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Mitochondria AND aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474864/a-crucial-role-of-rock-for-alleviation-of-senescence-associated-phenotype
#1
Joon Tae Park, Hyun Tae Kang, Chi Hyun Park, Young-Sam Lee, Kyung A Cho, Sang Chul Park
In our previous study, we uncovered a novel mechanism in which amelioration of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) phenotype is mediated by mitochondrial functional recovery upon rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether this mechanism is also applied to the amelioration of normal aging cells. In this study, we used Y-27632 and fasudil as effective ROCK inhibitors, and examined their role in senescence. We found that ROCK inhibition induced the functional recovery of the mitochondria as well as the metabolic reprogramming, which are two salient features that are altered in normal aging cells...
February 20, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468564/early-presymptomatic-changes-in-the-proteome-of-mitochondria-associated-membrane-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Katalin Völgyi, Kata Badics, Fernando J Sialana, Péter Gulyássy, Edina Brigitta Udvari, Viktor Kis, László Drahos, Gert Lubec, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi, Gábor Juhász
Intracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. Recently, it has been uncovered that presenilins (PSs), the key components of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the β-amyloid producing γ-secretase complex, are highly enriched in a special sub-compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functionally connected to mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). A current hypothesis of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD) suggests that MAM is involved in the initial phase of AD...
February 22, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467464/loss-of-the-drosophila-m-aaa-mitochondrial-protease-paraplegin-results-in-mitochondrial-dysfunction-shortened-lifespan-and-neuronal-and-muscular-degeneration
#3
Gautam Pareek, Ruth E Thomas, Leo J Pallanck
The progressive accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is implicated in aging and in common diseases of the elderly. To oppose this occurrence, organisms employ a variety of strategies, including the selective degradation of oxidatively damaged and misfolded mitochondrial proteins. Genetic studies in yeast indicate that the ATPase Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA+ ) family of mitochondrial proteases account for a substantial fraction of this protein degradation, but their metazoan counterparts have been little studied, despite the fact that mutations in the genes encoding these proteases cause a variety of human diseases...
February 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466320/dynamin-related-protein-1-at-the-crossroads-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Ana Rita Lima, Liliana Santos, Marcelo Correia, Paula Soares, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Miguel Melo, Valdemar Máximo
Mitochondrial dynamics are known to have an important role in so-called age-related diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria is an organelle involved in many key cellular functions and responds to physiologic or stress stimuli by adapting its structure and function. Perhaps the most important structural changes involve mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion), which occur in normal cells as well as in cells under dysregulation, such as cancer cells. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a member of the dynamin family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), is the key component of mitochondrial fission machinery...
February 21, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463847/small-vessel-vasculopathy-due-to-aberrant-autophagy-in-lamp-2-deficiency
#5
Huan T Nguyen, Satoru Noguchi, Kazuma Sugie, Yoshiyuki Matsuo, Chuyen T H Nguyen, Hitoshi Koito, Ichiro Shiojima, Ichizo Nishino, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi
Lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) is physiologically implicated in autophagy. A genetic LAMP2 defect causes Danon disease, which consists of two major phenotypes of myopathy and cardiomyopathy. In addition, arteriopathy may manifest on rare occasions but the pathological basis remains unknown. We encountered two Danon families that developed small-vessel vasculopathy in the coronary or cerebral arteries. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we characterized the biological features of LAMP-2-deficient mice and cultured cells...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459894/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-aging-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cellular-bioenergetics
#6
REVIEW
Daniel C Zank, Marta Bueno, Ana L Mora, Mauricio Rojas
At present, the etiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains elusive. Over the past two decades, however, researchers have identified and described the underlying processes that result in metabolic dysregulation, metabolic reprogramming, and mitochondrial dysfunction observed in the cells of IPF lungs. Metabolic changes and mitochondrial dysfunction in IPF include decreased efficiency of electron transport chain function with increasing production of reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial biogenesis, and impaired mitochondrial macroautophagy, a key pathway for the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459695/light-action-spectrum-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-a2e-loaded-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells
#7
Mélanie Marie, Karine Bigot, Claire Angebault, Coralie Barrau, Pauline Gondouin, Delphine Pagan, Stéphane Fouquet, Thierry Villette, José-Alain Sahel, Guy Lenaers, Serge Picaud
