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Aquaculture Salmon salar

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104567/the-skin-mucus-microbial-community-of-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#1
Giusi Minniti, Live Heldal Hagen, Davide Porcellato, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Phillip B Pope, Gustav Vaaje-Kolstad
The skin of the teleost is a flexible and scaled structure that protects the fish toward the external environment. The outermost surface of the skin is coated with mucus, which is believed to be colonized by a diverse bacterial community (commensal and/or opportunistic). Little is known about such communities and their role in fish welfare. In aquaculture, fish seem to be more susceptible to pathogens compared to wild fish. Indeed common fish farming practices may play important roles in promoting their vulnerability, possibly by causing changes to their microbiomes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095885/concurrent-jellyfish-blooms-and-tenacibaculosis-outbreaks-in-northern-norwegian-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-farms
#2
Sverre Bang Småge, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Kathleen Frisch, Kuninori Watanabe, Henrik Duesund, Are Nylund
Tenacibaculosis is an increasing problem in the Norwegian Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry causing significant economic losses. In September 2015, two separate outbreaks of suspected tenacibaculosis occurred at two Atlantic salmon farms in Finnmark County in Northern Norway. The events resulted in major losses of smolts newly transferred into seawater. Prior to, and during the outbreaks, large numbers of small jellyfish, identified as Dipleurosoma typicum (Boeck) were observed in the vicinity of the farms and inside the net-pens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080009/seafood-from-a-changing-arctic
#3
Max Troell, Arne Eide, John Isaksen, Øystein Hermansen, Anne-Sophie Crépin
We review current knowledge about climate change impacts on Arctic seafood production. Large-scale changes in the Arctic marine food web can be expected for the next 40-100 years. Possible future trajectories under climate change for Arctic capture fisheries anticipate the movement of aquatic species into new waters and changed the dynamics of existing species. Negative consequences are expected for some fish stocks but others like the Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) may instead increase. Arctic aquaculture that constitutes about 2% of global farming is mainly made up of Norwegian salmon (Salmo salar) farming...
October 27, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031587/a-modified-von-bertalanffy-growth-model-dependent-on-temperature-and-body-size
#4
Hyoeun Kim, Roktaek Lim, Young-Il Seo, Dongwoo Sheen
Fish growth models are widely used in fisheries as well in aquacultures and ecology. Water temperature is one of the most important factors determining the growth of fish. In the present study, we propose a growth model that includes the effect of water temperature on the growth in the von Bertalanffy growth model. Our model was applied to fit the growth data of bullhead (Cottus gobio), brown trout (Salmo trutta L.), juvenile salmon (Salmo salar), and Araucanian herring (Strangomera bentincki). The model reproduces the growth patterns of each species and fits a set of appropriate parameter values for each species...
October 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017943/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-non-mineral-oil-adjuvanted-injectable-vaccine-for-the-protection-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-against-flavobacterium-psychrophilum
#5
R Hoare, S-J Jung, T P H Ngo, K Bartie, J Bailey, K D Thompson, A Adams
Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome which has had a major impact on global salmonid aquaculture. Recent outbreaks in Atlantic salmon in Scotland and Chile have added to the need for a vaccine to protect both salmon and trout. At present no licensed vaccines are available in Europe, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to contain disease outbreaks. Outbreaks generally occur in fry at temperatures between 10 and 15 °C. Recently outbreaks in larger fish have given added impetus to the development of a vaccine which can provide long term protection from this highly heterogeneous pathogen...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993459/acquired-protective-immunity-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-against-the-myxozoan-kudoa-thyrsites-involves-induction-of-mhii%C3%AE-cd83-antigen-presenting-cells
