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Mitochondria AND aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237318/strokes-are-possible-complications-of-cannabinoids-use
#1
REVIEW
Valérie Wolff, Emilie Jouanjus
It is critically important to identify all factors that may play a role in the recent increase of the incidence of stroke among the young population. Considering the worldwide use of cannabinoids (cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids), the recent legalization of their consumption in some countries, and their supposed involvement in cardiovascular events, we evaluated their role in the occurrence of neurovascular complications among the young. Ninety-eight patients were described in the literature as having a cannabinoids-related stroke (85 after cannabis use and 13 after synthetic cannabinoids)...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237103/automated-analysis-of-fluorescence-colocalization-application-to-mitophagy
#2
A Sauvat, H Zhou, M Leduc, L C Gomes-da-Silva, L Bezu, K Müller, S Forveille, P Liu, L Zhao, G Kroemer, O Kepp
Mitophagy is a peculiar form of organelle-specific autophagy that targets mitochondria. This process ensures cellular homeostasis, as it fosters the disposal of aged and damaged mitochondria that otherwise would be prone to produce reactive oxygen species and hence endanger genomic stability. Similarly, autophagic clearance of depolarized mitochondria plays a fundamental role in organismal homeostasis as exemplified by the link between Parkinson disease and impaired function of the mitophagy-mediating proteins PINK1 and Parkin...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237102/cytofluorometric-assessment-of-mitophagic-flux-in-mammalian-cells-and-tissues
#3
L Esteban-Martinez, B Villarejo-Zori, P Boya
Mitophagy is the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria inside lysosomes and is the only mechanism capable of eliminating whole mitochondria that are either damaged or no longer required. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common hallmark in many pathological conditions and has been implicated in cellular damage in aged tissues. The limited availability of mitophagy research methods underscores the need for more robust, quantitative, and objective tools in order to better understand this process. Here we describe a flow cytometry-based method using MitoTracker Deep Red for mitophagy assessment that can be applied to cells and tissues...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235551/mitophagy-in-neurodegeneration-and-aging
#4
REVIEW
Elayne M Fivenson, Sofie Lautrup, Nuo Sun, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Tinna V Stevnsner, Hilde Nilsen, Vilhelm A Bohr, Evandro F Fang
Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to normal aging and a wide spectrum of age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. It is important to maintain a healthy mitochondrial population which is tightly regulated by proteolysis and mitophagy. Mitophagy is a specialized form of autophagy that regulates the turnover of damaged and dysfunctional mitochondria, organelles that function in producing energy for the cell in the form of ATP and regulating energy homeostasis...
February 21, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231026/late-administration-of-a-palladium-lipoic-acid-complex-poly-mva-modifies-cardiac-mitochondria-but-not-functional-or-structural-manifestations-of-radiation-induced-heart-disease-in-a-rat-model
#5
Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, John W Seawright, Francis J Antonawich, Merrill Garnett, Maohua Cao, Preeti Singh, Marjan Boerma
Exposure of the heart to ionizing radiation can cause adverse myocardial remodeling. In small animal models, local heart irradiation causes persistent alterations in cardiac mitochondrial function and swelling. POLY-MVA is a dietary supplement that contains a palladium lipoic acid complex that targets mitochondrial complex I and has been demonstrated to have greater redox potential than lipoic acid alone. POLY-MVA improves mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant enzyme activity in the aged rat heart. In this study, we tested whether POLY-MVA can mitigate cardiac effects of ionizing radiation...