AIMS: Blue light is an identified risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial changes in A2E-loaded retinal pigment epithelium cells under the blue-green part of the solar spectrum that reaches the retina to better understand the mechanisms underlying light-elicited toxicity. RESULTS: Primary retinal pigment epithelium cells were loaded with a retinal photosensitizer, AE2, to mimic aging. Using a custom-made illumination device that delivers 10 nm-wide light bands, we demonstrated that A2E-loaded RPE cells generated high levels of both hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and superoxide anion (O2 •- ) when exposed to blue-violet light...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451807/coenzyme-q-10-from-bench-to-clinic-in-aging-diseases-a-translational-review
#8
Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Elena M Yubero-Serrano, Jose M Villalba, Jose Lopez-Miranda
Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) is a ubiquitous molecule present in all eukaryotic organisms whose principal role in the cell is related to its participation in the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. CoQ 10 plays a major role in the control of cell redox status, and both the amount and functionality of this molecule have been related to the regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. Numerous reports can be found discussing the implications of CoQ 10 supplementation in human studies and clinical trials related to aging...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445135/alteration-in-nerves-and-neurotransmitter-stimulation-of-lacrimal-gland-secretion-in-the-tsp-1-mouse-model-of-aqueous-deficiency-dry-eye
#9
Sumit Bhattacharya, Laura García-Posadas, Robin R Hodges, Helen P Makarenkova, Sharmila Masli, Darlene A Dartt
The purpose of this study is to determine neural, vascular, protein secretion, and cellular signaling changes with disease progression in lacrimal glands of the thrombospondin-1 -/- (TSP-1 -/- ) mouse model of dry eye compared to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Neural innervation was reduced in TSP-1 -/- lacrimal glands compared to WT controls, whereas the number of blood vessels was increased. Intracellular Ca 2+ stores and the amount of lysosomes, mitochondria, and secretory granules, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, were reduced in TSP-1 -/- compared to WT acini at 12 weeks of age...
February 14, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438851/redox-responses-are-preserved-across-muscle-fibres-with-differential-susceptibility-to-aging
#10
Neil T Smith, Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall, Malcolm J Jackson, Brian McDonagh
Age-related loss of muscle mass and function is associated with increased frailty and loss of independence. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of different muscle types to age-related atrophy are not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognised as important signalling molecules in healthy muscle and redox sensitive proteins can respond to intracellular changes in ROS concentrations modifying reactive thiol groups on Cysteine (Cys) residues. Conserved Cys residues tend to occur in functionally important locations and can have a direct impact on protein function through modifications at the active site or determining protein conformation...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435782/insulin-resistance-in-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-linking-carbohydrates-and-mitochondria
#11
Alessandro Rossi, Margherita Ruoppolo, Pietro Formisano, Guglielmo Villani, Lucia Albano, Giovanna Gallo, Daniela Crisci, Augusta Moccia, Giancarlo Parenti, Pietro Strisciuglio, Daniela Melis
BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism caused by mutations of either the G6PC gene (GSDIa) or the SLC37A4 gene (GSDIb). GSDIa patients are at higher risk of developing insulin-resistance (IR). Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development of IR. Mitochondrial dysfunction can demonstrate abnormalities in plama acylcarnitines (ACs) and urine organic acids (UOA). The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of mitochondrial impairment in GSDI patients and its possible connection with IR...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434802/an-investigation-of-the-mechanism-of-dexmedetomidine-in-improving-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-from-the-perspectives-of-alleviating-neuronal-mitochondrial-membrane-oxidative-stress-and-electrophysiological-dysfunction
#12
Jie Chen, Na Shen, Xiaohui Duan, Yaning Guo
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of dexmedetomidine in improving postoperative cognitive dysfunction from the perspectives of alleviating neuronal mitochondrial membrane oxidative stress and electrophysiological dysfunction. A total of 120 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia from June 2013 to May, 2016 were selected as the subjects of the study and randomly divided into the propofol + remifentanil and dexmedetomidine groups. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were performed at day 1 before operation and at day 1, 3, 5 and 15 after operation...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431119/hypermetabolic-macrophages-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-coronary-artery-disease-due-to-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3b-inactivation
#13
Markus Zeisbrich, Rolando E Yanes, Hui Zhang, Ryu Watanabe, Yinyin Li, Lukas Brosig, Jison Hong, Barbara B Wallis, John C Giacomini, Themistocles L Assimes, Jörg J Goronzy, Cornelia M Weyand
OBJECTIVES: Accelerated atherosclerotic disease typically complicates rheumatoid arthritis (RA), leading to premature cardiovascular death. Inflammatory macrophages are key effector cells in both rheumatoid synovitis and the plaques of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether both diseases share macrophage-dependent pathogenic mechanisms is unknown. METHODS: Patients with RA or CAD (at least one myocardial infarction) and healthy age-matched controls were recruited into the study...