#6
Laura M Braden, Karina J Rasmussen, Sara L Purcell, Lauren Ellis, Amelia Mahony, Steven Cho, Shona K Whyte, Simon R M Jones, Mark D Fast
The histozoic myxozoan parasite Kudoa thyrsites causes post-mortem myoliquefaction and is responsible for economic losses to salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest. Despite its importance, little is known about the host-parasite relationship, including the host response to infection. The present work sought to characterize the immune response in Atlantic salmon during infection, recovery and re-exposure to K. thyrsites After exposure to infective seawater, infected and uninfected smolts were sampled three times over 4275 degree-days...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978724/the-growth-of-finfish-in-global-open-ocean-aquaculture-under-climate-change
#7
Dane H Klinger, Simon A Levin, James R Watson
Aquaculture production is projected to expand from land-based operations to the open ocean as demand for seafood grows and competition increases for inputs to land-based aquaculture, such as freshwater and suitable land. In contrast to land-based production, open-ocean aquaculture is constrained by oceanographic factors, such as current speeds and seawater temperature, which are dynamic in time and space, and cannot easily be controlled. As such, the potential for offshore aquaculture to increase seafood production is tied to the physical state of the oceans...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949966/impact-of-salmonid-alphavirus-infection-in-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-fry
#8
Tharangani K Herath, Angela J Ashby, Nilantha S Jayasuriya, James E Bron, John F Taylor, Alexandra Adams, Randolph H Richards, Manfred Weidmann, Hugh W Ferguson, John B Taggart, Herve Migaud, Mark J Fordyce, Kim D Thompson
With increasing interest in the use of triploid salmon in commercial aquaculture, gaining an understanding of how economically important pathogens affect triploid stocks is important. To compare the susceptibility of diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to viral pathogens, fry were experimentally infected with Salmonid alphavirus sub-type 1 (SAV1), the aetiological agent of pancreas disease (PD) affecting Atlantic salmon aquaculture in Europe. Three groups of fry were exposed to the virus via different routes of infection: intraperitoneal injection (IP), bath immersion, or cohabitation (co-hab) and untreated fry were used as a control group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886690/transcriptome-profiling-of-antiviral-immune-and-dietary-fatty-acid-dependent-responses-of-atlantic-salmon-macrophage-like-cells
#9
Khalil Eslamloo, Xi Xue, Jennifer R Hall, Nicole C Smith, Albert Caballero-Solares, Christopher C Parrish, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability and high cost of fish oil in the face of increasing aquaculture production, there is a need to reduce usage of fish oil in aquafeeds without compromising farm fish health. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine if different levels of vegetable and fish oils can alter antiviral responses of salmon macrophage-like cells (MLCs). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets containing 7.4% (FO7) or 5.1% (FO5) fish oil. These diets were designed to be relatively low in EPA + DHA (i...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870451/microrna-based-transcriptomic-responses-of-atlantic-salmon-during-infection-by-the-intracellular-bacterium-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#10
Diego Valenzuela-Miranda, Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Rodolfo Farlora, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators in diverse biological processes across taxa. However, despite the importance of these transcripts, little is known about their role during the immune response in salmonids. Because of this, we use deep sequencing technologies to explore the microRNA-based transcriptomic response of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the intracellular bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis, one of the main threats to salmon aquaculture in Chile. Hence, 594 different miRNAs were identified from head kidney and spleen transcriptomic data...
