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Mitochondria AND aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689356/effects-of-polysaccharides-from-inonotus-obliquus-and-its-chromium-iii-complex-on-advanced-glycation-end-products-formation-%C3%AE-amylase-%C3%AE-glucosidase-activity-and-h-2-o-2-induced-oxidative-damage-in-hepatic-l02-cells
#1
Cong Wang, Xudong Gao, Ramesh Kumar Santhanam, Zhongqin Chen, Yue Chen, Leilei Xu, Chunli Wang, Nicola Ferri, Haixia Chen
In the present study, the antioxidant activity, anti-glycation activity, α-amylase, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (UIOPS) and its chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) were investigated. Their protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells were also assessed. Results demonstrated that UIOPC and UIOPS exhibited remarkable DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power and hemolysis inhibitory activity. UIOPC also showed significant inhibitory capacity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase than UIOPS (P < 0...
April 21, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683090/effects-of-aging-in-the-striatum-and-substantia-nigra-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-animal-model
#2
Rodrigo Portes Ureshino, Angelica Jardim Costa, Adolfo Garcia Erustes, Gustavo José da Silva Pereira, Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Soraya Soubhi Smaili
Aging is a multifactorial process associated with functional deficits, and the brain is more prone to developing chronic degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Several groups have tried to correlate the age-related ultrastructural alterations to the neurodegeneration process using in vivo pharmacological models, but due to the limitations of the animal models, particularly in aged animals, the results are difficult to interpret. In this work, we investigated neurodegeneration induced by rotenone, as a pharmacological model of Parkinson's disease, in both young and aged Wistar rats...
April 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673117/mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-is-associated-with-risk-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-chinese-population
#3
Lihua Wang, Hong Lv, Pei Ji, Xun Zhu, Hua Yuan, Guangfu Jin, Juncheng Dai, Zhibin Hu, Yuxiong Su, Hongxia Ma
Mitochondria show the special role in cellular bioenergy and many essential physiological activities. Previous researches have suggested that variations of mitochondrial DNA copy number contribute to development of different types of carcinomas. However, the relationship of mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) with the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is still inconclusive. We investigated the association of mtDNA with HNSCC risk through a case-control study including 570 HNSCC cases and 597 cancer-free controls...
April 19, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670212/mitochondrial-dna-variation-and-the-pathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis-phenotypes
#4
REVIEW
Francisco J Blanco, Ana M Valdes, Ignacio Rego-Pérez
Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation are now recognized as important factors in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Mitochondria are the energy powerhouses of the cell, and also regulate different processes involved in the pathogenesis of OA including inflammation, apoptosis, calcium metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Mitochondria contain their own genetic material, mtDNA, which evolved through the sequential accumulation of mtDNA variants to enable humans to adapt to different climates...
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665018/differential-response-of-human-dermal-fibroblast-subpopulations-to-visible-and-near-infrared-light-potential-of-photobiomodulation-for-addressing-cutaneous-conditions
#5
Charles Mignon, Natallia E Uzunbajakava, Irene Castellano-Pellicena, Natalia V Botchkareva, Desmond J Tobin
BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: The past decade has witnessed a rapid expansion of photobiomodulation (PBM), demonstrating encouraging results for the treatment of cutaneous disorders. Confidence in this approach, however, is impaired not only by a lack of understanding of the light-triggered molecular cascades but also by the significant inconsistency in published experimental outcomes, design of the studies and applied optical parameters. This study aimed at characterizing the response of human dermal fibroblast subpopulations to visible and near-infrared (NIR) light in an attempt to identify the optical treatment parameters with high potential to address deficits in aging skin and non-healing chronic wounds...
