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Aquaculture Salmon salar

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507190/the-effect-of-thermal-acclimation-on-aerobic-scope-and-critical-swimming-speed-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#1
Malthe Hvas, Ole Folkedal, Albert Imsland, Frode Oppedal
The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied due to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for four weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of ten per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492111/a-comparison-of-disease-susceptibility-and-innate-immune-response-between-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-siblings-following-experimental-infection-with-neoparamoeba-perurans-causative-agent-of-amoebic-gill-disease
#2
Lynn Chalmers, John F Taylor, William Roy, Andrew C Preston, Herve Migaud, Alexandra Adams
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry...
May 11, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474104/the-biofilteration-ability-of-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-to-reduce-aeromonas-salmonicida-in-salmon-culture
#3
Xiaona Ma, Xian Li, Guoxiang Sun, Zaki Zaki Sharawy, Tianlong Qiu, Yishuai Du, Ying Liu
Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults)...
May 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449237/the-environmental-and-host-associated-bacterial-microbiota-of-arctic-seawater-farmed-atlantic-salmon-with-ulcerative-disorders
#4
C Karlsen, K F Ottem, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, M Davey, H Sørum, H C Winther-Larsen
The Norwegian aquaculture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) is hampered by ulcerative disorders associated with bacterial infections. Chronic ulceration may provide microenvironments that disturb the normal microbial biodiversity of external surfaces. Studying the composition of microbial communities in skin ulcers will enhance our understanding of ulcer aetiology. To achieve this, we tested marine farmed Atlantic salmon and sampled the base and edge of ulcers at the end of winter (April) and end of summer (September), in addition to skin mucus of healthy individuals...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433720/establishment-of-a-non-invasive-method-for-stress-evaluation-in-farmed-salmon-based-on-direct-fecal-corticoid-metabolites-measurement
#5
Yanran Cao, Ann-Kristin Tveten, Anne Stene
Fish welfare is an important issue for growth of the aquaculture industry. Stress responses represent animal's natural reactions to challenging conditions and could be used as a welfare indicator. Cortisol level is relevant to fish welfare condition, and is a readily measured component of the primary stress response system. Generally, cortisol is measured by blood sampling. However, fish blood cortisol level could be instantly influenced by handling-stress at sampling. Fecal corticoid metabolites (FCM) are a mixture of several different metabolites with a wide range of polarities...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413727/a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-the-initial-validation-of-a-single-cell-protein-as-an-alternative-protein-source-for-use-in-aquafeeds
#6
Michael Tlusty, Andrew Rhyne, Joseph T Szczebak, Bradford Bourque, Jennifer L Bowen, Gary Burr, Christopher J Marx, Lawrence Feinberg
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as a protein source for use in aquaculture feed, a number of steps need to be validated including demonstrating that the SCP is accepted by the species in question, leads to equivalent survival and growth, does not result in illness or other maladies, is palatable to the consumer, is cost effective to produce and can easily be incorporated into diets using existing technology...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403165/triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-accumulate-prevalence-more-slowly-than-diploid-salmon-following-bath-challenge-with-salmonid-alphavirus-subtype-3
#7
Lindsey J Moore, Tom Ole Nilsen, Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) may play an important role in the sustainable expansion of the Norwegian aquaculture industry. Therefore, the susceptibility of triploid salmon to common infections such as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causative agent of pancreas disease (PD), requires investigation. In this study, shortly after seawater transfer, diploid and triploid post-smolts were exposed to SAV type 3 (SAV3) using a bath challenge model where the infectious dose was 48 TCID50 ml-1 of tank water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373064/in-the-shadow-the-emerging-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-immune-response-of-atlantic-salmon
#8
E Tarifeño-Saldivia, D Valenzuela-Miranda, C Gallardo-Escárate
The genomic era has increased the research effort to uncover how the genome of an organism, and specifically the transcriptome, is modulated after interplaying with pathogenic microorganisms and ectoparasites. However, the ever-increasing accessibility of sequencing technology has also evidenced regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to several biological processes including immune response. This study reports a high-confidence annotation and a comparative transcriptome analysis of lncRNAs from several tissues of Salmo salar infected with the most prevalent pathogens in the Chilean salmon aquaculture such as the infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi...
