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Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226217/lipid-profile-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#1
Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yemane Amare, Feyissa Challa, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Girmay Medhin, Mistire Wolde, Desta Kassa
Background: Understanding whether the preceding low lipid profile leads to active tuberculosis (TB) or active TB leads to low lipid profile is crucial. Methods: Lipid profile concentrations were determined from 159 study participants composed of 93 active TB patients [44 HIV coinfected (HIV+TB+) and 49 HIV negative (HIV-TB+)], 41 tuberculin skin test (TST) positive cases [17 HIV coinfected (HIV+TST+) and 24 HIV negative (HIV-TST+)], and 25 healthy controls (HIV-TST-)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226216/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-tuberculosis-in-prisons-settings-of-east-gojjam-zone-northwest-ethiopia
#2
Mucheye Gizachew Beza, Emirie Hunegnaw, Moges Tiruneh
Background: Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective: To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187783/the-effect-of-micronutrient-supplementation-on-active-tb-incidence-early-in-hiv-infection-in-botswana
#3
Adriana Campa, Marianna K Baum, Hermann Bussmann, Sabrina Sales Martinez, Mansour Farahani, Erik van Widenfelt, Sikhulile Moyo, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Richard Marlink
Background: Coinfection with active tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death in people living with HIV (PLWH) in Africa. This investigation explores the role of micronutrient supplementation in preventing active TB in PLWH. Methods: A randomized trial of nutritional supplementation was conducted among antiretroviral- naïve (without previous antiretroviral treatment [ART]) HIV-infected people in Botswana between 2004 and 2009. The study had a factorial design with four arms: the selenium (Se) alone arm, the multivitamins (MVT) alone arm that contained vitamin B complex and vitamins C and E, the combined Se+MVT group and the placebo group...
2017: Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177396/-co-infection-by-mycobacterium-fortuitum-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-splenic-abscesses-in-a-patient-with-hiv
#4
Leslie Soto-Arquíñigo, Manuel García-Pareja, Eduardo Gotuzzo-Herencia, Pedro Legua-Leiva, Manuel Sánchez-Herrera
Patients with HIV are susceptible to mycobacterium infection. In the case of fast-growing mycobacteria, the group to which Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) belongs, infections have been described in the skin, lungs, lymph nodes and disseminated disease. We present the case of a 43-year-old male patient with pre-diagnosis of HIV in antiretroviral therapy, which comes as a fever, asthenia, weight loss and chronic diarrhea. Abdominal tomography is performed and hepatosplenomegaly is evidenced with nodular lesions in the spleen...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165514/-disseminated-histoplasmosis-and-hiv-infection-case-series-in-a-peruvian-hospital
#5
Giancarlo Pérez-Lazo, Julio Maquera-Afaray, Christian R Mejia, Raúl Castillo
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. AIM: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141727/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients
#6
Stefan F Weber, Kavitha Saravu, Tom Heller, Rajagopal Kadavigere, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Stephan Gehring, Sabine Bélard, And Pocus Eti Study Group
Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117342/the-south-african-tuberculosis-care-cascade-estimated-losses-and-methodological-challenges
#7
Pren Naidoo, Grant Theron, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Violet N Chihota, Louise Vaughan, Zameer O Brey, Yogan Pillay
Background: While tuberculosis incidence and mortality are declining in South Africa, meeting the goals of the End TB Strategy requires an invigorated programmatic response informed by accurate data. Enumerating the losses at each step in the care cascade enables appropriate targeting of interventions and resources. Methods: We estimated the tuberculosis burden; the number and proportion of individuals with tuberculosis who accessed tests, had tuberculosis diagnosed, initiated treatment, and successfully completed treatment for all tuberculosis cases, for those with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected cases) and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110871/prevalence-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-seropositive-patients-and-their-treatment-outcomes
#8
C K Vidyaraj, A Chitra, S Smita, M Muthuraj, S Govindarajan, B Usharani, S Anbazhagi
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108662/hospital-length-of-stay-and-cost-burden-of-hiv-tuberculosis-and-hiv-tuberculosis-coinfection-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#9
Adeola Falana, Vanessa Akpojiyovwi, Esther Sey, Andika Akpaffiong, Olive Agumbah, Samara Chienye, Jamie Banks, Erin Jones, Kiara K Spooner, Jason L Salemi, Omonike A Olaleye, Sherri D Onyiego, Hamisu M Salihu
