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Aquaculture Salmon salar

Morten Lund, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Aleksei Krasnov, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Maria Krudtaa Dahle
Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated...
October 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Stig Mæhle, Cecilie Skår, Ann Cathrine Einen, Ingrid Uglenes Fiksdal, Hugh Craig Morton, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12 °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
A S Dalum, K H Kristthorsdottir, D J Griffiths, K Bjørklund, T T Poppe
Spontaneous mortality of seemingly healthy, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) is an increasing problem in Norwegian aquaculture. In this study, we present a morphological study of the previously undescribed syndrome of arteriosclerosis of the ventral aorta and epicarditis of the adjacent bulbus arteriosus found in farmed Atlantic salmon, with wild-captured fish as a control group. Both the ventral aorta and epicardium are vital for correct arterial compliance and vascular resistance in the respiratory capillaries of the gills...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Victoria L Pritchard, Jaakko Erkinaro, Matthew P Kent, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Sigbjørn Lien, Craig R Primmer
Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are threatened by introgressive hybridization from domesticated fish that have escaped from aquaculture facilities. A detailed understanding of the hybridization dynamics between wild salmon and aquaculture escapees requires discrimination of different hybrid classes; however, markers currently available to discriminate the two types of parental genome have limited power to do this. Using a high-density Atlantic salmon single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in combination with pooled-sample allelotyping and an Fst outlier approach, we identified 200 SNPs that differentiated an important Atlantic salmon stock from the escapees potentially hybridizing with it...
September 2016: Evolutionary Applications
A Hellebø, A Stene, V Aspehaug
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an increasing problem in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. In the present PCR survey, the focus was to identify reservoir species or environmental samples where P. perurans could be present throughout the year, regardless of the infection status in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 1200 samples were collected at or in the proximity to farming sites with AGD, or with history of AGD, and analysed for the presence of P. perurans. No results supported biofouling organisms, salmon lice, biofilm or sediment to maintain P...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Lynn Chalmers, Kim D Thompson, John F Taylor, Sean Black, Herve Migaud, Ben North, Alexandra Adams
Sterile triploid fish represent a solution to the problems associated with sexual maturation and escapees in aquaculture. However, as disease outbreaks continue to cause significant economic losses to the industry, it is essential that the response of triploids to disease and disease treatments be characterised. The aim of this study was to compare the response of triploid Atlantic salmon to a commercial furunculosis vaccine with that of diploid fish, and to assess the vaccine efficacy in the two ploidies through an experimental infection with Aeromonas salmonicida...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A S Boerlage, H Stryhn, J Sanchez, K L Hammell
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is considered an important cause of loss in salmon aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Causative agent of BKD is the Gram-positive bacteria Renibacterium salmoninarum. Infected salmon are often asymptomatic (subclinical infection), and the disease is considered chronic. One of the challenges in quantifying information from farm production and health records is the application of a standardized case definition. Case definitions for farm-level and cage-level clinical and subclinical BKD were developed using retrospective longitudinal data from aquaculture practices in New Brunswick, Canada, combining (i) industry records of weekly production data including mortalities, (ii) field observations for BKD using reports of veterinarians and/or fish health technicians, (iii) diagnostic submissions and test results and (iv) treatments used to control BKD...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Haakon Hansen, Călin-Decebal Cojocaru, Tor Atle Mo
BACKGROUND: The salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 has caused high mortalities in many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations, mainly in Norway. The parasite is also present in several countries across mainland Europe, principally on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, where infections do not seem to result in mortalities. There are still European countries where there are potential salmonid hosts for G. salaris but where the occurrence of G. salaris is unknown, mainly due to lack of investigations and surveillance...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Alison C Harvey, Gareth Juleff, Gary R Carvalho, Martin I Taylor, Monica F Solberg, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar-Helge Matre, Kevin A Glover
The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Marcos G Godoy, Molly J T Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Rudy Suarez, Camila Leiva, Francisco Vallejos, Frederick S B Kibenge
BACKGROUND: Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and recently associated with piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection. To date, HSMI lesions with presence of PRV have only been described in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway. A new HSMI-like disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss associated with a PRV-related virus has also been reported in Norway. METHODS: Sampling of Atlantic salmon and coho salmon was done during potential disease outbreaks, targeting lethargic/moribund fish...
2016: Virology Journal
Marco A Vindas, Ida B Johansen, Ole Folkedal, Erik Höglund, Marnix Gorissen, Gert Flik, Tore S Kristiansen, Øyvind Øverli
Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Peter D Nichols, Richard Wilson
Understanding diet- and environmentally induced physiological changes in fish larvae is a major goal for the aquaculture industry. Proteomic analysis of whole fish larvae comprising multiple tissues offers considerable potential but is challenging due to the very large dynamic range of protein abundance. To extend the coverage of the larval phase of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) proteome, we applied a two-step sequential extraction (SE) method, based on differential protein solubility, using a nondenaturing buffer containing 150 mM NaCl followed by a denaturing buffer containing 7 M urea and 2 M thiourea...