February 3, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427371/cause-or-compensation-altered-neuronal-ca2-handling-in-huntington-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
James P Mackay, Wissam B Nassrallah, Lynn A Raymond
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder of typically middle-aged onset for which there is no disease-modifying treatment. Caudate and putamen medium-sized spiny projection neurons (SPNs) most severely degenerate in HD. However, it is unclear why mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) is preferentially toxic to these neurons or why symptoms manifest only relatively late in life. mHTT interacts with numerous neuronal proteins. Likewise, multiple SPN cellular processes have been described as altered in various HD models...
February 9, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427086/brain-metabolic-dna-in-rat-cytoplasm
#15
Antonio Giuditta, Bruno Rutigliano
Brain metabolic DNA (BMD) is not involved in cell division or DNA repair but is modulated by memory acquisition, sleep processing, and circadian oscillations. Using routine methods of subcellular fractionation, newly synthesized BMD from male rats is shown to be localized in crude nuclear, mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions and in two fractions of purified nuclei. Sub-fractionation of the mitochondrial fraction indicates the prevalent localization of BMD in free mitochondria and to a lesser degree in synaptosomes and myelin...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426000/d-galactose-induces-premature-senescence-of-lens-epithelial-cells-by-disturbing-autophagy-flux-and-mitochondrial-functions
#16
Yao Xu, Yong Li, Limei Ma, Guang Xin, Zeliang Wei, Zhi Zeng, Zhihua Xing, Shiyi Li, Hai Niu, Wen Huang
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness with an estimated 16 million people affected worldwide. d-Galactose (d-gal) is a reducing sugar that widely distributed in foodstuffs, and studies show that d-gal could promote cataract formation by damaging nature lens epithelial cells (LECs). However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In our present study, d-gal resulted in premature senescence of LECs, which was confirmed by determining the β-galactosidase activity, cell proliferative potential and cell cycle distribution, though apoptosis of LECs was not observed...
February 6, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425508/%C3%AE-aminoisobutyric-acid-l-baiba-is-a-muscle-derived-osteocyte-survival-factor
#17
Yukiko Kitase, Julian A Vallejo, William Gutheil, Harika Vemula, Katharina Jähn, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Marco Brotto, Lynda F Bonewald
Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolism and on tissues. The exercise-induced muscle factor β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) plays a critical role in the browning of white fat and in insulin resistance. Here we show another function for BAIBA, that of a bone-protective factor that prevents osteocyte cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). l-BAIBA was as or more protective than estrogen or N-acetyl cysteine, signaling through the Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Type D (MRGPRD) to prevent the breakdown of mitochondria due to ROS...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421168/associations-of-urinary-phthalate-metabolites-and-lipid-peroxidation-with-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-deletions
#18
Alexandra M Huffman, Haotian Wu, Allyson Rosati, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, Brian W Whitcomb, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Phthalates, a chemical class of plasticizers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and DNA deletions (mtDNAdel) are emerging biomarkers for cellular oxidative stress and environment exposures. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations on sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel in male partners undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART)...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418047/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-the-female-germline-implications-to-fertility-and-inheritance-of-mitochondrial-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto Chiaratti, Bruna Martins Garcia, Karen Freire Carvalho, Thiago Simões Machado, Fernanda Karina Silva da Ribeiro, Carolina Habermann Macabelli
Mitochondria play a fundamental role during development of the female germline. They are fragmented, round and small. Despite these characteristics suggesting that they are inactive, there is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunctions are a major cause of infertility and generation of aneuploidies in humans. In addition, mitochondria and their own genomes (mitochondrial DNA - mtDNA) may become damaged with time, which might be one reason why aging leads to infertility. As a result, mitochondria have been proposed as an important target for evaluating oocyte and embryo quality, and developing treatments for female infertility...
February 8, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415254/potential-relationship-between-the-biological-effects-of-low-dose-irradiation-and-mitochondrial-ros-production
#20
Kasumi Kawamura, Fei Qi, Junya Kobayashi
Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) induces various types of DNA damage, of which DNA double-strand breaks are the most severe, leading to genomic instability, tumorigenesis, and cell death. Hence, cells have developed DNA damage responses and repair mechanisms. IR also causes the accumulation of endogenous reactive oxidative species (ROS) in the irradiated cells. Upon exposure to low-dose irradiation, the IR-induced biological effects mediated by ROS were relatively more significant than those mediated by DNA damage...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
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