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Aquaculture Salmon salar

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148974/modelling-growth-performance-and-feeding-behaviour-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-in-commercial-size-aquaculture-net-pens-model-details-and-validation-through-full-scale-experiments
#1
Martin Føre, Morten Alver, Jo Arve Alfredsen, Giancarlo Marafioti, Gunnar Senneset, Jens Birkevold, Finn Victor Willumsen, Guttorm Lange, Åsa Espmark, Bendik Fyhn Terjesen
: We have developed a mathematical model which estimates the growth performance of Atlantic salmon in aquaculture production units. The model consists of sub-models estimating the behaviour and energetics of the fish, the distribution of feed pellets, and the abiotic conditions in the water column. A field experiment where three full-scale cages stocked with 120,000 salmon each (initial mean weight 72.1  ± SD 2.8 g) were monitored over six months was used to validate the model. The model was set up to simulate fish growth for all the three cages using the feeding regimes and observed environmental data as input, and simulation results were compared with the experimental data...
November 1, 2016: Aquaculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137651/immune-gene-profiles-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-infected-with-sav3-by-bath-challenge-show-a-delayed-response-and-lower-levels-of-gene-transcription-compared-to-injected-fish
#2
L J Moore, J Jarungsriapisit, T O Nilsen, S Stefansson, G L Taranger, C J Secombes, H C Morton, S Patel
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreatic disease (PD) in salmonids in Northern Europe which results in large economic losses within the aquaculture industry. In order to better understand the underlying immune mechanisms during a SAV3 infection Atlantic salmon post-smolts were infected by either i.m.-injection or bath immersion and their immune responses compared. Analysis of viral loads showed that by 14 dpi i.m.-injected and bath immersion groups had 95.6% and 100% prevalence respectively and that both groups had developed the severe pathology typical of PD...
January 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111483/environmental-and-physiological-factors-shape-the-gut-microbiota-of-atlantic-salmon-parr-salmo-salar-l
#3
Carola E Dehler, Christopher J Secombes, Samuel A M Martin
: Gut microbes are key players in host immune system priming, protection and development, as well as providing nutrients to the host that would be otherwise unavailable. Due to this importance, studies investigating the link between host and microbe are being initiated in farmed fish. The establishment, maintenance and subsequent changes of the intestinal microbiota are central to define fish physiology and nutrition in the future. In fish, unlike mammals, acquiring intestinal microbes is believed to occur around the time of first feeding mainly from the water surrounding them and their microbial composition over time is shaped therefore by their habitat...
January 20, 2017: Aquaculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046109/dietary-yeast-cell-wall-extract-alters-the-proteome-of-the-skin-mucous-barrier-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-increased-abundance-and-expression-of-a-calreticulin-like-protein
#4
Giulia Micallef, Phillip Cash, Jorge M O Fernandes, Binoy Rajan, John W Tinsley, Ralph Bickerdike, Samuel A M Martin, Alan S Bowman
In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012776/a-novel-in-feed-delivery-platform-applied-for-oral-dna-vaccination-against-ipnv-enables-high-protection-in-atlantic-salmon-salmon-salar
#5
Miguel Reyes, Cesar Ramírez, Ivan Ñancucheo, Ricardo Villegas, Guillermo Schaffeld, Luis Kiman, Javier Gonzalez, Patricio Oyarzun
BACKGROUND: DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising tool against infectious diseases of farmed fish. Oral delivery allows stress-free administration that is ideal for mass immunization and of paramount importance for infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and other viral disease that affect young salmonids and cause economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. METHODS: We describe the development and in vivo assessment of an "in-feed" formulation strategy for oral immunization with liposomal DNA vaccines, by delivering a vaccine construct coding for an immunogenic region of the VP2 capsid protein...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905123/selective-precipitation-reaction-a-novel-diagnostic-test-for-tissue-pathology-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-infected-with-salmonid-alphavirus-sav3
#6
M Braceland, J Tinsley, D Cockerill, R Bickerdike, M F McLoughlin, P D Eckersall
While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893173/bmp15l-figla-smc1bl-and-larp6l-are-preferentially-expressed-in-germ-cells-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#7
Lene Kleppe, Rolf Brudvik Edvardsen, Tomasz Furmanek, Eva Andersson, Amélie Juanchich, Anna Wargelius
Atlantic salmon is a valuable commercial aquaculture species that would benefit economically and environmentally by controlling precocious puberty and preventing escapees from reproducing with wild populations. One solution to both these challenges is the production of sterile individuals by inhibiting the formation of germ cells, but achieving this requires more information on the specific factors that control germ cell formation. Here, we identified and characterized novel factors that are preferentially expressed in Atlantic salmon germ cells by screening for gonad-specific genes using available adult multi-tissue transcriptomes...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888129/iron-metabolism-modulation-in-atlantic-salmon-infested-with-the-sea-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-caligus-rogercresseyi-a-matter-of-nutritional-immunity
#8
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C...
