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Aquaculture Salmon salar

Atle Lillehaug, Christine Børnes, Kari Grave
The sales and prescription of antibacterials for use in Norwegian fish-farming according to diagnosis, fish species and production stage from 2011 to 2016 are analysed. The study is based on antibacterial sales data from wholesalers, pharmacies and feed mills and on prescription data obtained from a register of all prescriptions of antibacterials used in farmed fish. The results show that the fish-farming industry uses very small volumes of antibacterials. In 2016, a total of 212 kg were sold; the only antibacterial substances sold were florfenicol and oxolinic acid...
May 7, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Huiping Yang, E Hu, John T Buchanan, Terrence R Tiersch
Sperm cryopreservation is an essential tool for long-term storage of genetic resources for aquaculture fishes. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient and streamlined protocol for high-throughput processing for sperm cryopreservation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar . The objectives were to evaluate: 1) osmolality of blood serum for determining extender osmolality; 2) effects of extenders for fresh sperm dilution and refrigerated storage; 3) effects of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on fresh sperm motility, and 4) motility and fertility after thawing...
February 2018: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Carina Caldeira, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Megan Hassane, Patrick Martin, Carles Soler
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an endangered freshwater species that needs help to recover its wild stocks. However, the priority in aquaculture is to obtain successful fertilisation and genetic variability to secure the revival of the species. The aims of the present work were to study sperm subpopulation structure and motility patterns in wild anadromous males and farmed male Atlantic salmon parr. Salmon sperm samples were collected from wild anadromous salmon (WS) and two generations of farmed parr males...
April 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
I Moore, J A Dodd, M Newton, C W Bean, I Lindsay, P Jarosz, C E Adams
A total of 230 anadromous Salmo trutta (brown trout) were sampled in five sheltered coastal fjords (or sea lochs) on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, U.K., in 2016 at varying distances from active Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms. Statistical models were developed to investigate potential correlations between salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis burdens on S. trutta hosts and their proximity to S. salar farm cages. Significant correlations were found between lice burdens and fish fork length and proximity to the nearest S...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Håvard Ø Eggestøl, Harald S Lunde, Anita Rønneseth, David Fredman, Kjell Petersen, Charitra K Mishra, Tomasz Furmanek, Duncan J Colquhoun, Heidrun I Wergeland, Gyri T Haugland
We performed RNA sequencing, identified components of the immune system and mapped early immune responses of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) leukocytes following in vitro exposure to the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum O1. This is the first characterization of immune molecules in lumpfish at the gene level. In silico analyses revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in pathogen recognition, cell signaling and cytokines in mammals and teleosts are conserved in lumpfish. Unique molecules were also identified...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kerstin Krätschmer, Cristian Cojocariu, Alexander Schächtele, Rainer Malisch, Walter Vetter
For decades, high quantities of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCP) have been widely used, for instance as plasticizers or flame retardants, leading to global pollution due to unintentional emissions from products or waste. Due to the high complexity of chlorinated paraffins with several thousand congeners there is no consensus on an analytical procedure for SCCPs and MCCPs in food samples. Amongst the multitude of methods currently in use, high-resolution mass spectrometry is particularly valuable for in-depth studies of homologue patterns...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
M D Powell, Å Åtland, T Dale
Jellyfish-induced gill pathology relies upon occasional diagnostic observations yet the extent and impact of jellyfish blooms on aquaculture may be significant. Idiopathic gill lesions are often observed in apparently healthy fish. This study exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts to macerated Cyanea capillata at 2.5 and 5 g/L for 2 hr under controlled laboratory conditions. Blood chemistry and gill histopathology were examined over a subsequent 4-week period. Fish showed an acute response to the presence of jellyfish, including characteristic external "whiplash" discoloration of the skin and acute increases in blood electrolytes and CO2 concentration; however, these were resolved within 4 days after exposure...
May 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Madeleine Carruthers, Andrey A Yurchenko, Julian J Augley, Colin E Adams, Pawel Herzyk, Kathryn R Elmer
BACKGROUND: Salmonid fishes exhibit high levels of phenotypic and ecological variation and are thus ideal model systems for studying evolutionary processes of adaptive divergence and speciation. Furthermore, salmonids are of major interest in fisheries, aquaculture, and conservation research. Improving understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying traits in these species would significantly progress research in these fields. Here we generate high quality de novo transcriptomes for four salmonid species: Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)...
January 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
A S Boerlage, A Elghafghuf, H Stryhn, J Sanchez, K L Hammell
Infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum, the cause of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) occurs in salmon populations in many locations, including the east coast of Canada. However, information about risk factors for BKD and their effects in the saltwater phase of the salmon aquaculture industry in the region is inadequate. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using industry health records in which BKD was recorded in New Brunswick, Canada, between 2006 and 2012. Several risk factors for BKD, such as stocking season, mortality percentage in the first four weeks, food conversion ratio (FCR), lice treatment, Bay Management Area (BMA), and production year were analyzed in a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models with cross-classified random effects to account for the structure of the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Lene Rydal Sveen, Fabian Thomas Grammes, Elisabeth Ytteborg, Harald Takle, Sven Martin Jørgensen
The aim of this study was to identify potential mucin genes in the Atlantic salmon genome and evaluate tissue-specific distribution and transcriptional regulation in response to aquaculture-relevant stress conditions in post-smolts. Seven secreted gel-forming mucin genes were identified based on several layers of evidence; annotation, transcription, phylogeny and domain structure. Two genes were annotated as muc2 and five genes as muc5. The muc2 genes were predominantly transcribed in the intestinal region while the different genes in the muc5 family were mainly transcribed in either skin, gill or pyloric caeca...