September 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841684/infection-with-purified-piscine-orthoreovirus-demonstrates-a-causal-relationship-with-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-in-atlantic-salmon
#11
Øystein Wessel, Stine Braaen, Marta Alarcon, Hanne Haatveit, Norbert Roos, Turhan Markussen, Torstein Tengs, Maria K Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Viral diseases pose a significant threat to the productivity in aquaculture. Heart- and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is an emerging disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming. HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection, but PRV is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon and thus present also in apparently healthy individuals. This has brought speculations if additional etiological factors are required, and experiments focusing on the causal relationship between PRV and HSMI are highly warranted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745832/a-survey-of-salmon-gill-poxvirus-sgpv-in-wild-salmonids-in-norway
#12
Å H Garseth, M C Gjessing, T Moldal, A G Gjevre
In 2016, the Norwegian health monitoring programme for wild salmonids conducted a real-time PCR-based screening for salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) in anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.), anadromous and non-anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and trout (Salmo trutta L.). SGPV was widely distributed in wild Atlantic salmon returning from marine migration. In addition, characteristic gill lesions, including apoptosis, were detected in this species. A low amount of SGPV DNA, as indicated by high Ct-values, was detected in anadromous trout, but only in fish cohabiting with SGPV-positive salmon...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745821/comparative-pathogenesis-of-piscirickettsiosis-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-post-smolt-experimentally-challenged-with-lf-89-like-and-em-90-like-piscirickettsia-salmonis-isolates
#13
M Rozas-Serri, R Ildefonso, A Peña, R Enríquez, S Barrientos, L Maldonado
Piscirickettsiosis (SRS) is the most prevalent bacterial disease in Chilean salmon aquaculture and is responsible for high economic losses. The aim of this study was to comparatively characterize the pathogenesis of SRS in post-smolt Atlantic salmon during the early and late stages of infection with Piscirickettsia salmonis LF-89-like (PS-LF-89) and EM-90-like (PS-EM-90) using a cohabitation challenge. The pathogenesis of cohabitant fish infected with the two isolates was relatively different due to cohabitant fish infected with PS-EM-90 showing higher cumulative mortality and shorter time until death compared with PS-LF-89 fish...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#14
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700748/hypoxia-tolerance-and-responses-to-hypoxic-stress-during-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#15
Morten Lund, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Marta Alarcon, Mark Powell, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Sven Martin Jørgensen
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674437/response-of-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-to-temperature-and-dissolved-oxygen-extremes-established-using-animal-borne-environmental-sensors
#16
Kilian M Stehfest, Chris G Carter, Jaime D McAllister, Jeff D Ross, Jayson M Semmens
Understanding how aquatic species respond to extremes of DO and temperature is crucial for determining how they will be affected by climate change, which is predicted to increasingly expose them to levels beyond their optima. In this study we used novel animal-borne DO, temperature and depth sensors to determine the effect of extremes of DO and temperature on the vertical habitat use of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in aquaculture cages. Salmon showed a preference for temperatures around 16.5 to 17.5 °C, however, selection of preferred temperatures was trumped by active avoidance of low DO (<35% saturation) at the bottom of the cage...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613984/primary-isolation-and-characterization-of-tenacibaculum-maritimum-from-chilean-atlantic-salmon-mortalities-associated-with-a-pseudochatonella-spp-algal-bloom
#17
Patricia Apablaza, Kathleen Frisch, Øyvind Jakobsen Brevik, Sverre Bang Småge, Camilla Vallestad, Henrik Duesund, Julio Mendoza, Are Nylund
This study presents the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Chile. The isolate, designated T. maritimum Ch-2402, was isolated from gills of Atlantic salmon in a farm located in region X, Los Lagos Chile, during the harmful algal bloom caused by Pseudochattonella spp. in February 2016. The algal bloom is reported to have caused 40,000 tons of mortality in this salmon farming area. The bacterium, T. maritimum is recognized as an important pathogen of marine fish worldwide causing tenacibaculosis...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507190/the-effect-of-thermal-acclimation-on-aerobic-scope-and-critical-swimming-speed-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#18
Malthe Hvas, Ole Folkedal, Albert Imsland, Frode Oppedal
The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied due to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for four weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of ten per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492111/a-comparison-of-disease-susceptibility-and-innate-immune-response-between-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-siblings-following-experimental-infection-with-neoparamoeba-perurans-causative-agent-of-amoebic-gill-disease
#19
Lynn Chalmers, John F Taylor, William Roy, Andrew C Preston, Herve Migaud, Alexandra Adams
Few studies have focussed on the health and immunity of triploid Atlantic salmon and therefore much is still unknown about their response to commercially significant pathogens. This is important if triploid stocks are to be considered for full-scale commercial production. This study aimed to investigate and compare the response of triploid and diploid Atlantic salmon to an experimental challenge with Neoparamoeba perurans, causative agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD). This disease is economically significant for the aquaculture industry...
August 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474104/the-biofilteration-ability-of-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-to-reduce-aeromonas-salmonicida-in-salmon-culture
#20
Xiaona Ma, Xian Li, Guoxiang Sun, Zaki Zaki Sharawy, Tianlong Qiu, Yishuai Du, Ying Liu
Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults)...
May 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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