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost burden associated with hospital admissions among pregnant women with HIV monoinfection, tuberculosis (TB) monoinfection, or HIV-TB coinfection in the United States. METHODS: Analysis covered the period from 2002-2014 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Relevant ICD-9-CM codes were used to determine HIV and TB status. Costs associated with hospitalization were calculated and adjusted to 2010 dollars using the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052773/a-systemic-review-of-tuberculosis-with-hiv-coinfection-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Jaishree Naidoo, Nasreen Mahomed, Halvani Moodley
The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991491/nanowire-aptasensors-for-electrochemical-detection-of-cell-secreted-cytokines
#11
Ying Liu, Ali Rahimian, Sergiy Krylyuk, Tam Vu, Bruno Crulhas, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Meruyert Imanbekova, Dong-Sik Shin, Albert Davydov, Alexander Revzin
Cytokines are small proteins secreted by immune cells in response to pathogens/infections; therefore, these proteins can be used in diagnosing infectious diseases. For example, release of a cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ from T-cells is used for blood-based diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Our lab has previously developed an atpamer-based electrochemical biosensor for rapid and sensitive detection of IFN-γ. In this study, we explored the use of silicon nanowires (NWs) as a way to create nanostructured electrodes with enhanced sensitivity for IFN-γ...
October 9, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955338/cellular-architecture-of-spinal-granulomas-and-the-immunological-response-in-tuberculosis-patients-coinfected-with-hiv
#12
Debapriya Bhattacharya, Siva Danaviah, Daniel M Muema, Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Prashini Moodley, Thumbi Ndung'u, Gobardhan Das
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and HIV are individually responsible for the most deaths worldwide among all infectious agents, and coinfection with M.tb and HIV is a significant public health challenge in the developing world. Although the lung is the primary target organ for tuberculosis (TB), M.tb can also cause extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) such as in the bones and joints. Treatment of EPTB is much more challenging than treatment of pulmonary TB. The hallmark of the host immune response against TB is the formation of organized structures called granulomas that are infiltrated with immune cells and are rich in cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946393/cell-wall-a-versatile-fountain-of-drug-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
REVIEW
Zubair Shanib Bhat, Muzafar Ahmad Rather, Mubashir Maqbool, Hafiz Ul Lah, Syed Khalid Yousuf, Zahoor Ahmad
Tuberculosis is the leading infectious disease responsible for an estimated one and a half million human deaths each year around the globe. HIV-TB coinfection and rapid increase in the emergence of drug resistant forms of TB is a dangerous scenario. This underlines the urgent need for new drugs with novel mechanism of action. A plethora of literature exist that highlight the importance of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall responsible for its survival, growth, permeability, virulence and resistance to antibiotics...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934422/low-frequency-of-acquired-isoniazid-and-rifampicin-resistance-in-rifampicin-susceptible-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-setting-of-high-hiv-1-infection-and-tuberculosis-coprevalence
#14
Neesha Rockwood, Frederick Sirgel, Elizabeth Streicher, Robin Warren, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson
Background: We estimated the incidence of acquired isoniazid and rifampicin resistance in rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis in a setting of high human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and tuberculosis coprevalence. Methods: GeneXpert MTB/RIF-confirmed patients with rifampicin-susceptible tuberculosis were recruited at antituberculosis treatment initiation in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Liquid culture and adherence assessment were performed at 2 and 5-6 months...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928173/cohort-profile-of-a-study-on-outcomes-related-to-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-uganda-design-methods-and-patient-characteristics-of-the-south-study
#15
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Amrei von Braun, Joseph Musaazi, Daniel Muller, Allan Buzibye, Ursula Gutteck, Lars Henning, Bruno Ledergerber, Natascia Corti, Mohammed Lamorde, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Several factors influence the efficacy of TB treatment by leading to suboptimal drug concentrations and subsequently affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this cohort is to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and TB treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with new pulmonary TB at the integrated TB-HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled into the study and started on first-line anti-TB treatment...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919720/text-messaging-to-decrease-tuberculosis-treatment-attrition-in-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-uganda
