Read by QxMD icon Read

Salmon salar feeding

Veronika Sele, Robin Ørnsrud, Jens J Sloth, Marc H G Berntssen, Heidi Amlund
Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals, including fish. Due to changes in feed composition for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it may be necessary to supplement feeds with Se. In the present work, the transfer of Se and Se species from feed to muscle of Atlantic salmon fed Se supplemented diets was studied. Salmon were fed basal fish feed (0.35 mg Se/kg and 0.89 mg Se/kg feed), or feed supplemented either with selenised yeast or sodium selenite, at low (1-2 mg Se/kg feed) and high (15 mg Se/kg feed) levels, for 12 weeks...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Nini H Sissener, Grethe Rosenlund, Ingunn Stubhaug, Nina S Liland
The aim of the study was to investigate how the dietary sterol composition, including cholesterol, phytosterol:cholesterol ratio and phytosterols, affect the absorption, biliary excretion, retention, tissue storage and distribution of cholesterol and individual phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). A feeding trial was conducted at two different temperatures (6 and 12°C), using nine different diets with varying contents of phytosterols, cholesterol and phytosterol:cholesterol ratio. Cholesterol retention values were clearly dependent on dietary cholesterol, and showed that fish fed cholesterol levels <1000 mg/kg feed produced considerable quantities of cholesterol de novo...
February 5, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
A S Madhun, C H Isachsen, L M Omdal, A C B Einen, S Maehle, V Wennevik, E Niemelä, T Svåsand, E Karlsbakk
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and pancreas disease (PD) caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) are among the most prevalent viral diseases of Atlantic salmon farmed in Norway. There are limited data about the impact of disease in farmed salmon on wild salmon populations. Therefore, the prevalence of PRV and SAV in returning salmon caught in six sea sites was determined using real-time RT-PCR analyses. Of 419 salmon tested, 15.8% tested positive for PRV, while none were positive for SAV...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Sebastián Reyes-Cerpa, Eva Vallejos-Vidal, María José Gonzalez-Bown, Jonathan Morales-Reyes, Diego Pérez-Stuardo, Deborah Vargas, Mónica Imarai, Víctor Cifuentes, Eugenio Spencer, Ana María Sandino, Felipe E Reyes-López
Salmon farming may face stress due to the intensive culture conditions with negative impacts on overall performance. In this aspect, functional feed improves not only the basic nutritional requirements but also the health status and fish growth. However, to date no studies have been carried out to evaluate the effect of functional diets in salmon subjected to crowding stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; diet A) and the combination of plant extracts (common Saint John's wort, lemon balm, and rosemary; diet B) on the antioxidant and immune status of Atlantic salmon grown under normal cultured conditions and then subjected to crowding stress...
January 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A S Boerlage, A Elghafghuf, H Stryhn, J Sanchez, K L Hammell
Infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum, the cause of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) occurs in salmon populations in many locations, including the east coast of Canada. However, information about risk factors for BKD and their effects in the saltwater phase of the salmon aquaculture industry in the region is inadequate. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using industry health records in which BKD was recorded in New Brunswick, Canada, between 2006 and 2012. Several risk factors for BKD, such as stocking season, mortality percentage in the first four weeks, food conversion ratio (FCR), lice treatment, Bay Management Area (BMA), and production year were analyzed in a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models with cross-classified random effects to account for the structure of the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Natalia Catalán, Alejandro Villasante, Jurij Wacyk, Carolina Ramírez, Jaime Romero
The main goal of the present study was to address the effect of feeding fermented soybean meal-based diet to Atlantic salmon on gut microbiota. Further, expression of genes of interest, including cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (cath), mucin 2 (muc2), aquaporin (aqp8ab), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna), in proximal intestine of fish fed either experimental diet was analyzed. Three experimental diets, including a control fishmeal (30% FM), soybean meal (30% SBM), or fermented soybean meal diet (30% FSBM) were randomly assigned to triplicate tanks during a 50-day trial...
December 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
L M Vera, C Metochis, J F Taylor, M Clarkson, K H Skjærven, H Migaud, D R Tocher
BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
G M Yoshida, J P Lhorente, R Carvalheiro, J M Yáñez
We performed a genome-wide association study to detect markers associated with growth traits in Atlantic salmon. The analyzed traits included body weight at tagging (BWT) and body weight at 25 months (BW25M). Genotypes of 4662 animals were imputed from the 50K SNP chip to the 200K SNP chip using fimpute software. The markers were simultaneously modeled using Bayes C to identify genomic regions associated with the traits. We identified windows explaining a maximum of 3.71% and 3.61% of the genetic variance for BWT and BW25M respectively...
December 2017: Animal Genetics
M H G Berntssen, T K Sundal, P A Olsvik, H Amlund, J D Rasinger, V Sele, K Hamre, M Hillestad, L Buttle, R Ørnsrud
Depending on its chemical form, selenium (Se) is a trace element with a narrow range between requirement and toxicity for most vertebrates. Traditional endpoints of Se toxicity include reduced growth, feed intake, and oxidative stress, while more recent finding describe disturbance in fatty acid synthesis as underlying toxic mechanism. To investigate overall metabolic mode of toxic action, with emphasis on lipid metabolism, a wide scope metabolomics pathway profiling was performed on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (572±7g) that were fed organic and inorganic Se fortified diets...
