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Salmon salar feeding

Giulia Micallef, Phillip Cash, Jorge M O Fernandes, Binoy Rajan, John W Tinsley, Ralph Bickerdike, Samuel A M Martin, Alan S Bowman
In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
Miguel Reyes, Cesar Ramírez, Ivan Ñancucheo, Ricardo Villegas, Guillermo Schaffeld, Luis Kiman, Javier Gonzalez, Patricio Oyarzun
BACKGROUND: DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising tool against infectious diseases of farmed fish. Oral delivery allows stress-free administration that is ideal for mass immunization and of paramount importance for infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and other viral disease that affect young salmonids and cause economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. METHODS: We describe the development and in vivo assessment of an "in-feed" formulation strategy for oral immunization with liposomal DNA vaccines, by delivering a vaccine construct coding for an immunogenic region of the VP2 capsid protein...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
Karina Gajardo, Alexander Jaramillo-Torres, Trond M Kortner, Daniel L Merrifield, John Tinsley, Anne Marie Bakke, Åshild Krogdahl
: The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and if alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications to host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: A reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Haibin Hu, Trond M Kortner, Karina Gajardo, Elvis Chikwati, John Tinsley, Åshild Krogdahl
In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI)...
2016: PloS One
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C...
November 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Kristin Hamre, Nini H Sissener, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål A Olsvik, Marit Espe, Bente E Torstensen, Joana Silva, Johan Johansen, Rune Waagbø, Gro-Ingunn Hemre
The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se), and effects on tissue redox status...
2016: PeerJ
Christoforos P Metochis, I Spanos, N Auchinachie, V O Crampton, J G Bell, A Adams, K D Thompson
Juvenile salmon, with an initial weight of 9 g, were fed three experimental diets, formulated to replace 35 (SPC35), 58 (SPC58) and 80 (SPC80) of high quality fishmeal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in quadruplicate tanks. Higher dietary SPC inclusion was combined with increased supplementation of methionine, lysine, threonine and phosphorus. The experiment was carried out for 177 days. On day 92 salmon in each tank were bulk weighed. Post weighing eighty salmon from each tank were redistributed in two sets of 12 tanks...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Gro-Ingunn Hemre, Erik-Jan Lock, Pål Asgeir Olsvik, Kristin Hamre, Marit Espe, Bente Elisabeth Torstensen, Joana Silva, Ann-Cecilie Hansen, Rune Waagbø, Johan S Johansen, Monica Sanden, Nini H Sissener
Aiming to re-evaluate current recommendations for nutrient supplementations when Atlantic salmon are fed diets based on plant ingredients, two regression experiments, with parr and post-smolt, were conducted. A control diet was included to evaluate if ingredients supplied sufficient nutrients without any added nutrient package (NP). The nutrient package consisted of vitamins B, C, E, minerals, cholesterol, methionine, taurine and histidine. This paper focus on B-vitamins. In parr, growth, health and welfare parameters responded on NP additions, but this was not observed in the seawater stage...
2016: PeerJ
Marc H G Berntssen, Monica Sanden, Helge Hove, Øyvind Lie
The salmon feed composition has changed the last decade with a replacement of traditionally use of fish oil and fishmeal diets with vegetable ingredients and the use decontaminated fish oils, causing reduced concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon. The development of novel salmon feeds has prompted the need for prediction on dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations in future farmed salmon. Prediction on fillet dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations from different feed composition scenarios are made using a simple one-compartmental transfer model based on earlier established dioxin and dl-PCB congener specific uptake and elimination kinetics rates...
November 2016: Chemosphere
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
B O'Shea, S Wadsworth, J Pino Marambio, M A Birkett, J A Pickett, A J Mordue Luntz
The potential for developing botanically derived natural products as novel feed-through repellents for disrupting settlement of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Caligidae) upon farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, was investigated using an established laboratory vertical Y-tube behavioural bioassay for assessing copepodid behaviour. Responses to artificial sea water conditioned with the odour of salmon, or to the known salmon-derived kairomone component, α-isophorone, in admixture with selected botanical materials previously known to interfere with invertebrate arthropod host location were recorded...
August 6, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
A C Harvey, M F Solberg, K A Glover, M I Taylor, S Creer, G R Carvalho
Growth of farmed, wild and F1 hybrid Atlantic salmon parr Salmo salar was investigated under three contrasting feeding regimes in order to understand how varying levels of food availability affects relative growth. Treatments consisted of standard hatchery feeding (ad libitum), access to feed for 4 h every day, and access to feed for 24 h on three alternate days weekly. Mortality was low in all treatments, and food availability had no effect on survival of all groups. The offspring of farmed S. salar significantly outgrew the wild S...