March 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323214/immunological-interactions-between-piscine-orthoreovirus-and-salmonid-alphavirus-infections-in-atlantic-salmon
#9
Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Morten Lund, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Turhan Markussen, Vidar Aspehaug, Hilde Sindre, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) and pancreas disease (PD) cause substantial losses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. The respective causative agents, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) and Salmonid alphavirus (SAV), are widespread and often concurrently present in farmed salmon. An experimental infection in Atlantic salmon was conducted to study the interaction between the two viruses, including the immunological mechanisms involved. The co-infected fish were infected with PRV four or ten weeks before they were infected with SAV...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266549/parasitism-perturbs-the-mucosal-microbiome-of-atlantic-salmon
#10
M S Llewellyn, S Leadbeater, C Garcia, F-E Sylvain, M Custodio, K P Ang, F Powell, G R Carvalho, S Creer, J Elliot, N Derome
Interactions between parasite, host and host-associated microbiota are increasingly understood as important determinants of disease progression and morbidity. Salmon lice, including the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis and related species, are perhaps the most important problem facing Atlantic Salmon aquaculture after feed sustainability. Salmon lice parasitize the surface of the fish, feeding off mucus, scales and underlying tissue. Secondary bacterial infections are a major source of associated morbidity...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265514/an-extremely-sensitive-nested-pcr-rflp-mitochondrial-marker-for-detection-and-identification-of-salmonids-in-edna-from-water-samples
#11
Laura Clusa, Alba Ardura, Sara Fernández, Agustín A Roca, Eva García-Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Salmonids are native from the North Hemisphere but have been introduced for aquaculture and sport fishing in the South Hemisphere and inhabit most rivers and lakes in temperate and cold regions worldwide. Five species are included in the Global Invasive Species Database: rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. In contrast, other salmonids are endangered in their native settings...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254501/a-bead-based-multiplex-immunoassay-detects-piscine-orthoreovirus-specific-antibodies-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#12
Lena Hammerlund Teige, Morten Lund, Hanne M Haatveit, Magnus Vikan Røsæg, Øystein Wessel, Maria K Dahle, Anne K Storset
Future growth in aquaculture relies strongly on the control of diseases and pathogens. Vaccination has been a successful strategy for obtaining control of bacterial diseases in fish, but for viral diseases, vaccine development has been more challenging. Effective long-term protection against viral infections is not yet fully understood for fish, and in addition, optimal tools to monitor adaptive immunity are limited. Assays that can detect specific antibodies produced in response to viral infection in fish are still in their early development...
April 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235829/a-dense-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-linkage-map-reveals-recent-chromosomal-rearrangements-in-the-salmo-genus-and-the-impact-of-selection-on-linked-neutral-diversity
#13
Maeva Leitwein, Bruno Guinand, Juliette Pouzadoux, Erick Desmarais, Patrick Berrebi, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
High-density linkage maps are valuable tools for conservation and eco-evolutionary issues. In salmonids, a complex rediploidization process consecutive to an ancient whole genome duplication event makes linkage maps of prime importance for investigating the evolutionary history of chromosome rearrangements. Here, we developed a high-density consensus linkage map for the brown trout (Salmo trutta), a socioeconomically important species heavily impacted by human activities. A total of 3977 ddRAD markers were mapped and ordered in 40 linkage groups using sex- and lineage-averaged recombination distances obtained from two family crosses...
April 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148974/modelling-growth-performance-and-feeding-behaviour-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-in-commercial-size-aquaculture-net-pens-model-details-and-validation-through-full-scale-experiments
#14
Martin Føre, Morten Alver, Jo Arve Alfredsen, Giancarlo Marafioti, Gunnar Senneset, Jens Birkevold, Finn Victor Willumsen, Guttorm Lange, Åsa Espmark, Bendik Fyhn Terjesen
We have developed a mathematical model which estimates the growth performance of Atlantic salmon in aquaculture production units. The model consists of sub-models estimating the behaviour and energetics of the fish, the distribution of feed pellets, and the abiotic conditions in the water column. A field experiment where three full-scale cages stocked with 120,000 salmon each (initial mean weight 72.1  ± SD 2.8 g) were monitored over six months was used to validate the model. The model was set up to simulate fish growth for all the three cages using the feeding regimes and observed environmental data as input, and simulation results were compared with the experimental data...