February 23, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229407/assessment-of-energy-metabolic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#6
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Martin C Harmsen
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. By definition, the phenotype ADSCs, e.g., the ubiquitous secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix components is not met in vivo, which renders ADSC a culture "artefact." The medium constituents therefore impact the efficacy of ADSC. Little attention has been paid to the energy source in medium, i.e., glucose, which feeds the cell's power plants: mitochondria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223472/overexpression-of-sarcoendoplasmic-reticulum-calcium-atpase-2a-promotes-cardiac-sympathetic-neurotransmission-via-abnormal-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-ca-2-regulation
#7
Julia Shanks, Neil Herring, Errin Johnson, Kun Liu, Dan Li, David J Paterson
Reduced cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction coupling and downregulation of the SERCA2a (sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a) is associated with heart failure. This has led to viral transgene upregulation of SERCA2a in cardiomyocytes as a treatment. We hypothesized that SERCA2a gene therapy expressed under a similar promiscuous cytomegalovirus promoter could also affect the cardiac sympathetic neural axis and promote sympathoexcitation. Stellate neurons were isolated from 90 to 120 g male, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, and spontaneously hypertensive rats...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219828/treating-cognitive-impairment-with-transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy
#8
Jack C de la Torre
This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218653/proteomic-analysis-of-mitochondria-enriched-fraction-isolated-from-the-frontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-treated-with-alda-1-an-activator-of-mitochondrial-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-aldh2
#9
Aneta Stachowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Głombik, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, Dariusz Adamek, Ryszard Korbut
The role of different genotypes of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is widely recognized. It has been shown that altered functioning of apoE may promote 4-hydroxynonenal modification of mitochondrial proteins, which may result in mitochondrial dysfunction, aggravation of oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is an enzyme considered to perform protective function in mitochondria by the detoxification of the end products of lipid peroxidation, such as 4-hydroxynonenal and other reactive aldehydes...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217839/targeting-the-sasp-to-combat-ageing-mitochondria-as-possible-intracellular-allies
#10
Jodie Birch, João F Passos
Anti-senescence therapies, such as drugs that specifically kill senescent cells, to stave off ageing are currently under investigation. While these interventions show promise, their potential pitfalls are discussed herein. We have shown that the mitochondria are essential for development of senescence and many of the associated phenotypes, including the often detrimental senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here, we disentangle many ways in which the mitochondria may influence senescence and development of the SASP and focus on possible pathways that could be exploited for future generation of anti-senescence therapies with a clear aim; to specifically eliminate the problematic features of senescent cells, while maintaining their beneficial characteristics...
February 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212984/hiv-1-vpr-disrupts-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-accelerates-neuronal-aging
#11
Ying Wang, Maryline Santerre, Italo Tempera, Kayla Martin, Ruma Mukerjee, Bassel E Sawaya
Disruption of mitochondria axonal transport, essential for the maintenance of synaptic and neuronal integrity and function, has been identified in neurodegenerative diseases. Whether HIV-1 viral proteins affect mitochondria axonal transport is unknown, albeit HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders occur in around half of the patients living with HIV. Therefore, we sought to examine the effect of HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) on mitochondria axonal transport. Using mice primary neuronal cultures, we demonstrated that 4-day Vpr treatment reduced the ratio of moving mitochondria associated with (i) less energy (ATP) supply, (ii) reduction in Miro-1 and (iii) increase of α-synuclein which led to loss of microtubule stability as demonstrated by inconsecutive distribution of acetylated α-tubulin along the axons...
February 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209927/improved-health-span-and-lifespan-in-mtdna-mutator-mice-treated-with-the-mitochondrially-targeted-antioxidant-skq1
#12
Irina G Shabalina, Mikhail Yu Vyssokikh, Natalia Gibanova, Robert I Csikasz, Daniel Edgar, Anne Hallden-Waldemarson, Zinaida Rozhdestvenskaya, Lora E Bakeeva, Valeria B Vays, Antonina V Pustovidko, Maxim V Skulachev, Barbara Cannon, Vladimir P Skulachev, Jan Nedergaard
MtDNA mutator mice exhibit marked features of premature aging. We find that these mice treated from age of ≈100 days with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 showed a delayed appearance of traits of aging such as kyphosis, alopecia, lowering of body temperature, body weight loss, as well as ameliorated heart, kidney and liver pathologies. These effects of SkQ1 are suggested to be related to an alleviation of the effects of an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in mtDNA mutator mice: the increased mitochondrial ROS released due to mitochondrial mutations probably interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiolipin, releasing malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal that form protein adducts and thus diminishes mitochondrial functions...
February 15, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202127/-role-of-mitophagy-in-neonatal-rats-with-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-damage
#13
Ming-Xi Li, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate mitophagy in an animal model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and its role in HIBD. METHODS: A total of 120 neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 days were divided into three groups: sham-operation, HIBD, and autophagy inhibitor intervention (3MA group). The rats in the HIBD group were treated with right common carotid artery ligation and then put in a hypoxic chamber (8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen) for 2.5 hours. Those in the 3MA group were given ligation and hypoxic treatment at 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of 2 μL 3MA...
