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Aquaculture Salmon salar

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745832/a-survey-of-salmon-gill-poxvirus-sgpv-in-wild-salmonids-in-norway
#1
Å H Garseth, M C Gjessing, T Moldal, A G Gjevre
In 2016, the Norwegian health monitoring programme for wild salmonids conducted a real-time PCR-based screening for salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) in anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), anadromous and non-anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and trout (Salmo trutta L.). SGPV was widely distributed in wild Atlantic salmon returning from marine migration. In addition, characteristic gill lesions, including apoptosis, were detected in this species. A low amount of SGPV DNA, as indicated by high Ct-values, was detected in anadromous trout, but only in fish cohabiting with SGPV-positive salmon...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745821/comparative-pathogenesis-of-piscirickettsiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolt-experimentally-challenged-with-lf-89-like-and-em-90-like-piscirickettsia-salmonis-isolates
#2
M Rozas-Serri, R Ildefonso, A Peña, R Enríquez, S Barrientos, L Maldonado
Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) is the most prevalent bacterial disease in Chilean salmon aquaculture and is responsible for high economic losses. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize the pathogenesis of SRS in post-smolt Atlantic salmon during the early and late stages of infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89-like (PS-LF-89) and EM-90-like (PS-EM-90) using a cohabitation challenge. The pathogenesis of cohabitant fish infected with the two isolates was relatively different due to cohabitant fish infected with PS-EM-90 showing higher cumulative mortality and shorter time until death compared with PS-LF-89 fish...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#3
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700748/hypoxia-tolerance-and-responses-to-hypoxic-stress-during-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#4
Morten Lund, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Marta Alarcon, Mark Powell, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Sven Martin Jørgensen
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674437/response-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-to-temperature-and-dissolved-oxygen-extremes-established-using-animal-borne-environmental-sensors
#5
Kilian M Stehfest, Chris G Carter, Jaime D McAllister, Jeff D Ross, Jayson M Semmens
Understanding how aquatic species respond to extremes of DO and temperature is crucial for determining how they will be affected by climate change, which is predicted to increasingly expose them to levels beyond their optima. In this study we used novel animal-borne DO, temperature and depth sensors to determine the effect of extremes of DO and temperature on the vertical habitat use of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in aquaculture cages. Salmon showed a preference for temperatures around 16.5 to 17.5 °C, however, selection of preferred temperatures was trumped by active avoidance of low DO (<35% saturation) at the bottom of the cage...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613984/primary-isolation-and-characterization-of-tenacibaculum-maritimum-from-chilean-atlantic-salmon-mortalities-associated-with-a-pseudochatonella-spp-algal-bloom
#6
Patricia Apablaza, Kathleen Frisch, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Sverre Bang Småge, Camilla Vallestad, Henrik Duesund, Julio Mendoza, Are Nylund
This study presents the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile. The isolate, designated T. maritimum Ch-2402, was isolated from gills of Atlantic salmon in a farm located in region X, Los Lagos Chile, during the harmful algal bloom caused by Pseudochattonella spp. in February 2016. The algal bloom is reported to have caused 40,000 tons of mortality in this salmon farming area. The bacterium, T. maritimum is recognized as an important pathogen of marine fish worldwide causing tenacibaculosis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507190/the-effect-of-thermal-acclimation-on-aerobic-scope-and-critical-swimming-speed-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#7
Malthe Hvas, Ole Folkedal, Albert Imsland, Frode Oppedal
The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied due to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for four weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of ten per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492111/a-comparison-of-disease-susceptibility-and-innate-immune-response-between-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-siblings-following-experimental-infection-with-neoparamoeba-perurans-causative-agent-of-amoebic-gill-disease
#8
Lynn Chalmers, John F Taylor, William Roy, Andrew C Preston, Herve Migaud, Alexandra Adams
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry...
May 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474104/the-biofilteration-ability-of-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-to-reduce-aeromonas-salmonicida-in-salmon-culture
#9
Xiaona Ma, Xian Li, Guoxiang Sun, Zaki Zaki Sharawy, Tianlong Qiu, Yishuai Du, Ying Liu
Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults)...