September 18, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Khalil Eslamloo, Xi Xue, Jennifer R Hall, Nicole C Smith, Albert Caballero-Solares, Christopher C Parrish, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability and high cost of fish oil in the face of increasing aquaculture production, there is a need to reduce usage of fish oil in aquafeeds without compromising farm fish health. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine if different levels of vegetable and fish oils can alter antiviral responses of salmon macrophage-like cells (MLCs). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets containing 7.4% (FO7) or 5.1% (FO5) fish oil. These diets were designed to be relatively low in EPA + DHA (i...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
Michael Clarkson, Herve Migaud, Christoforos Metochis, Luisa M Vera, Daniel Leeming, Douglas R Tocher, John F Taylor
The present study investigated nutritional programming in Atlantic salmon to improve utilisation of a vegetable-based diet. At first exogenous feeding, fry were fed either a marine-based diet (Diet Mstimulus, 80% fishmeal (FM)/4% fish oil (FO)) or a vegetable-based diet (Diet Vstimulus, 10% FM/0% FO) for 3 weeks. Subsequently, all fish were then fed under the same conditions with a commercial, marine-based, diet for 15 weeks and thereafter challenged with a second V diet (Diet Vchallenge, 10% FM/0% FO) for 6 weeks...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
Luca Fabris, Iain Archibald Malcolm, Willem Bastiaan Buddendorf, Karen Jane Millidine, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Chris Soulsby
We show how spatial variability in channel bed morphology affects the hydraulic characteristics of river reaches available to Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) under different flow conditions in an upland stream. The study stream, the Girnock Burn, is a long-term monitoring site in the Scottish Highlands. Six site characterised by different bed geometry and morphology were investigated. Detailed site bathymetries were collected and combined with discharge time series in a 2D hydraulic model to obtain spatially distributed depth-averaged velocities under different flow conditions...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Aksel Bernhoft, Helga R Høgåsen, Grethe Rosenlund, Lada Ivanova, Marc H G Berntssen, Jan Alexander, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Christiane Kruse Fæste
Post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed standard feed with added 2 or 6 mg kg(-1) pure deoxynivalenol (DON), 0.8 or 2.4 mg kg(-1) pure ochratoxin A (OTA), or no added toxins for up to 8 weeks. The experiments were performed in duplicate tanks with 25 fish each per diet group, and the feed was given for three 2-h periods per day. After 3, 6 and 8 weeks, 10 fish from each diet group were sampled. In the following hours after the last feeding at 8 weeks, toxin elimination was studied by sampling three fish per diet group at five time points...
July 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
D Hamoutene, J Perez-Casanova, K Burt, L Lush, J Caines, C Collier, R Hinks
This study examined fertilization rates, survival and early life-trait differences of pure farm, wild and first generation (F1) hybrid origin embryos after crossing farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Results show that despite a trend towards higher in vitro fertilization success for wild females, differences in fertilization success in river water are not significantly different among crosses. In a hatchery environment, wild females' progeny (pure wild and hybrids with wild maternal parent) hatched 7-11 days earlier than pure farm crosses and hybrids with farm maternal parents...
June 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
C M Alexandre, A P Palstra
Migratory species travelling long distances between habitats to spawn or feed are well adapted to optimize their swimming economy. However, human activities, such as river regulation, represent potential threats to fish migration by changing environmental parameters that will have impact on their metabolism. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in the swimming energetics of a salmonid species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), caused by short-term temperature variations that usually result from the operation of hydroelectrical dams...
2017: Conservation Physiology
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
Marianne Arnemo, Arturas Kavaliauskis, Adriana Magalhaes Santos Andresen, Marta Bou, Gerd Marit Berge, Bente Ruyter, Tor Gjøen
The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production...
August 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
M S Llewellyn, S Leadbeater, C Garcia, F-E Sylvain, M Custodio, K P Ang, F Powell, G R Carvalho, S Creer, J Elliot, N Derome
Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Martin Føre, Morten Alver, Jo Arve Alfredsen, Giancarlo Marafioti, Gunnar Senneset, Jens Birkevold, Finn Victor Willumsen, Guttorm Lange, Åsa Espmark, Bendik Fyhn Terjesen
We have developed a mathematical model which estimates the growth performance of Atlantic salmon in aquaculture production units. The model consists of sub-models estimating the behaviour and energetics of the fish, the distribution of feed pellets, and the abiotic conditions in the water column. A field experiment where three full-scale cages stocked with 120,000 salmon each (initial mean weight 72.1  ± SD 2.8 g) were monitored over six months was used to validate the model. The model was set up to simulate fish growth for all the three cages using the feeding regimes and observed environmental data as input, and simulation results were compared with the experimental data...
November 1, 2016: Aquaculture
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"