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Salmon salar nutrition

Albert Caballero-Solares, Jennifer R Hall, Xi Xue, Khalil Eslamloo, Richard G Taylor, Christopher C Parrish, Matthew L Rise
The effects of replacing marine ingredients by terrestrial ingredients on the health of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are poorly understood. During a 14-week trial, Atlantic salmon fed a fish meal-fish oil based diet (MAR) showed similar growth performance to others fed a plant protein/vegetable oil based diet (VEG), whereas poorer performance was observed in those fed an animal by-product meal/vegetable oil based diet (ABP). At the end of the trial, salmon were injected with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or the viral mimic polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC) and sampled for head kidney RNA after 24 h...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Carola E Dehler, Christopher J Secombes, Samuel A M Martin
Gut microbes are key players in host immune system priming, protection and development, as well as providing nutrients to the host that would be otherwise unavailable. Due to this importance, studies investigating the link between host and microbe are being initiated in farmed fish. The establishment, maintenance and subsequent changes of the intestinal microbiota are central to define fish physiology and nutrition in the future. In fish, unlike mammals, acquiring intestinal microbes is believed to occur around the time of first feeding mainly from the water surrounding them and their microbial composition over time is shaped therefore by their habitat...
January 20, 2017: Aquaculture
Giulia Micallef, Phillip Cash, Jorge M O Fernandes, Binoy Rajan, John W Tinsley, Ralph Bickerdike, Samuel A M Martin, Alan S Bowman
In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C...
January 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kristin Hamre, Nini H Sissener, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål A Olsvik, Marit Espe, Bente E Torstensen, Joana Silva, Johan Johansen, Rune Waagbø, Gro-Ingunn Hemre
The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se), and effects on tissue redox status...
2016: PeerJ
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
Mónica B Betancor, Matthew Sprague, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Christoforos Metochis, Patrick J Campbell, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher
Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds...
2016: PloS One
Grethe Rosenlund, Bente E Torstensen, Ingunn Stubhaug, Nafiha Usman, Nini H Sissener
The nutritional requirement for n-3 long-chain PUFA in fast-growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during grow out in the sea is not well documented. Diets were formulated with levels of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) ranging from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (4-24 g/kg feed). Two long-term trials were conducted through the seawater phase, the first at 6 and 12°C, and the second at 12°C. In the first trial, growth at both temperatures was significantly lower in fish fed 1·4 % EPA+DHA of total fatty acids compared with the 5·2 % EPA+DHA group...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Fernando Norambuena, Sofia Morais, James A Emery, Giovanni M Turchini
Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways...
2015: PloS One
Katerina Kousoulaki, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter Østbye, Aleksei Krasnov, Jacob Seilø Torgersen, Turid Mørkøre, John Sweetman
Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Christian De Santis, Viv O Crampton, Beatrix Bicskei, Douglas R Tocher
The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates...
December 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Linda B Jensen, Thomas Wahli, Charles McGurk, Tommy Berger Eriksen, Alex Obach, Rune Waagbø, Ana Handler, Carolina Tafalla
Compromised skin integrity of farmed Atlantic salmon, commonly occurring under low temperature and stressful conditions, has major impacts on animal welfare and economic productivity. Even fish with minimal scale loss and minor wounds can suffer from secondary infections, causing downgrading and mortalities. Wound healing is a complex process, where water temperature and nutrition play key roles. In this study, Atlantic salmon (260 g) were held at different water temperatures (4 or 12 °C) and fed three different diets for 10 weeks, before artificial wounds were inflicted and the wound healing process monitored for 2 weeks...
December 2015: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Noemi Ruiz-Lopez, Ingunn Stubhaug, Ignacio Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach, David Menoyo
The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10...
July 2015: Marine Drugs
Rodrigo Pulgar, Christian Hödar, Dante Travisany, Alejandro Zuñiga, Calixto Domínguez, Alejandro Maass, Mauricio González, Verónica Cambiazo
BACKGROUND: Piscirickettsiosis or Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS) is a bacterial disease that has a major economic impact on the Chilean salmon farming industry. Despite the fact that Piscirickettsia salmonis has been recognized as a major fish pathogen for over 20 years, the molecular strategies underlying the fish response to infection and the bacterial mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We analysed and compared the head kidney transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families with different levels of susceptibility to P...
2015: BMC Genomics
M Sprague, J Walton, P J Campbell, F Strachan, J R Dick, J G Bell
The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5...
October 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Christian De Santis, Kerry L Bartie, Rolf E Olsen, John B Taggart, Douglas R Tocher
The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress...
September 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Fernando Norambuena, Karen Hermon, Vanessa Skrzypczyk, James A Emery, Yoni Sharon, Alastair Beard, Giovanni M Turchini
Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp...
2015: PloS One
Trygve Hausken, Janneche Utne Skaare, Anuschka Polder, Margaretha Haugen, Helle M Meltzer, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Kåre Julshamn, Ottar Nygård, Rolf K Berge, Jon Skorve
The aims of this study were to (1) determine any changes in the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and mercury (Hg) in human plasma and adipose tissue and (2) examine associations between plasma levels of pollutants and dietary fat intake. Outpatients with different metabolic disorders (n = 42) consumed 380 g of farmed Atlantic salmon fillets or 60 g of salmon oil per week in two study periods of 15 wk each, and were compared with a control group (n = 14). Concentrations of POP and Hg were measured in salmon fillets, salmon oil capsules, plasma and abdominal fat biopsies from patients before and after intervention...
2014: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Mónica B Betancor, Elsbeth McStay, Matteo Minghetti, Hervé Migaud, Douglas R Tocher, Andrew Davie
In mammals, several genes involved in liver lipid and cholesterol homeostasis are rhythmically expressed with expression shown to be regulated by clock genes via Rev-erb 1α. In order to elucidate clock gene regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erb 1α was cloned and 24 h expression of clock genes, transcription factors and genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism determined in liver of parr acclimated to a long-day photoperiod, which was previously shown to elicit rhythmic clock gene expression in the brain...
2014: PloS One
L Persson, A Alanärä
This study investigated whether shelter (presence or absence) affected the frequency of fin damage in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar exposed to feed restrictions (0·73 or 0·33% of body mass day(-1) ). The presence of shelter had a positive effect on the pectoral fins at both feed ration levels and on the dorsal fin at the higher ration level but it had a negative effect on survival. The reduced feed rations resulted in fish of the same size and nutritional status as wild fish. The provision of shelter has potential to mitigate the negative effects of feed restrictions on fin quality, but the optimal shelter design requires some additional investigation...
September 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
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