November 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818345/density-dependent-effects-of-caligus-rogercresseyi-infestation-on-the-immune-responses-of-salmo-salar
#9
Sebastian Boltaña, Marcos Sanchez, Valentina Valenzuela, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice infestations are a particular concern in the salmonid aquaculture industry due to damaging effects on fish growth, disease/infection susceptibility, and survival. Despite the impacts of sea lice parasitism, few studies have determined corresponding physiological thresholds, or the quantity of sea lice that can trigger measurable effects in the host immune response. The present study evaluated the mRNA expressions of immune-related genes in Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) under infestation challenges with contrasting loads of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818337/novel-insights-into-the-response-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-to-piscirickettsia-salmonis-interplay-of-coding-genes-and-lncrnas-during-bacterial-infection
#10
Diego Valenzuela-Miranda, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Despite the high prevalence and impact to Chilean salmon aquaculture of the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, the molecular underpinnings of host-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Herein, the interplay of coding and non-coding transcripts has been proposed as a key mechanism involved in immune response. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evidence how coding and non-coding transcripts are modulated during the infection process of Atlantic salmon with P. salmonis. For this, RNA-seq was conducted in brain, spleen, and head kidney samples, revealing different transcriptional profiles according to bacterial load...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777106/in%C3%A2-vitro-modulation-of-drimys-winteri-bark-extract-and-the-active-compound-polygodial-on-salmo-salar-immune-genes-after-exposure-to%C3%A2-saprolegnia-parasitica
#11
D Pereira-Torres, A T Gonçalves, V Ulloa, R Martínez, H Carrasco, A F Olea, L Espinoza, C Gallardo-Escárate, A Astuya
The rapid development of the aquaculture industry has global concerns with health management and control strategies to prevent and/or treat diseases and increase sustainability standards. Saprolegniosis is a disease caused by Saprolegnia parasitica, and is characterized by promoting an immunosuppression in the host. This study evaluated in vitro the extract and one active compound (polygodial) of Drimys winteri, a Chilean medicinal tree as a potential early immunostimulatory aid in Saprolegniosis control. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) head kidney cells (ASK-1) were incubated with both extract and pure polygodial before exposure to S...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769313/experimental-piscine-orthoreovirus-infection-mediates-protection-against-pancreas-disease-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#12
Morten Lund, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Aleksei Krasnov, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Maria Krudtaa Dahle
Viral diseases are among the main challenges in farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The most prevalent viral diseases in Norwegian salmon aquaculture are heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) caused by Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and pancreas disease (PD) caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV). Both PRV and SAV target heart and skeletal muscles, but SAV additionally targets exocrine pancreas. PRV and SAV are often present in the same locations and co-infections occur, but the effect of this crosstalk on disease development has not been investigated...
October 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760562/relationship-between-viral-dose-and-outcome-of-infection-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-bath-challenged-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#13
Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Stig Mæhle, Cecilie Skår, Ann Cathrine Einen, Ingrid Uglenes Fiksdal, Hugh Craig Morton, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12 °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723105/arteriosclerosis-in-the-ventral-aorta-and-epicarditis-in-the-bulbus-arteriosus-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#14
A S Dalum, K H Kristthorsdottir, D J Griffiths, K Bjørklund, T T Poppe
Spontaneous mortality of seemingly healthy, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) is an increasing problem in Norwegian aquaculture. In this study, we present a morphological study of the previously undescribed syndrome of arteriosclerosis of the ventral aorta and epicarditis of the adjacent bulbus arteriosus found in farmed Atlantic salmon, with wild-captured fish as a control group. Both the ventral aorta and epicardium are vital for correct arterial compliance and vascular resistance in the respiratory capillaries of the gills...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606009/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-to-discriminate-different-classes-of-hybrid-between-wild-atlantic-salmon-and-aquaculture-escapees
#15
Victoria L Pritchard, Jaakko Erkinaro, Matthew P Kent, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Sigbjørn Lien, Craig R Primmer
Many wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations are threatened by introgressive hybridization from domesticated fish that have escaped from aquaculture facilities. A detailed understanding of the hybridization dynamics between wild salmon and aquaculture escapees requires discrimination of different hybrid classes; however, markers currently available to discriminate the two types of parental genome have limited power to do this. Using a high-density Atlantic salmon single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, in combination with pooled-sample allelotyping and an Fst outlier approach, we identified 200 SNPs that differentiated an important Atlantic salmon stock from the escapees potentially hybridizing with it...