April 17, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662634/caloric-restriction-delays-yeast-chronological-aging-by-remodeling-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolism-altering-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-functionalities-and-postponing-the-onsets-of-apoptotic-and-liponecrotic-modes-of-regulated-cell-death
#6
Anthony Arlia-Ciommo, Anna Leonov, Adam Beach, Vincent R Richard, Simon D Bourque, Michelle T Burstein, Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Olivia Koupaki, Rachel Feldman, Vladimir I Titorenko
A dietary regimen of caloric restriction delays aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we assessed how caloric restriction influences morphological, biochemical and cell biological properties of chronologically aging yeast advancing through different stages of the aging process. Our findings revealed that this low-calorie diet slows yeast chronological aging by mechanisms that coordinate the spatiotemporal dynamics of various cellular processes before entry into a non-proliferative state and after such entry...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661839/targeting-mitochondria-in-age-related-vascular-changes-a-new-arrow-to-the-bow-of-antioxidant-treatment
#7
EDITORIAL
Stefano Masi, Agostino Virdis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661838/chronic-supplementation-with-a-mitochondrial-antioxidant-mitoq-improves-vascular-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Matthew J Rossman, Jessica R Santos-Parker, Chelsea A C Steward, Nina Z Bispham, Lauren M Cuevas, Hannah L Rosenberg, Kayla A Woodward, Michel Chonchol, Rachel A Gioscia-Ryan, Michael P Murphy, Douglas R Seals
Excess reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria is a key mechanism of age-related vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that supplementation with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ improves vascular endothelial function by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ameliorates arterial stiffening in old mice, but the effects in humans are unknown. Here, we sought to translate our preclinical findings to humans and determine the safety and efficacy of MitoQ. Twenty healthy older adults (60-79 years) with impaired endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation <6%) underwent 6 weeks of oral supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg/d) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design study...
April 16, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660306/ablation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-attenuates-aging-induced-myocardial-remodeling-and-contractile-dysfunction-through-ncori-hdac1-mediated-regulation-of-autophagy
#9
Shuyi Wang, Wei Ge, Carrie Harns, Xianzhong Meng, Yingmei Zhang, Jun Ren
Aging is usually accompanied with overt structural and functional changes as well as suppressed autophagy in the heart although the precise regulatory mechanisms are somewhat unknown. Here we evaluated the role of the innate proinflammatory mediator toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in cardiac aging and the underlying mechanism with a focus on autophagy. Cardiac geometry and function were monitored in young or old wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (TLR4-/- ) mice using echocardiography, IonOptix® edge-detection and fura-2 techniques...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660116/a-novel-histochemistry-assay-to-assess-and-quantify-focal-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#10
Marie-Lune Simard, Arnaud Mourier, Laura C Greaves, Robert W Taylor, James B Stewart
Defects in the respiratory chain, interfering with energy production in the cell, are major underlying causes of mitochondrial diseases. In spite of this, the surprising variety of clinical symptoms, disparity between ages of onset as well as the involvement of mitochondrial impairment in ageing and age-related diseases, continues to challenge our understanding of the pathogenic processes. This complexity can be in part attributed to the unique metabolic needs of organs or of various cell types. In this view, it remains essential to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656500/mitochondria-glycogen-and-lipid-droplets-in-skeletal-muscle-during-testosterone-treatment-and-strength-training-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
R C Jensen, L L Christensen, J Nielsen, H D Schrøder, T Kvorning, K Gejl, K Højlund, D Glintborg, M Andersen
Low testosterone levels in aging men are associated with insulin resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in glycogen metabolism, and lipid accumulation are linked to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of six-month testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) and strength training (ST) on mitochondrial, glycogen, and lipid droplet (LD) content in skeletal muscle of aging men with subnormal bioavailable testosterone (BioT) levels...
April 15, 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649637/angiogenesis-impairment-by-the-nadph-oxidase-triggered-oxidative-stress-at-the-bone-implant-interface-critical-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-for-implant-failure-under-hyperglycemic-conditions-in-diabetes
#12
Xiao-Fan Hu, Lin Wang, Geng Xiang, Wei Lei, Ya-Fei Feng
Mechanism underlying the diabetes-induced poor osteointegration of implants remains elusive, making it a challenge to develop corresponding solutions. Here, we studied the role of angiogenesis in the diabetes-induced poor bone repair at the bone-implant interface (BII) and the related mechanisms. In vivo, titanium screws were implanted in the femurs of mice, and, in vitro, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) was cultured on titanium surface. Results showed that, compared with normal milieu (NM), diabetic milieu (DM) led to angiogenesis inhibition around implants which resulted in reduced osteoprogenitors and poor bone formation on BII in vivo...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625581/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-ascorbic-acid-on-metabolism-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Koichi Fujisawa, Kazusa Hara, Taro Takami, Sae Okada, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Naoki Yamamoto, Isao Sakaida
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells holding much promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, with problems such as aging, increases in heteroploid cells, genomic instability, and reduced maintenance of stemness, more stable culturing methods and the production of MSCs with an improved therapeutic effect are desired. Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is a cofactor for a variety of enzymes and has an antioxidant effect, cannot be synthesized by certain animals, including humans...
