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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122492/d-leucine-evaluation-in-an-epilepsy-model
#1
Kylie Holden, Adam L Hartman
BACKGROUND: Current medicines do not provide sufficient seizure control for nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy. New options are needed to address this treatment gap. We recently found that the atypical amino acid d-leucine protected against acutely-induced seizures in mice, but its effect in chronic seizures has not been explored. We hypothesized that d-leucine would protect against spontaneous recurrent seizures. We also investigated whether mice lacking a previously-described d-leucine receptor (Tas1R2/R3) would be protected against acutely-induced seizures...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#2
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019082/loss-of-the-nutrient-sensor-tas1r3-leads-to-reduced-bone-resorption
#3
Michael S Eaton, Nicholas Weinstein, Jordan B Newby, Maggie M Plattes, Hanna E Foster, Jon W Arthur, Taylor D Ward, Stephen R Shively, Ryann Shor, Justin Nathan, Hannah M Davis, Lilian I Plotkin, Eric M Wauson, Brian J Dewar, Aaron Broege, Jonathan W Lowery
The taste receptor type 1 (TAS1R) family of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors participates in monitoring energy and nutrient status. TAS1R member 3 (TAS1R3) is a bi-functional protein that recognizes amino acids such as L-glycine and L-glutamate or sweet molecules such as sucrose and fructose when dimerized with TAS1R member 1 (TAS1R1) or TAS1R member 2 (TAS1R2), respectively. It was recently reported that deletion of TAS1R3 expression in Tas1R3 mutant mice leads to increased cortical bone mass but the underlying cellular mechanism leading to this phenotype remains unclear...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017172/the-emerging-roles-of-cib1-in-cancer
#4
Xianwang Wang, Xiaochun Peng, Xueqing Zhang, Hanyi Xu, Chengbiao Lu, Lian Liu, Jiaxing Song, Yingjie Zhang
Calcium and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein, which is involved in many cellular processes, including calcium signaling, cell survival and proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion and apoptosis. A number of studies have found that CIB1 is ubiquitously expressed and is related to various human diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiac hypertrophy and male infertility. The mechanism of CIB1 in human diseases is still not clear, although multiple functions of CIB1 are modulated by interacting with numerous interacting partners...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888730/dna-methylation-patterns-at-sweet-taste-transducing-genes-are-associated-with-bmi-and-carbohydrate-intake-in-an-adult-population
#5
O Ramos-Lopez, A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, M L Mansego, J A Martinez
Individual differences in taste perception may influence appetite, dietary intakes, and subsequently, disease risk. Correlations of DNA methylation patterns at taste transducing genes with BMI and dietary intakes were studied. A nutriepigenomic analysis within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was conducted in 474 adults. DNA methylation in peripheral white blood cells was analyzed by a microarray approach. KEGG pathway analyses were performed concerning the characterization and discrimination of genes involved in the taste transduction pathway...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700634/differential-modulation-of-the-lactisole-sweet-water-taste-by-sweeteners
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Cynthia Alvarado, Danielle Nachtigal, Jay P Slack, Barry G Green
Pre-exposure to taste stimuli and certain chemicals can cause water to have a taste. Here we studied further the 'sweet water taste' (SWT) perceived after exposure to the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole. Experiment 1 investigated an incidental observation that presenting lactisole in mixture with sucrose reduced the intensity of the SWT. The results confirmed this observation and also showed that rinsing with sucrose after lactisole could completely eliminate the SWT. The generalizability of these findings was investigated in experiment 2 by presenting 5 additional sweeteners before, during, or after exposure to lactisole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497839/evaluation-of-the-association-between-the-tas1r2-and-tas1r3-variants-and-food-intake-and-nutritional-status-in-children
#7
Silvia V Melo, Grasiela Agnes, Márcia R Vitolo, Vanessa S Mattevi, Paula D B Campagnolo, Silvana Almeida
Taste perception plays a key role in determining individual food preferences and dietary habits and may influence nutritional status. This study aimed to investigate the association of TAS1R2 (Ile191Val - rs35874116) and TAS1R3 (-1266 C/T - rs35744813) variants with food intake and nutritional status in children followed from birth until 7.7 years old. The nutritional status and food intake data of 312 children were collected at three developmental stages (1, 3.9 and 7.7 years old). DNA was extracted from blood samples and the polymorphisms were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) using hydrolysis probes as the detection method...