July 2016: Proteomics
J Wiik-Nielsen, M Alarcón, B Bang Jensen, Ø Haugland, A B Mikalsen
Several different viruses have been associated with myocarditis-related diseases in the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. In this study, we investigated the presence of PMCV, SAV, PRV and the recently identified Atlantic salmon calicivirus (ASCV), alone and as co-infections in farmed Atlantic salmon displaying myocarditis. The analyses were performed at the individual level and comprised qPCR and histopathological examination of 397 salmon from 25 farms along the Norwegian coast. The samples were collected in 2009 and 2010, 5-22 months post-sea transfer...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
M Braceland, K Houston, A Ashby, C Matthews, H Haining, H Rodger, P D Eckersall
Clinical biochemistry has long been utilized in human and veterinary medicine as a vital diagnostic tool, but despite occasional studies showing its usefulness in monitoring health status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), it has not yet been widely utilized within the aquaculture industry. This is due, in part, to a lack of an agreed protocol for collection and processing of blood prior to analysis. Moreover, while the analytical phase of clinical biochemistry is well controlled, there is a growing understanding that technical pre-analytical variables can influence analyte concentrations or activities...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
M D Jansen, B Bang Jensen, M F McLoughlin, H D Rodger, T Taksdal, H Sindre, D A Graham, A Lillehaug
Pancreas disease (PD) is a viral disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) in the seawater phase. Since its first description in Scotland in 1976, a large number of studies have been conducted relating to the disease itself and to factors contributing to agent spread and disease occurrence. This paper summarizes the currently available, scientific information on the epidemiology of PD and its associated mitigation and control measures...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Victor Schmidt, Linda Amaral-Zettler, John Davidson, Steven Summerfelt, Christopher Good
UNLABELLED: Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
J Jarungsriapisit, L J Moore, G L Taranger, T O Nilsen, H C Morton, I U Fiksdal, S Stefansson, P G Fjelldal, Ø Evensen, S Patel
BACKGROUND: Pancreas disease (PD), caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV), is an important disease affecting salmonid aquaculture. It has been speculated that Atlantic salmon post-smolts are more prone to infections in the first few weeks following seawater- transfer. After this period of seawater acclimatization, the post-smolts are more robust and better able to resist infection by pathogens. Here we describe how we established a bath immersion (BI) model for SAV subtype 3 (SAV3) in seawater...
2016: Virology Journal
Marc H G Berntssen, Robin Ørnsrud, Josef Rasinger, Liv Søfteland, Erik-Jan Lock, Kjersti Kolås, Mari Moren, Ketil Hylland, Joana Silva, Johan Johansen, Kai Lie
Several studies have reported on the interaction between vitamin A (VA) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-binding toxicants, including poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In aquaculture, the use of plant oils in novel aquafeeds can increase PAH levels while simultaneously lowering natural VA background levels, causing the need to supplement plant oil-based feeds with synthetic VA. To study dietary VA-PAH interactions, Atlantic salmon (initial weight 195±0.15g) were fed four identical plant-based diets that were supplemented with PAHs (100 and 10mgkg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (Phe), respectively) or VA (retinyl acetate 8721IUkg(-1)) separately or combined for 2...
June 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
L M Vera, H Migaud
Daily variation in the absorption, metabolism and excretion of toxic substances will ultimately determine the actual concentration to which the cells and tissues are exposed. In aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) can be frequently exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to treat topical skin and gill infections, particularly in relation to parasitic infections (e.g. sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and amoebic gill disease caused by Neoparamoeba perurans). It is well accepted that the time of administration influences pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs which in turn affects their efficacy and toxicity...
2016: Chronobiology International
Pamela Ruiz, Miguel Balado, Alicia E Toranzo, Matías Poblete-Morales, Manuel L Lemos, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera
Vibrio ordalii is the causative agent of vibriosis in several cultured salmonid species worldwide. Despite its impact on aquaculture, relatively little information is available about its virulence factors. The present study demonstrates for the first time that V. ordalii possesses different systems of iron acquisition, one involving siderophore synthesis and another one that uses direct binding of heme to use iron. Using 6 strains of V. ordalii from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and the V. ordalii type strain, we could demonstrate that all strains could grow in presence of the chelating agent 2,2'-dipyridyl and produced siderophores in solid and liquid media...
March 30, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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