2017: PloS One
L M Vera, C Metochis, J F Taylor, M Clarkson, K H Skjærven, H Migaud, D R Tocher
BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Giusi Minniti, Live Heldal Hagen, Davide Porcellato, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Phillip B Pope, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sverre Bang Småge, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Kathleen Frisch, Kuninori Watanabe, Henrik Duesund, Are Nylund
Tenacibaculosis is an increasing problem in the Norwegian Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry causing significant economic losses. In September 2015, two separate outbreaks of suspected tenacibaculosis occurred at two Atlantic salmon farms in Finnmark County in Northern Norway. The events resulted in major losses of smolts newly transferred into seawater. Prior to, and during the outbreaks, large numbers of small jellyfish, identified as Dipleurosoma typicum (Boeck) were observed in the vicinity of the farms and inside the net-pens...
2017: PloS One
Max Troell, Arne Eide, John Isaksen, Øystein Hermansen, Anne-Sophie Crépin
We review current knowledge about climate change impacts on Arctic seafood production. Large-scale changes in the Arctic marine food web can be expected for the next 40-100 years. Possible future trajectories under climate change for Arctic capture fisheries anticipate the movement of aquatic species into new waters and changed the dynamics of existing species. Negative consequences are expected for some fish stocks but others like the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) may instead increase. Arctic aquaculture that constitutes about 2% of global farming is mainly made up of Norwegian salmon (Salmo salar) farming...
December 2017: Ambio
Hyoeun Kim, Roktaek Lim, Young-Il Seo, Dongwoo Sheen
Fish growth models are widely used in fisheries as well in aquacultures and ecology. Water temperature is one of the most important factors determining the growth of fish. In the present study, we propose a growth model that includes the effect of water temperature on the growth in the von Bertalanffy growth model. Our model was applied to fit the growth data of bullhead (Cottus gobio), brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), juvenile salmon (Salmo salar), and Araucanian herring (Strangomera bentincki). The model reproduces the growth patterns of each species and fits a set of appropriate parameter values for each species...
December 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
R Hoare, S-J Jung, T P H Ngo, K Bartie, J Bailey, K D Thompson, A Adams
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome which has had a major impact on global salmonid aquaculture. Recent outbreaks in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and Chile have added to the need for a vaccine to protect both salmon and trout. At present no licensed vaccines are available in Europe, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to contain disease outbreaks. Outbreaks generally occur in fry at temperatures between 10 and 15 °C. Recently outbreaks in larger fish have given added impetus to the development of a vaccine which can provide long term protection from this highly heterogeneous pathogen...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Laura M Braden, Karina J Rasmussen, Sara L Purcell, Lauren Ellis, Amelia Mahony, Steven Cho, Shona K Whyte, Simon R M Jones, Mark D Fast
The histozoic myxozoan parasite Kudoa thyrsites causes postmortem myoliquefaction and is responsible for economic losses to salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest. Despite its importance, little is known about the host-parasite relationship, including the host response to infection. The present work sought to characterize the immune response in Atlantic salmon during infection, recovery, and reexposure to K. thyrsites After exposure to infective seawater, infected and uninfected smolts were sampled three times over 4,275 degree-days...
January 2018: Infection and Immunity
Dane H Klinger, Simon A Levin, James R Watson
Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tharangani K Herath, Angela J Ashby, Nilantha S Jayasuriya, James E Bron, John F Taylor, Alexandra Adams, Randolph H Richards, Manfred Weidmann, Hugh W Ferguson, John B Taggart, Herve Migaud, Mark J Fordyce, Kim D Thompson
With increasing interest in the use of triploid salmon in commercial aquaculture, gaining an understanding of how economically important pathogens affect triploid stocks is important. To compare the susceptibility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to viral pathogens, fry were experimentally infected with Salmonid alphavirus sub-type 1 (SAV1), the aetiological agent of pancreas disease (PD) affecting Atlantic salmon aquaculture in Europe. Three groups of fry were exposed to the virus via different routes of infection: intraperitoneal injection (IP), bath immersion, or cohabitation (co-hab) and untreated fry were used as a control group...
2017: PloS One
Khalil Eslamloo, Xi Xue, Jennifer R Hall, Nicole C Smith, Albert Caballero-Solares, Christopher C Parrish, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability and high cost of fish oil in the face of increasing aquaculture production, there is a need to reduce usage of fish oil in aquafeeds without compromising farm fish health. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine if different levels of vegetable and fish oils can alter antiviral responses of salmon macrophage-like cells (MLCs). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets containing 7.4% (FO7) or 5.1% (FO5) fish oil. These diets were designed to be relatively low in EPA + DHA (i...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
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