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Salmon salar nutrition

Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
Mónica B Betancor, Matthew Sprague, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Christoforos Metochis, Patrick J Campbell, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher
Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds...
2016: PloS One
Grethe Rosenlund, Bente E Torstensen, Ingunn Stubhaug, Nafiha Usman, Nini H Sissener
The nutritional requirement for n-3 long-chain PUFA in fast-growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during grow out in the sea is not well documented. Diets were formulated with levels of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) ranging from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (4-24 g/kg feed). Two long-term trials were conducted through the seawater phase, the first at 6 and 12°C, and the second at 12°C. In the first trial, growth at both temperatures was significantly lower in fish fed 1·4 % EPA+DHA of total fatty acids compared with the 5·2 % EPA+DHA group...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Fernando Norambuena, Sofia Morais, James A Emery, Giovanni M Turchini
Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways...
2015: PloS One
Katerina Kousoulaki, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter Østbye, Aleksei Krasnov, Jacob Seilø Torgersen, Turid Mørkøre, John Sweetman
Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science
Christian De Santis, Viv O Crampton, Beatrix Bicskei, Douglas R Tocher
The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates...
December 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Linda B Jensen, Thomas Wahli, Charles McGurk, Tommy Berger Eriksen, Alex Obach, Rune Waagbø, Ana Handler, Carolina Tafalla
Compromised skin integrity of farmed Atlantic salmon, commonly occurring under low temperature and stressful conditions, has major impacts on animal welfare and economic productivity. Even fish with minimal scale loss and minor wounds can suffer from secondary infections, causing downgrading and mortalities. Wound healing is a complex process, where water temperature and nutrition play key roles. In this study, Atlantic salmon (260 g) were held at different water temperatures (4 or 12 °C) and fed three different diets for 10 weeks, before artificial wounds were inflicted and the wound healing process monitored for 2 weeks...
December 2015: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Noemi Ruiz-Lopez, Ingunn Stubhaug, Ignacio Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach, David Menoyo
The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10...
July 2015: Marine Drugs
Rodrigo Pulgar, Christian Hödar, Dante Travisany, Alejandro Zuñiga, Calixto Domínguez, Alejandro Maass, Mauricio González, Verónica Cambiazo
BACKGROUND: Piscirickettsiosis or Salmonid Rickettsial Septicaemia (SRS) is a bacterial disease that has a major economic impact on the Chilean salmon farming industry. Despite the fact that Piscirickettsia salmonis has been recognized as a major fish pathogen for over 20 years, the molecular strategies underlying the fish response to infection and the bacterial mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We analysed and compared the head kidney transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families with different levels of susceptibility to P...
2015: BMC Genomics
M Sprague, J Walton, P J Campbell, F Strachan, J R Dick, J G Bell
The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5...
October 15, 2015: Food Chemistry
Christian De Santis, Kerry L Bartie, Rolf E Olsen, John B Taggart, Douglas R Tocher
The aim of the present study was to generate an experimental model to characterize the nutrigenomic profile of a plant-derived nutritional stress. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was used as the model species. The nutritional stress was induced by inclusion of dietary defatted soybean meal (SBM), as this ingredient had been previously demonstrated to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine and reduce growth in salmon. Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon were fed concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg(-1) SBM for 12 weeks and reduced growth performance was used as the indicator of nutritional stress...
September 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Fernando Norambuena, Karen Hermon, Vanessa Skrzypczyk, James A Emery, Yoni Sharon, Alastair Beard, Giovanni M Turchini
Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet) of algae in fish feed (aquafeed) resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal), Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi) and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp...
2015: PloS One
Trygve Hausken, Janneche Utne Skaare, Anuschka Polder, Margaretha Haugen, Helle M Meltzer, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Kåre Julshamn, Ottar Nygård, Rolf K Berge, Jon Skorve
The aims of this study were to (1) determine any changes in the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and mercury (Hg) in human plasma and adipose tissue and (2) examine associations between plasma levels of pollutants and dietary fat intake. Outpatients with different metabolic disorders (n = 42) consumed 380 g of farmed Atlantic salmon fillets or 60 g of salmon oil per week in two study periods of 15 wk each, and were compared with a control group (n = 14). Concentrations of POP and Hg were measured in salmon fillets, salmon oil capsules, plasma and abdominal fat biopsies from patients before and after intervention...