#16
Sabine M Hermans, Sawsan Elbireer, Harriet Tibakabikoba, Bas J Hoefman, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: Low tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion rates in sub-Saharan Africa are an important driver of multidrug resistance. Mobile technology-based interventions have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to test the effect of a short-message service (SMS) intervention on loss to follow-up (LFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, all adult, literate, HIV-infected patients with mobile phone access diagnosed with TB between November 2010 and October 2011 in an urban clinic in Uganda were eligible to receive adherence and appointment reminders and educational quizzes during the first 8 weeks of TB treatment...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861087/alanine-mutagenesis-in-the-complementarity-determining-region-3-of-the-mtb-and-hiv-1-peptide-bispecific-t-cell-receptor-beta-chain-affects-ligand-recognition
#17
Chao-Ying Zhou, Rui-Ning Wang, Qian Wen, Wen-Ting He, Shi-Meng Zhang, Xia-Lin Du, Jia-Hui Yang, Li Ma
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV) coinfection presents a special challenge to the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Adoptive transfer of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells against MTB and HIV antigens is a promising approach to treating MTB/HIV coinfected patients whose cellular immunity is obviously disordered. We have previously successfully identified that a bispecific TCR screened out from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a HLA-A*0201(+) healthy individual using the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratype analysis recognizes both MTB Ag85B199-207 and HIV-1 Env120-128 peptide...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829824/a-syndemic-approach-to-assess-the-effect-of-substance-use-and-social-disparities-on-the-evolution-of-hiv-hcv-infections-in-british-columbia
#18
Zahid Ahmad Butt, Nabin Shrestha, Stanley Wong, Margot Kuo, Dionne Gesink, Mark Gilbert, Jason Wong, Amanda Yu, Maria Alvarez, Hasina Samji, Jane A Buxton, James C Johnston, Victoria J Cook, David Roth, Theodora Consolacion, Michelle Murti, Travis S Hottes, Gina Ogilvie, Robert Balshaw, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden, Naveed Z Janjua
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of social conditions and infections may affect HIV/HCV disease risk and progression. We examined the changes in relationship of these social conditions and infections on HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections over time in British Columbia during 1990-2013. METHODS: The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ~1.5 million individuals tested for HIV or HCV, or reported as a case of HCV, HIV, HBV, or tuberculosis linked to administrative healthcare databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794177/discovery-and-validation-of-a-six-marker-serum-protein-signature-for-the-diagnosis-of-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Mary A De Groote, David G Sterling, Thomas Hraha, Theresa M Russell, Louis S Green, Kirsten Wall, Stephan Kraemer, Rachel Ostroff, Nebojsa Janjic, Urs A Ochsner
New non-sputum biomarker tests for active tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are of the highest priority for global TB control. We performed in-depth proteomic analysis using the 4,000-plex SOMAscan assay on 1,470 serum samples from seven countries where TB is endemic. All samples were from patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of active pulmonary TB that were systematically confirmed or ruled out for TB by culture and clinical follow-up. HIV coinfection was present in 34% of samples, and 25% were sputum smear negative...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760884/hiv-1-infection-is-associated-with-depletion-and-functional-impairment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-cd4-t-cells-in-individuals-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#20
Cheryl L Day, Deborah A Abrahams, Levelle D Harris, Michele van Rooyen, Lynnett Stone, Marwou de Kock, Willem A Hanekom
Coinfection with HIV is the single greatest risk factor for reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progression to active tuberculosis disease. HIV-associated dysregulation of adaptive immunity by depletion of CD4 Th cells most likely contributes to loss of immune control of LTBI in HIV-infected individuals, although the precise mechanisms whereby HIV infection impedes successful T cell-mediated control of M. tuberculosis have not been well defined. To further delineate mechanisms whereby HIV impairs protective immunity to M...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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