November 1, 2016: Aquaculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137651/immune-gene-profiles-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolts-infected-with-sav3-by-bath-challenge-show-a-delayed-response-and-lower-levels-of-gene-transcription-compared-to-injected-fish
#15
L J Moore, J Jarungsriapisit, T O Nilsen, S Stefansson, G L Taranger, C J Secombes, H C Morton, S Patel
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreatic disease (PD) in salmonids in Northern Europe which results in large economic losses within the aquaculture industry. In order to better understand the underlying immune mechanisms during a SAV3 infection Atlantic salmon post-smolts were infected by either i.m.-injection or bath immersion and their immune responses compared. Analysis of viral loads showed that by 14 dpi i.m.-injected and bath immersion groups had 95.6% and 100% prevalence respectively and that both groups had developed the severe pathology typical of PD...
March 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111483/environmental-and-physiological-factors-shape-the-gut-microbiota-of-atlantic-salmon-parr-salmo-salar-l
#16
Carola E Dehler, Christopher J Secombes, Samuel A M Martin
Gut microbes are key players in host immune system priming, protection and development, as well as providing nutrients to the host that would be otherwise unavailable. Due to this importance, studies investigating the link between host and microbe are being initiated in farmed fish. The establishment, maintenance and subsequent changes of the intestinal microbiota are central to define fish physiology and nutrition in the future. In fish, unlike mammals, acquiring intestinal microbes is believed to occur around the time of first feeding mainly from the water surrounding them and their microbial composition over time is shaped therefore by their habitat...
January 20, 2017: Aquaculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046109/dietary-yeast-cell-wall-extract-alters-the-proteome-of-the-skin-mucous-barrier-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-increased-abundance-and-expression-of-a-calreticulin-like-protein
#17
Giulia Micallef, Phillip Cash, Jorge M O Fernandes, Binoy Rajan, John W Tinsley, Ralph Bickerdike, Samuel A M Martin, Alan S Bowman
In order to improve fish health and reduce use of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture production, the immunomodulatory effect of various nutritional ingredients has been explored. In salmon, there is evidence that functional feeds can reduce the abundance of sea lice. This study aimed to determine if there were consistent changes in the skin mucus proteome that could serve as a biomarker for dietary yeast cell wall extract. The effect of dietary yeast cell wall extract on the skin mucus proteome of Atlantic salmon was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012776/a-novel-in-feed-delivery-platform-applied-for-oral-dna-vaccination-against-ipnv-enables-high-protection-in-atlantic-salmon-salmon-salar
#18
Miguel Reyes, Cesar Ramírez, Ivan Ñancucheo, Ricardo Villegas, Guillermo Schaffeld, Luis Kiman, Javier Gonzalez, Patricio Oyarzun
BACKGROUND: DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising tool against infectious diseases of farmed fish. Oral delivery allows stress-free administration that is ideal for mass immunization and of paramount importance for infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and other viral disease that affect young salmonids and cause economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. METHODS: We describe the development and in vivo assessment of an "in-feed" formulation strategy for oral immunization with liposomal DNA vaccines, by delivering a vaccine construct coding for an immunogenic region of the VP2 capsid protein...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905123/selective-precipitation-reaction-a-novel-diagnostic-test-for-tissue-pathology-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-infected-with-salmonid-alphavirus-sav3
#19
M Braceland, J Tinsley, D Cockerill, R Bickerdike, M F McLoughlin, P D Eckersall
While investigating biomarkers for infection with salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the cause of pancreas disease (PD), a selective precipitation reaction (SPR) has been discovered in serum which could be an on-farm qualitative test and an in-laboratory quantitative assay for health assessments in aquaculture. Mixing serum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with SAV infection with a sodium acetate buffer caused a visible precipitation which does not occur with serum from healthy salmon. Proteomic examination of the precipitate has revealed that the components are a mix of muscle proteins, for example enolase and aldolase, along with serum protein such as serotransferrin and complement C9...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893173/bmp15l-figla-smc1bl-and-larp6l-are-preferentially-expressed-in-germ-cells-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#20
Lene Kleppe, Rolf Brudvik Edvardsen, Tomasz Furmanek, Eva Andersson, Amélie Juanchich, Anna Wargelius
Atlantic salmon is a valuable commercial aquaculture species that would benefit economically and environmentally by controlling precocious puberty and preventing escapees from reproducing with wild populations. One solution to both these challenges is the production of sterile individuals by inhibiting the formation of germ cells, but achieving this requires more information on the specific factors that control germ cell formation. Here, we identified and characterized novel factors that are preferentially expressed in Atlantic salmon germ cells by screening for gonad-specific genes using available adult multi-tissue transcriptomes...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
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