2014: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Mónica B Betancor, Elsbeth McStay, Matteo Minghetti, Hervé Migaud, Douglas R Tocher, Andrew Davie
In mammals, several genes involved in liver lipid and cholesterol homeostasis are rhythmically expressed with expression shown to be regulated by clock genes via Rev-erb 1α. In order to elucidate clock gene regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erb 1α was cloned and 24 h expression of clock genes, transcription factors and genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism determined in liver of parr acclimated to a long-day photoperiod, which was previously shown to elicit rhythmic clock gene expression in the brain...
2014: PloS One
L Persson, A Alanärä
This study investigated whether shelter (presence or absence) affected the frequency of fin damage in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar exposed to feed restrictions (0·73 or 0·33% of body mass day(-1) ). The presence of shelter had a positive effect on the pectoral fins at both feed ration levels and on the dorsal fin at the higher ration level but it had a negative effect on survival. The reduced feed rations resulted in fish of the same size and nutritional status as wild fish. The provision of shelter has potential to mitigate the negative effects of feed restrictions on fin quality, but the optimal shelter design requires some additional investigation...
September 2014: Journal of Fish Biology
Mohammad Faizan, Ingunn Stubhaug, David Menoyo, Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Anika E Wagner, Gunvor Struksnæs, Wolfgang Koppe, Gerald Rimbach
In this study the effect of increasing dietary alpha tocopherol on vitamin E tissue concentrations, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes, and fatty acid composition has been investigated in farmed Atlantic salmon. To this end fish (initial body weight ~ 193 g, n = 70 per group) were fed diets based on fish oil (27.5 %), fish meal (15.0 %), wheat gluten (20.6 %), and soy protein concentrate (24.0 %) for 14 weeks. Diets were supplemented with 0 (negative control), 150, and 400 mg/kg vitamin E as all-rac alpha-tocopheryl acetate...
2013: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Laura Martinez-Rubio, Øystein Evensen, Aleksei Krasnov, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Simon Wadsworth, Kari Ruohonen, Jose L G Vecino, Douglas R Tocher
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe cardiac disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recently associated with a double-stranded RNA virus, Piscine Myocarditis Virus (PMCV). The disease has been diagnosed in 75-85 farms in Norway each year over the last decade resulting in annual economic losses estimated at up to €9 million. Recently, we demonstrated that functional feeds led to a milder inflammatory response and reduced severity of heart lesions in salmon experimentally infected with Atlantic salmon reovirus, the causal agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI)...
2014: BMC Genomics
Susanne Trombley, Arshi Mustafa, Monika Schmitz
In mammals, leptin acts as an adiposity signal and is a crucial link between nutritional status and the reproductive axis. So far the link between leptin and energy balance during sexual maturation in teleosts has been poorly investigated. In this study, seasonal gene expression changes in two leptin genes (lepa1 and lepa2) and the leptin receptor were investigated during early sexual maturation in male Atlantic salmon parr under fully fed (control) and feed restricted conditions from April through September...
August 1, 2014: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Peter D Nichols, Brett Glencross, James R Petrie, Surinder P Singh
Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils...
2014: Nutrients
Torfinn Moldal, Guro Løkka, Jannicke Wiik-Nielsen, Lars Austbø, Bente E Torstensen, Grethe Rosenlund, Ole Bendik Dale, Magne Kaldhusdal, Erling Olaf Koppang
BACKGROUND: Fish meal and fish oil are increasingly replaced by ingredients from terrestrial sources in the feeds for farmed salmonids due to expanding production and reduced availability of marine feed raw material. Fish oil that is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is considered beneficial to human health in general and to prevent intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in particular. In contrast, n-6 fatty acids that are present in many vegetable oils have been associated with increased risk of colitis and colon cancer in rodents and humans, as well as lowered transcription levels of certain stress and antioxidant-related genes in Atlantic salmon...
2014: BMC Veterinary Research
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