover in HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and -uninfected TB patients and controls, and a prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected TB patients at risk of TB immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), in Cape Town, South Africa...
May 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438256/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-patients-with-biopsy-proven-acute-interstitial-nephritis-in-cape-town-a-10-year-review%C3%A2
#13
Emmanuel E Effa, Udeme E Ekrikpo, Megan Borkum, Brian L Rayner, Peter Heering, Ikechi G Okpechi
BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury that has not been adequately characterized in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) despite an increasing use of potentially inciting agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis in the region. METHODS: A retrospective audit of records of patients with biopsy-proven AIN diagnosed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town from the 1st of January, 2006, to the 31st of December, 2015...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#14
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
July 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392698/assessment-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-tuberculosis-among-art-patients-in-arba-minch-hospital-ethiopia
#15
Ashenafi Abossie, Tsegaye Yohanes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. METHODS: The study was a hospital-based retrospective study...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383411/patient-characteristics-and-perceived-health-status-of-individuals-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-coinfection-in-guangxi-china
#16
Yujia Zhu, Jizhou Wu, Xue Feng, Huanhuan Chen, Huaxiang Lu, Li Chen, Liuhong Luo, Chao Rui
To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients' social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China.We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N = 150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients' electronic medical records regarding patients' demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and perceived health status...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352474/factors-associated-with-mortality-among-patients-on-tb-treatment-in-the-southern-region-of-zimbabwe-2013
#17
Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Charles Sandy, Nyasha Masuka, Patrick Hazangwe, Regis C Choto, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Brilliant Nkomo, Edwin Sibanda, Owen Mugurungi, Anthony D Harries, Nicholas Siziba
Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46-282)...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331350/risk-factors-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#18
Abdulhalik Workicho, Wondwosen Kassahun, Fessahaye Alemseged
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) did not receive major attention until recently in sub-Saharan Africa where the tuberculosis incidence and risk factors are highest. Factors leading to development of drug resistance need to be understood to develop appropriate control strategies for national programs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for MDR-TB among tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to assess sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors using a structured questionnaire and clinical record reviewing...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323835/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptococcal-genotype-vnic-st5-in-siriraj-hospital-thailand
#19
Chanin Hatthakaroon, Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
Despite the strong association between Cryptococcus neoformans infection and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of patients globally, most cryptococcosis cases in Far East Asia occur in non-HIV individuals. Molecular epidemiological studies, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), have shown that more than 95% of cryptococcal strains belong to a specific subtype of VNI. However, this association has never been specifically examined in other parts of Asia. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the VNIc/ST5 genotype distribution among cryptococcosis patients in Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284256/novel-interferon-gamma-assays-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-young-children-in-india
#20
N Shaikh, A Gupte, S Dharmshale, S Pokkali, M Thakar, V J Upadhye, A A Ordonez, A Kinikar, N Gupte, V Mave, A Kagal, A Gupta, A Lalvani, R Paranjpe, R Bharadwaj, S K Jain
SETTING: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. DESIGN: Children (age 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively screened at a tertiary hospital in Pune, India; the children underwent TST, and standard (early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10) and enhanced (five additional novel antigens) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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