February 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194828/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-ovarian-aging
#14
Tianren Wang, Man Zhang, Zongliang Jiang, Emre Seli
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are responsible for the generation of most of the cell's energy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in cellular senescence in general and ovarian aging in particular. Recent studies exploited this association by studying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as a potential biomarker of embryo viability and the use of mitochondrial nutrients and autologous mitochondrial transfer as a potential treatment for poor ovarian function and response.
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192232/real-time-quantification-of-subcellular-h2o2-and-glutathione-redox-potential-in-living-cardiovascular-tissues
#15
Emiliano Panieri, Carlo Millia, Massimo M Santoro
Detecting and measuring the dynamic redox events that occur in vivo is a prerequisite for understanding the impact of oxidants and redox events in normal and pathological conditions. These aspects are particularly relevant in cardiovascular tissues wherein alterations of the redox balance are associated with stroke, aging, and pharmacological intervention. An ambiguous aspect of redox biology is how redox events occur in subcellular organelles including mitochondria, and nuclei. Genetically-encoded Rogfp2 fluorescent probes have become powerful tools for real-time detection of redox events...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188904/exposure-to-cadmium-during-in-vitro-maturation-at-environmental-nanomolar-levels-impairs-oocyte-fertilization-through-oxidative-damage-a-large-animal-model-study
#16
N A Martino, G Marzano, M Mangiacotti, O Miedico, A M Sardanelli, A Gnoni, G M Lacalandra, A E Chiaravalle, E Ciani, L Bogliolo, F Minervini, F Pizzi, M E Dell'Aquila
Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal with negative effects on oocyte fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse whether cadmium-induced impairment of fertilization is caused by mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). Preliminarily, 19 trace element levels were measured in ovaries from juvenile and adult ewes and age-related cadmium ovarian bioaccumulation at nanomolar concentrations was found. COCs from juvenile and adult ewes, exposed during in vitro maturation to 1nM or 100nM CdCl2, and subjected to in vitro fertilization showed significantly lower fertilization rates in exposed COCs compared with controls...
February 7, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188102/mitochondrial-dynamics-coupling-mitochondrial-fitness-with-healthy-aging
#17
REVIEW
David Sebastián, Manuel Palacín, Antonio Zorzano
Aging is associated with a decline in mitochondrial function and the accumulation of abnormal mitochondria. However, the precise mechanisms by which aging promotes these mitochondrial alterations and the role of the latter in aging are still not fully understood. Mitochondrial dynamics is a key process regulating mitochondrial function and quality. Altered expression of some mitochondrial dynamics proteins has been recently associated with aging and with age-related alterations in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans, mice, and humans...
March 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185435/evidence-that-a-mitochondrial-death-spiral-underlies-antagonistic-pleiotropy
#18
REVIEW
Michael Stern
The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory posits that aging occurs because alleles that are detrimental in older organisms are beneficial to growth early in life and thus are maintained in populations. Although genes of the insulin signaling pathway likely participate in AP, the insulin-regulated cellular correlates of AP have not been identified. The mitochondrial quality control process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is inhibited by insulin signaling, might represent a cellular correlate of AP...
February 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179130/mitochondrial-function-in-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-does-it-matter
#19
Anne Katrine Toft-Kehler, Dorte Marie Skytt, Alicia Svare, Evy Lefevere, Inge Van Hove, Lieve Moons, Helle S Waagepetersen, Miriam Kolko
Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction might play a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative inner retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Therefore, the present review provides a perspective on the impact of functional mitochondria in the most predominant glial cells of the retina, the Müller cells. Müller cells span the entire thickness of the neuroretina and are in close proximity to retinal cells including the retinal neurons that provides visual signaling to the brain...
February 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178240/c-elegans-neurons-jettison-protein-aggregates-and-mitochondria-under-neurotoxic-stress
#20
Ilija Melentijevic, Marton L Toth, Meghan L Arnold, Ryan J Guasp, Girish Harinath, Ken C Nguyen, Daniel Taub, J Alex Parker, Christian Neri, Christopher V Gabel, David H Hall, Monica Driscoll
The toxicity of misfolded proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction are pivotal factors that promote age-associated functional neuronal decline and neurodegenerative disease. Accordingly, neurons invest considerable cellular resources in chaperones, protein degradation, autophagy and mitophagy to maintain proteostasis and mitochondrial quality. Complicating the challenges of neuroprotection, misfolded human disease proteins and mitochondria can move into neighbouring cells via unknown mechanisms, which may promote pathological spread...
February 8, 2017: Nature
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