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Mónica B Betancor, Matthew Sprague, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Christoforos Metochis, Patrick J Campbell, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher
Vegetable oils (VO) are possible substitutes for fish oil in aquafeeds but their use is limited by their lack of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). However, oilseed crops can be modified to produce n-3 LC-PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, representing a potential option to fill the gap between supply and demand of these important nutrients. Camelina sativa was metabolically engineered to produce a seed oil with around 15% total n-3 LC-PUFA to potentially substitute for fish oil in salmon feeds...
2016: PloS One
Glenn T Crossin, Bruce G Hatcher, Shelley Denny, Kim Whoriskey, Michael Orr, Alicia Penney, Frederick G Whoriskey
The Bras d'Or Lake watershed of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada is a unique inland sea ecosystem, UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and home to a group of regionally distinct Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Recent population decreases in this region have raised concern about their long-term persistence. We used acoustic telemetry to track the migrations of juvenile salmon (smolts) from the Middle River into the Bras d'Or Lake and, subsequently, into the Atlantic Ocean. Roughly half of the tagged smolts transited the Bras d'Or Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean, using a migration route that took them through the Gulf of St Lawrence's northern exit at the Strait of Belle Isle (∼650 km from the home river) towards feeding areas in the Labrador Sea and Greenland...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Grethe Rosenlund, Bente E Torstensen, Ingunn Stubhaug, Nafiha Usman, Nini H Sissener
The nutritional requirement for n-3 long-chain PUFA in fast-growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during grow out in the sea is not well documented. Diets were formulated with levels of EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) ranging from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (4-24 g/kg feed). Two long-term trials were conducted through the seawater phase, the first at 6 and 12°C, and the second at 12°C. In the first trial, growth at both temperatures was significantly lower in fish fed 1·4 % EPA+DHA of total fatty acids compared with the 5·2 % EPA+DHA group...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Tyler D Brown, Tiago S Hori, Xi Xue, Chang Lin Ye, Derek M Anderson, Matthew L Rise
The inclusion of plant meals in diets of farmed Atlantic salmon can elicit inflammatory responses in the distal intestine (DI). For the present work, fish were fed a standard fish meal (FM) diet or a diet with partial replacement of FM with solvent-extracted camelina meal (CM) (8, 16, or 24 % CM inclusion) during a 16-week feeding trial. A significant decrease in growth performance was seen in fish fed all CM inclusion diets (Hixson et al. in Aquacult Nutr 22:615-630, 2016). A 4x44K oligonucleotide microarray experiment was carried out and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) and rank products (RP) methods were used to identify differentially expressed genes between the DIs of fish fed the 24 % CM diet and those fed the FM diet...
June 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Victor Schmidt, Linda Amaral-Zettler, John Davidson, Steven Summerfelt, Christopher Good
UNLABELLED: Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Marc H G Berntssen, Robin Ørnsrud, Josef Rasinger, Liv Søfteland, Erik-Jan Lock, Kjersti Kolås, Mari Moren, Ketil Hylland, Joana Silva, Johan Johansen, Kai Lie
Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2...
June 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Pamela Ruiz, Miguel Balado, Alicia E Toranzo, Matías Poblete-Morales, Manuel L Lemos, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera
Vibrio ordalii is the causative agent of vibriosis in several cultured salmonid species worldwide. Despite its impact on aquaculture, relatively little information is available about its virulence factors. The present study demonstrates for the first time that V. ordalii possesses different systems of iron acquisition, one involving siderophore synthesis and another one that uses direct binding of heme to use iron. Using 6 strains of V. ordalii from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and the V. ordalii type strain, we could demonstrate that all strains could grow in presence of the chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl and produced siderophores in solid and liquid media...
March 30, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Montserrat Espiñeira, Juan M Vieites
Recent regulations in animal feed composition prohibit intra-species recycling, the recycling of one given animal species to the same species, in order to avoid potential safety risks to human and animal health. These regulations have generated the need of their control in aquaculture by effective and specific analytical techniques. To date, most studies of species identification and detection in feedstuffs are focused on land species, but few studies are focused on species composition in fish feed. The present work describes five methodologies based in Real Time PCR for detection of the most relevant fish species farmed in Europe: gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata); sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax); turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss); and salmon (Salmo salar), in order to guarantee the intra-species recycling regulation in aquaculture feedstuffs...
August 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
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