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pediatrics reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668026/nicu-graduates-the-role-of-the-allied-health-team-in-follow-up
#1
Jane L Orton, Joy E Olsen, Katherine Ong, Rochelle Lester, Alicia J Spittle
Infants who graduate from the neonatal intensive care unit, including those infants born preterm and/or with brain injury, are at increased risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. The developmental allied health team, consisting of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, is crucial in early evaluation of gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and language development. Surveillance of neurodevelopment in the first year of life is essential to ensure early detection of specific developmental delays and impairments, and to ensure timely referral for early intervention...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668025/general-movements-a-behavioral-biomarker-of-later-motor-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-nicu-graduates
#2
Colleen Peyton, Christa Einspieler
Infants who have graduated from a neonatal intensive care unit require close follow-up because they have a greater chance of experiencing later motor and cognitive difficulties; however, these difficulties are often challenging to identify at an early age. The General Movement Assessment is a low-cost and highly reliable tool that can indicate abnormal neurological development in young high-risk infants, but it has not yet been widely implemented in the United States. In this review, we discuss the literature about the use of the General Movement Assessment in high-risk infants and how to implement the tool in a clinical setting...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668023/common-queries-about-immunizations-in-preterm-infants
#3
Ansul Asad
Preterm infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. Despite this, delays in routine immunization of preterm infants are common. Available guidelines clearly state that they should be immunized according to chronological age, irrespective of gestational age and birth weight or current weight. In this article, we try to assuage parental and provider doubts by reviewing data about immunogenicity, safety, and responses to routine immunizations in preterm infants with and without comorbidities...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667769/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-b-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#4
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15-20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667725/parent-centered-communication-at-time-of-pediatric-cancer-diagnosis-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Cristiana Hentea, Erika R Cheng, Nerissa S Bauer, Emily L Mueller
There are limited data focused on parental communication needs surrounding the time when a child is diagnosed with cancer. In this systematic review, we synthesized current literature on communication preferences of parents at the time of their child's diagnosis of cancer. We identified 16 studies that yielded 4 major themes parents recognized as important: communication style, content, logistics, and healthcare team. We further identified several concepts that inform parent-centered communication practice...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667065/single-site-laparoscopy-and-robotic-surgery-in-pediatric-urology
#6
REVIEW
Diana K Bowen, Jason P Van Batavia, Arun K Srinivasan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize research that has evaluated the role of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) and robotic surgery in pediatric urology, highlighting new and/or controversial ideas. RECENT FINDINGS: The newest research developments over the last several years are studies that address generalizability of these techniques, ideal patient factors, extrapolation to more complex surgeries, and comparative studies to more traditional techniques to define the associated costs and benefits, as well as patient-centered outcomes...
April 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666917/measurement-of-iron-status-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Wesley Hayes
Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children, and dysregulation of iron homeostasis plays a central role in its pathogenesis. Optimizing iron status is a prerequisite for effective treatment of anemia. Insufficient iron can lead to inappropriate escalation of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Excess iron supplementation also has negative sequelae including free radical tissue damage and increased risk of systemic infection...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665973/epidemiology-of-pediatric-nickel-sensitivity-retrospective-review-of-north-american-contact-dermatitis-group-nacdg-data-1994-2014
#8
Erin M Warshaw, Kelly A Aschenbeck, Joel G DeKoven, Howard I Maibach, James S Taylor, Denis Sasseville, Donald V Belsito, Joseph F Fowler, Kathryn A Zug, Matthew J Zirwas, Anthony F Fransway, Vincent A DeLeo, James G Marks, Melanie D Pratt, Toby Mathias
BACKGROUND: Nickel is a common allergen responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVE: To characterize nickel sensitivity in children and compare pediatric cohorts (≤5, 6-12, and 13-18 years). METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of 1894 pediatric patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 1994 to 2014. We evaluated demographics, rates of reaction to nickel, strength of nickel reactions, and nickel allergy sources...
April 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665951/statistical-considerations-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-efficacy-trials
#9
S Kim, J A Seddon, A J Garcia-Prats, G Montepiedra
The inclusion of newly licensed or repurposed drugs in regimens to treat children for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) may lead to treatment that is shorter than traditional regimens and composed only of oral medications. As an all-oral regimen may be more acceptable and have a better safety profile than current regimens, demonstrating non-inferiority may be satisfactory. Demonstrating non-inferior efficacy requires setting a non-inferiority margin and safeguarding study assay sensitivity. Multi-arm, multistage designs may currently not be appropriate in pediatric trials because of the lack of sensitive and specific intermediate outcomes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665947/the-burden-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#10
H E Jenkins, C M Yuen
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has historically been neglected, although in recent years there has been increased focus on this problem. In particular, there have been two efforts to estimate the burden of pediatric multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). METHODS: We review current estimates of the global incidence of pediatric MDR-TB disease. We then combine pediatric MDR-TB treatment data from the World Health Organization and recently published case fatality ratio estimates for children with TB to produce mortality estimates for children with MDR-TB...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665727/changes-in-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-rates-among-children-with-immune-compromised-conditions-an-11-year-review
#11
Lauri A Linder, Cheryl Gerdy, Yeonjung Jo, Andrew Wilson
This article describes changes in central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates among common causative organisms over an 11-year period on a pediatric inpatient unit prior to and following CLABSI reduction strategies. The setting for this descriptive cohort design study was a 32-bed inpatient unit in a tertiary pediatric hospital serving children with immune compromised conditions, including cancer and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants. Between January 2006 and December 2016, 265 CLABSIs involving 189 patients were reported...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665442/carbapenems-versus-alternative-%C3%AE-lactams-for-the-treatment-of-nosocomial-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Jenna Lopez, Rebecca Jett, Marc H Scheetz
BACKGROUND: Carbapenems have demonstrated efficacy in treating nosocomial pneumonias in clinical trials despite a reported low lung penetration compared to other β-lactams. Preserving the clinical activity of carbapenems through stewardship efforts is essential. This review aims to identify if differences in outcomes exist, potentially as a function of decreased penetration. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for clinical trials comparing carbapenems to other anti-pseudomonal β-lactams for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia through December 2016...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664982/variable-clinical-profile-of-fovea-plana-in-normal-children
#13
Victor M Villegas, Stephen G Schwartz, Tina D Hamet, Craig A McKeown, Hilda Capó, Harry W Flynn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to illustrate various clinical findings associated with fovea plana in normal children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric subjects with a diagnosis of fovea plana was conducted to evaluate the characteristics associated with this condition. RESULTS: All eyes had 20/40 or better best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). In five of six subjects (83%), there was bilateral fovea plana...