April 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228527/activation-mechanism-of-the-g-protein-coupled-sweet-receptor-heterodimer-with-sweeteners-and-allosteric-agonists
#8
Soo-Kyung Kim, Yalu Chen, Ravinder Abrol, William A Goddard, Brian Guthrie
The sweet taste in humans is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which belongs to the class C family that also includes the metabotropic glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. We report here the predicted 3D structure of the full-length TAS1R2/TAS1R3 heterodimer, including the Venus Flytrap Domains (VFDs) [in the closed-open (co) active conformation], the cysteine-rich domains (CRDs), and the transmembrane domains (TMDs) at the TM56/TM56 interface. We observe that binding of agonists to VFD2 of TAS1R2 leads to major conformational changes to form a TM6/TM6 interface between TMDs of TAS1R2 and TAS1R3, which is consistent with the activation process observed biophysically on the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 homodimer...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205335/a-sweet-taste-receptor-dependent-mechanism-of-glucosensing-in-hypothalamic-tanycytes
#9
Heather Benford, Matei Bolborea, Eric Pollatzek, Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Beihui Liu, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Sergey Kasparov, Nicholas Dale
Hypothalamic tanycytes are glial-like glucosensitive cells that contact the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle, and send processes into the hypothalamic nuclei that control food intake and body weight. The mechanism of tanycyte glucosensing remains undetermined. While tanycytes express the components associated with the glucosensing of the pancreatic β cell, they respond to nonmetabolisable glucose analogues via an ATP receptor-dependent mechanism. Here, we show that tanycytes in rodents respond to non-nutritive sweeteners known to be ligands of the sweet taste (Tas1r2/Tas1r3) receptor...
May 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992462/acute-effects-of-sugars-and-artificial-sweeteners-on-small-intestinal-sugar-transport-a-study-using-caco-2-cells-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-enterocyte
#10
Patrick O'Brien, Christopher Peter Corpe
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for the assimilation of nutrients and plays a key role in the regulation of nutrient metabolism and energy balance. The molecular mechanisms by which intestinal sugar transport are regulated are controversial. Based on rodent studies, two models currently exist that involve activation of the sweet-taste receptor, T1R2/3: an indirect model, whereby luminal carbohydrates activate T1R2/3 expressed on enteroendocrine cells, resulting in the release of gut peptides which in turn regulate enterocyte sugar transport capacity; and a direct model, whereby T1R2/3 expressed on the enterocyte regulates enterocyte function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982108/high-maltose-sensitivity-of-sweet-taste-receptors-in-the-japanese-macaque-macaca-fuscata
#11
Emiko Nishi, Kei Tsutsui, Hiroo Imai
Taste sensitivity differs among animal species depending on feeding habitat. To humans, sucrose is one of the sweetest natural sugars, and this trait is expected to be similar in other primates. However, previous behavioral tests have shown that some primate species have equal preferences for maltose and sucrose. Because sweet tastes are recognized when compounds bind to the sweet taste receptor Tas1R2/Tas1R3, we evaluated the responses of human and Japanese macaque Tas1R2/Tas1R3 to various natural sugars using a heterologous expression system...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956941/accumulation-of-intestinal-tissue-3-deoxyglucosone-attenuated-glp-1-secretion-and-its-insulinotropic-effect-in-rats
#12
Lurong Zhang, Xiudao Song, Liang Zhou, Guoqiang Liang, Heng Xu, Fei Wang, Fei Huang, Guorong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Our recent findings support the idea that 3-deoxyglucosone (3DG), a dietary composition, has been suggested as an independent factor for the development of prediabetes. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been suggested to be impaired in T2DM and in conditions associated with hyperglycemia. Since low oral bioavailability of 3DG has been indicated in a single administration study, in the present study we examined if 3DG is capable of accumulating in intestinal tissue of rats after 2-week administration of 3DG, and the 3DG treatment affects GLP-1 secretion and glucose tolerance...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479072/characterization-of-the-sweet-taste-receptor-tas1r2-from-an-old-world-monkey-species-rhesus-monkey-and-species-dependent-activation-of-the-monomeric-receptor-by-an-intense-sweetener-perillartine