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625543/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-dna-repair-in-mammals
#14
REVIEW
L A Zinovkina
Accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA leads to the development of severe, currently untreatable diseases. The contribution of these mutations to aging and progress of neurodegenerative diseases is actively studied. Elucidation of DNA repair mechanisms in mitochondria is necessary for both developing approaches to the therapy of diseases caused by mitochondrial mutations and understanding specific features of mitochondrial genome functioning. Mitochondrial DNA repair systems have become a subject of extensive studies only in the last decade due to development of molecular biology methods...
March 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625080/the-effects-of-age-on-mitochondria-axonal-transport-and-axonal-degeneration-after-chronic-iop-elevation-using-a-murine-ocular-explant-model
#15
Elizabeth C Kimball, Joan L Jefferys, Mary E Pease, Ericka N Oglesby, Cathy Nguyen, Julie Schaub, Ian Pitha, Harry A Quigley
The purpose of this study was to compare younger and older mice after chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation lasting up to 4 days with respect to mitochondrial density, structure, and movement, as well as axonal integrity, in an ex vivo explant model. We studied 2 transgenic mouse strains, both on a C57BL/6J background, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in selected axons and one expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) in all mitochondria. Mice of 4 months or 14 months of age were exposed to chronic IOP by anterior chamber microbead injection for 14 h, 1, 3, or 4 days...
April 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619669/longitudinal-associations-of-lifetime-adiposity-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number
#16
Dong Hang, Hongmei Nan, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Immaculata De Vivo, Andrew Tan Chan, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Edward Giovannucci, Mingyang Song
Adiposity may cause adverse health outcomes by increasing oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, which can be reflected by altered telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtCN) in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on TL and mtCN in later life. This study was performed to investigate the associations of lifetime adiposity with leukocyte TL and mtCN in 9613 participants from the Nurses' Health Study. A group-based trajectory modelling approach was used to create trajectories of body shape from age 5 through 60 years, and a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on 97 known adiposity susceptibility variants...
April 4, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618839/metformin-adapts-its-cellular-effects-to-bioenergetic-status-in-a-model-of-metabolic-dysfunction
#17
Christopher Auger, Thibacg Sivayoganathan, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Alexandra Parousis, Bo Wen Pang, Marc G Jeschke
Thermal injury induces a complex immunometabolic response, characterized by hyperglycemia, extensive inflammation and persistent hypermetabolism. It has been suggested that attenuation of the hypermetabolic response is beneficial for patient wellbeing. To that effect, metformin represents an attractive therapeutic agent, as its effects on glycemia, inflammation and bioenergetics can improve outcomes in burn patients. Therefore, we studied metformin and its effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics in a murine model of thermal injury...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618296/retrograde-signaling-as-a-mechanism-of-yeast-adaptation-to-unfavorable-factors
#18
REVIEW
T A Trendeleva, R A Zvyagilskaya
Mitochondria perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. Being the main producers of ATP and the site of many catabolic and anabolic reactions, they participate in intracellular signaling, proliferation, aging, and formation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the cause of many diseases and even cell death. The functioning of mitochondria in vivo is impossible without interaction with other cellular compartments. Mitochondrial retrograde signaling is a signaling pathway connecting mitochondria and the nucleus...
February 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616191/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-in-the-control-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondria-and-autophagy-in-cancer-a-maestro-with-a-large-orchestra
#19
REVIEW
Venturina Stagni, Claudia Cirotti, Daniela Barilà
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615920/redox-aspects-of-chaperones-in-cardiac-function
#20
REVIEW
Claudia Penna, Matteo Sorge, Saveria Femminò, Pasquale Pagliaro, Mara Brancaccio
Molecular chaperones are stress proteins that allow the correct folding or unfolding as well as the assembly or disassembly of macromolecular cellular components. Changes in expression and post-translational modifications of chaperones have been linked to a number of age- and stress-related diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. Redox sensible post-translational modifications, such as S-nitrosylation, glutathionylation and phosphorylation of chaperone proteins have been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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