April 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664879/surgical-treatment-of-supracondylar-humeral-fractures-in-a-freestanding-ambulatory-surgery-center-is-as-safe-as-and-faster-and-more-cost-effective-than-in-a-children-s-hospital
#14
Carson M Rider, Victor Y Hong, Timothy J Westbrooks, Jiajing Wang, Benjamin W Sheffer, Derek M Kelly, David D Spence, John M Flynn, Jeffrey R Sawyer
BACKGROUND: Despite an 88% increase in the number of pediatric fractures treated in ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) over a 10-year period, few studies have compared outcomes of fracture treatment performed in a freestanding ASC compared with those performed in the hospital (HOSP) or hospital outpatient department (HOPD). The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes, treatment times, and costs for treatment of Gartland type II supracondylar humeral (SCH) fracture in the ASC, HOSP, and HOPD...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664878/c2-translaminar-screw-fixation-in-children
#15
Brian W Yang, Michael P Glotzbecker, Michael Troy, Mark R Proctor, Michael T Hresko, Daniel J Hedequist
BACKGROUND: Axis (C2) screw fixation has been shown to be effective in treating disorders that necessitate cervical stabilization. Although translaminar C2 screws have demonstrated clinical efficacy in adults, this technique has not yet been thoroughly investigated in children. This study describes the indications, technique, and results of translaminar C2 screw fixation in a case series of pediatric cervical spine disorders. METHODS: We searched the orthopaedic database at our institution for patients who had undergone a cervical spinal fusion that encompassed C2 between 2007 and 2017...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664868/active-transcutaneous-bone-conduction-implant-middle-fossa-placement-technique-in-children-with-bilateral-microtia-and-external-auditory-canal-atresia
#16
Carolina Der, Sofía Bravo-Torres, Nicolás Pons
AIM: The aim of this study is to present the middle fossa technique (MFT) as an alternative for patients who cannot undergo traditional surgery for active transcutaneous bone conduction implants (ATBCI) due to their altered anatomy or desire for future aesthetic reconstruction. DESIGN: A case series descriptive study was designed. The MFT was developed. Preoperative and postoperative information from 24 patients with external auditory canal atresia (EACA) and implanted with ATBCI was reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664867/short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-titanium-clip-ossiculoplasty
#17
Charissa N Kahue, Brendan P O'Connnell, Matthew M Dedmon, David S Haynes, Alejandro Rivas
OBJECTIVE: To report short (∼4 mo) and long-term (>12 mo) audiometric outcomes following ossiculoplasty using a titanium clip partial ossicular reconstruction prosthesis. METHODS: Case series at a single tertiary referral center reviewing 130 pediatric and adult patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) secondary to chronic otitis media (n = 121, 93%) or traumatic ossicular disruption (n = 9, 7%) who underwent partial ossiculoplasty from January 2005 to December 2015 with the CliP prosthesis...
April 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664823/incidence-of-cellulitis-in-lower-extremity-burns-6-year-analysis
#18
Joseph N Batac, Roger L Simpson, Catherine J Sinnott, Michael P Catanzaro, Laurence T Glickman
INTRODUCTION: Patients with burn wounds of the lower extremities are at increased risk of developing cellulitis. The probability of developing burn-associated cellulitis is presumed to be correlated with a medical history of diabetes, the etiology of the burn, delay in hospitalization of the patient during their initial presentation, and depth of the burn itself. This study aims to identify factors that place patients at increased risk for developing lower extremity burn wound cellulitis...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664759/characteristics-of-medical-professional-liability-claims-in-pediatric-orthopedics
#19
Jessica Burns, M Wade Shrader, Carla Boan, Mohan Belthur
OBJECTIVES: Medical malpractice is burdensome to the U.S. healthcare system. The following is an epidemiological analysis of the closed medical professional liability (MPL) claims in pediatric orthopedics using data maintained by the Physician Insurers Association of America. METHODS: The Physician Insurers Association of America registry of MPL claims from 1985 to 2013 for all specialties included 286,021 closed claims in the United States. All closed MPL claims for orthopedic surgery in patients younger than 18 years were retrospectively reviewed (N = 2,671)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664690/methadone-as-the-initial-long-acting-opioid-in-children-with-advanced-cancer
#20
Kevin Madden, Sarah Mills, Seyedeh Dibaj, Janet L Williams, Diane Liu, Eduardo Bruera
BACKGROUND: Methadone is an attractive medication for treating children with advanced cancer with pain as it is the only long-acting opioid available as a liquid. However, it is not frequently used due to concerns about potential toxicities and side effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of methadone as the first long-acting opioid in children with advanced cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of 52 consecutive patients referred to Pediatric Supportive Care for pain management started on methadone as their first long-acting opioid...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
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