May 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449237/the-environmental-and-host-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-arctic-seawater-farmed-atlantic-salmon-with-ulcerative-disorders
#10
C Karlsen, K F Ottem, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, M Davey, H Sørum, H C Winther-Larsen
The Norwegian aquaculture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is hampered by ulcerative disorders associated with bacterial infections. Chronic ulceration may provide microenvironments that disturb the normal microbial biodiversity of external surfaces. Studying the composition of microbial communities in skin ulcers will enhance our understanding of ulcer aetiology. To achieve this, we tested marine farmed Atlantic salmon and sampled the base and edge of ulcers at the end of winter (April) and end of summer (September), in addition to skin mucus of healthy individuals...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433720/establishment-of-a-non-invasive-method-for-stress-evaluation-in-farmed-salmon-based-on-direct-fecal-corticoid-metabolites-measurement
#11
Yanran Cao, Ann-Kristin Tveten, Anne Stene
Fish welfare is an important issue for growth of the aquaculture industry. Stress responses represent animal's natural reactions to challenging conditions and could be used as a welfare indicator. Cortisol level is relevant to fish welfare condition, and is a readily measured component of the primary stress response system. Generally, cortisol is measured by blood sampling. However, fish blood cortisol level could be instantly influenced by handling-stress at sampling. Fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) are a mixture of several different metabolites with a wide range of polarities...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413727/a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-the-initial-validation-of-a-single-cell-protein-as-an-alternative-protein-source-for-use-in-aquafeeds
#12
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403165/triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-accumulate-prevalence-more-slowly-than-diploid-salmon-following-bath-challenge-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#13
Lindsey J Moore, Tom Ole Nilsen, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373064/in-the-shadow-the-emerging-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-immune-response-of-atlantic-salmon
#14
E Tarifeño-Saldivia, D Valenzuela-Miranda, C Gallardo-Escárate
The genomic era has increased the research effort to uncover how the genome of an organism, and specifically the transcriptome, is modulated after interplaying with pathogenic microorganisms and ectoparasites. However, the ever-increasing accessibility of sequencing technology has also evidenced regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to several biological processes including immune response. This study reports a high-confidence annotation and a comparative transcriptome analysis of lncRNAs from several tissues of Salmo salar infected with the most prevalent pathogens in the Chilean salmon aquaculture such as the infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi...
March 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323214/immunological-interactions-between-piscine-orthoreovirus-and-salmonid-alphavirus-infections-in-atlantic-salmon
#15
Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Morten Lund, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Turhan Markussen, Vidar Aspehaug, Hilde Sindre, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and pancreas disease (PD) cause substantial losses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. The respective causative agents, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), are widespread and often concurrently present in farmed salmon. An experimental infection in Atlantic salmon was conducted to study the interaction between the two viruses, including the immunological mechanisms involved. The co-infected fish were infected with PRV four or ten weeks before they were infected with SAV...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266549/parasitism-perturbs-the-mucosal-microbiome-of-atlantic-salmon
#16
M S Llewellyn, S Leadbeater, C Garcia, F-E Sylvain, M Custodio, K P Ang, F Powell, G R Carvalho, S Creer, J Elliot, N Derome
Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265514/an-extremely-sensitive-nested-pcr-rflp-mitochondrial-marker-for-detection-and-identification-of-salmonids-in-edna-from-water-samples
#17
Laura Clusa, Alba Ardura, Sara Fernández, Agustín A Roca, Eva García-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Salmonids are native from the North Hemisphere but have been introduced for aquaculture and sport fishing in the South Hemisphere and inhabit most rivers and lakes in temperate and cold regions worldwide. Five species are included in the Global Invasive Species Database: rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. In contrast, other salmonids are endangered in their native settings...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254501/a-bead-based-multiplex-immunoassay-detects-piscine-orthoreovirus-specific-antibodies-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#18
Lena Hammerlund Teige, Morten Lund, Hanne M Haatveit, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Øystein Wessel, Maria K Dahle, Anne K Storset
Future growth in aquaculture relies strongly on the control of diseases and pathogens. Vaccination has been a successful strategy for obtaining control of bacterial diseases in fish, but for viral diseases, vaccine development has been more challenging. Effective long-term protection against viral infections is not yet fully understood for fish, and in addition, optimal tools to monitor adaptive immunity are limited. Assays that can detect specific antibodies produced in response to viral infection in fish are still in their early development...
April 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235829/a-dense-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-linkage-map-reveals-recent-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-the-salmo-genus-and-the-impact-of-selection-on-linked-neutral-diversity
#19
Maeva Leitwein, Bruno Guinand, Juliette Pouzadoux, Erick Desmarais, Patrick Berrebi, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses...
April 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148974/modelling-growth-performance-and-feeding-behaviour-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-in-commercial-size-aquaculture-net-pens-model-details-and-validation-through-full-scale-experiments
#20
Martin Føre, Morten Alver, Jo Arve Alfredsen, Giancarlo Marafioti, Gunnar Senneset, Jens Birkevold, Finn Victor Willumsen, Guttorm Lange, Åsa Espmark, Bendik Fyhn Terjesen
We have developed a mathematical model which estimates the growth performance of Atlantic salmon in aquaculture production units. The model consists of sub-models estimating the behaviour and energetics of the fish, the distribution of feed pellets, and the abiotic conditions in the water column. A field experiment where three full-scale cages stocked with 120,000 salmon each (initial mean weight 72.1  ± SD 2.8 g) were monitored over six months was used to validate the model. The model was set up to simulate fish growth for all the three cages using the feeding regimes and observed environmental data as input, and simulation results were compared with the experimental data...
November 1, 2016: Aquaculture
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