#13
Chenggu Cai, Hua Jiang, Lei Li, Tianming Liu, Xuejie Song, Bo Liu
Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162343/taste-cell-expressed-%C3%AE-glucosidase-enzymes-contribute-to-gustatory-responses-to-disaccharides
#14
Sunil K Sukumaran, Karen K Yee, Shusuke Iwata, Ramana Kotha, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Sankar Mohan, B Mario Pinto, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F Margolskee
The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010324/a-comparison-of-collection-techniques-for-gene-expression-analysis-of-human-oral-taste-tissue
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nicholas Steven Archer, Dongli Liu, Jan Shaw, Garry Hannan, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy), we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26960429/intracellular-acidification-is-required-for-full-activation-of-the-sweet-taste-receptor-by-miraculin
#16
Keisuke Sanematsu, Masayuki Kitagawa, Ryusuke Yoshida, Satoru Nirasawa, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Acidification of the glycoprotein, miraculin (MCL), induces sweet taste in humans, but not in mice. The sweet taste induced by MCL is more intense when acidification occurs with weak acids as opposed to strong acids. MCL interacts with the human sweet receptor subunit hTAS1R2, but the mechanisms by which the acidification of MCL activates the sweet taste receptor remain largely unexplored. The work reported here speaks directly to this activation by utilizing a sweet receptor TAS1R2 + TAS1R3 assay. In accordance with previous data, MCL-applied cells displayed a pH dependence with citric acid (weak acid) being right shifted to that with hydrochloric acid (strong acid)...
March 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907331/sweet-taste-receptor-tas1r2-polymorphism-val191val-is-associated-with-a-higher-carbohydrate-intake-and-hypertriglyceridemia-among-the-population-of-west-mexico
#17
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Arturo Panduro, Erika Martinez-Lopez, Sonia Roman
Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val) has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val) by an allelic discrimination assay...
February 19, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850994/-tasting-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-another-function-of-the-choroid-plexus
#18
J Tomás, C R A Santos, T Quintela, I Gonçalves
The choroid plexus (CP) located in brain ventricles, by forming the interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is in a privileged position to monitor the composition of these body fluids. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this surveillance system remain to be identified. The taste transduction pathway senses some types of molecules, thereby evaluating the chemical content of fluids, not only in the oral cavity but also in other tissues throughout the body, such as some cell types of the airways, the gastrointestinal tract, testis and skin...
April 21, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279452/variation-in-the-tas1r2-gene-sweet-taste-perception-and-intake-of-sugars
#19
Andre G Dias, Karen M Eny, Moira Cockburn, Winnie Chiu, Daiva E Nielsen, Lisa Duizer, Ahmed El-Sohemy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether variation in the TAS1R2 gene affects sucrose taste perception and sugar intake. METHODS: Participants were men (n = 238) and women (n = 458) aged 20-29 years. A subset (n = 95) with body mass index (BMI) data available completed a sensory analysis study. A food frequency questionnaire assessed dietary intake, and eight polymorphisms were genotyped (rs12033832, rs12137730, rs35874116, rs3935570, rs4920564, rs4920566, rs7513755 and rs9701796)...
2015: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26268603/polymorphisms-in-sweet-taste-genes-tas1r2-and-glut2-sweet-liking-and-dental-caries-prevalence-in-an-adult-italian-population
#20
Antonietta Robino, Lorenzo Bevilacqua, Nicola Pirastu, Roberta Situlin, Roberto Di Lenarda, Paolo Gasparini, Chiara Ottavia Navarra
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18-65 years), coming from six villages in northeastern Italy. Sweet liking was assessed using a 9-point scale, and the mean of the liking given by each individual to specific sweet food and beverages was used to create a sweet liking score...
September 2015: Genes & Nutrition
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