September 2016: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594383/pcr-survey-for-paramoeba-perurans-in-fauna-environmental-samples-and-fish-associated-with-marine-farming-sites-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#16
A Hellebø, A Stene, V Aspehaug
Amoebic gill disease (AGD) caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an increasing problem in Atlantic salmon aquaculture. In the present PCR survey, the focus was to identify reservoir species or environmental samples where P. perurans could be present throughout the year, regardless of the infection status in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 1200 samples were collected at or in the proximity to farming sites with AGD, or with history of AGD, and analysed for the presence of P. perurans. No results supported biofouling organisms, salmon lice, biofilm or sediment to maintain P...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569980/a-comparison-of-the-response-of-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-siblings-to-a-commercial-furunculosis-vaccine-and-subsequent-experimental-infection-with-aeromonas-salmonicida
#17
Lynn Chalmers, Kim D Thompson, John F Taylor, Sean Black, Herve Migaud, Ben North, Alexandra Adams
Sterile triploid fish represent a solution to the problems associated with sexual maturation and escapees in aquaculture. However, as disease outbreaks continue to cause significant economic losses to the industry, it is essential that the response of triploids to disease and disease treatments be characterised. The aim of this study was to compare the response of triploid Atlantic salmon to a commercial furunculosis vaccine with that of diploid fish, and to assess the vaccine efficacy in the two ploidies through an experimental infection with Aeromonas salmonicida...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524689/case-definition-for-clinical-and-subclinical-bacterial-kidney-disease-bkd-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-in-new-brunswick-canada
#18
A S Boerlage, H Stryhn, J Sanchez, K L Hammell
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is considered an important cause of loss in salmon aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Causative agent of BKD is the Gram-positive bacteria Renibacterium salmoninarum. Infected salmon are often asymptomatic (subclinical infection), and the disease is considered chronic. One of the challenges in quantifying information from farm production and health records is the application of a standardized case definition. Case definitions for farm-level and cage-level clinical and subclinical BKD were developed using retrospective longitudinal data from aquaculture practices in New Brunswick, Canada, combining (i) industry records of weekly production data including mortalities, (ii) field observations for BKD using reports of veterinarians and/or fish health technicians, (iii) diagnostic submissions and test results and (iv) treatments used to control BKD...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515781/infections-with-gyrodactylus-spp-monogenea-in-romanian-fish-farms-gyrodactylus-salaris-malmberg-1957-extends-its-range
#19
Haakon Hansen, Călin-Decebal Cojocaru, Tor Atle Mo
BACKGROUND: The salmon parasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 has caused high mortalities in many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations, mainly in Norway. The parasite is also present in several countries across mainland Europe, principally on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, where infections do not seem to result in mortalities. There are still European countries where there are potential salmonid hosts for G. salaris but where the occurrence of G. salaris is unknown, mainly due to lack of investigations and surveillance...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493772/does-density-influence-relative-growth-performance-of-farm-wild-and-f1-hybrid-atlantic-salmon-in-semi-natural-and-hatchery-common-garden-conditions
#20
Alison C Harvey, Gareth Juleff, Gary R Carvalho, Martin I Taylor, Monica F Solberg, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar-Helge Matre, Kevin A Glover
The conditions encountered by Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in aquaculture are markedly different from the natural environment. Typically, farmed salmon experience much higher densities than wild individuals, and may therefore have adapted to living in high densities. Previous studies have demonstrated that farmed salmon typically outgrow wild salmon by large ratios in the hatchery, but these differences are much less pronounced in the wild. Such divergence in growth may be explained partly by the offspring of wild salmon experiencing higher stress and thus lower growth when compared under high-density farming conditions...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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