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Bryan Charleston, Simon P Graham
The deployment of effective veterinary vaccines has had a major impact on improving food security and consequently human health. Effective vaccines were essential for the global eradication of Rinderpest and the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in some regions of the world. Effective vaccines also underpin the development of modern intensive food production systems such as poultry and aquaculture. However, for some high consequence diseases there are still significant challenges to develop effective vaccines...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Benigna Van Eynde, Olivier Christiaens, Daan Delbare, Kris Cooreman, Kelly S Bateman, Grant D Stentiford, Annette M Dullemans, Monique M van Oers, Guy Smagghe
Crangon crangon bacilliform virus (CcBV) was first discovered in 2004 in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caught along the English coast. This study describes a duplex PCR assay developed for the detection of CcBV, based on amplification of the lef-8 gene (211 bp) of CcBV and the E75 gene (105 bp) of C. crangon as an internal amplification control. The lef-8 and E75 primer pairs were designed based on preliminary genome sequencing information of the virus and transcriptomic data available for C. crangon, respectively...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ping Yang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jia F Huang, Chuan Tong
Aquaculture ponds are dominant features of the landscape in the coastal zone of China. Generally, aquaculture ponds are drained during the non-culture period in winter. However, the effects of such drainage on the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from aquaculture ponds are largely unknown. In the present study, field-based research was performed to compare the GHG fluxes between one drained pond (DP, with a water depth of 0.05m) and one undrained pond (UDP, with a water depth of 1.16m) during one winter in the Min River estuary of southeast China...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Timothy J Green, Peter Speck
The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , is becoming a valuable model for investigating antiviral defense in the Lophotrochozoa superphylum. In the past five years, improvements to laboratory-based experimental infection protocols using Ostreid herpesvirus I (OsHV-1) from naturally infected C. gigas combined with next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed that oysters have a complex antiviral response involving the activation of all major innate immune pathways. Experimental evidence indicates C. gigas utilizes an interferon-like response to limit OsHV-1 replication and spread...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Qingfei Zeng, Erik Jeppesen, Xiaohong Gu, Zhigang Mao, Huihui Chen
The spatial-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their source, and potential health risks were determined in overlying water and surface sediments from Chinese Lake Guchenghu, adjacent commercial mitten crab ponds and the connected Wushen Canal to assess the contamination profile of the area. The total PAHs concentrations in sediment and water were 86.7-1790 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and 184-365 ng L-1 in summer and 184-3140 ng g-1 dw and 410-1160 ng L-1 in winter. Two- and 3-ring PAHs were the predominant compounds in water, while PAHs with 4-6 rings dominated in the sediment at both upstream and downstream sites...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
T P Loch, M Faisal
Flavobacterial diseases are significant impediments to hatchery-based fishery conservation and aquaculture productivity worldwide. Recent studies revealed a multitude of novel flavobacteria within the reproductive fluids and unfertilized eggs of feral Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha broodstock, some of which were associated with systemic disease. Herein, embryonated eggs/fry from these broodstock were assayed for flavobacteria while in incubator stacks in three hatcheries over 2 years, as was the water entering hatchery incubators...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Meixia Pang, Weiwei Luo, Beide Fu, Xiaomu Yu, Ying Zhou, Jingou Tong
Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp ( Carassius auratus )...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A Jacobs, C Doran, D S Murray, J Duffill Telsnig, K L Laskowski, N A R Jones, S K Auer, K Praebel
Many fish species face increasing challenges associated with climate change and overfishing. At the same time, aquaculture is becoming vital for food security. Gaining a deeper understanding of the basic biology of fish is therefore more important than ever. Here we synthesize and summarize key questions, opportunities and challenges in fish biology highlighted during a round-table discussion at the 50th Anniversary Symposium of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles, held at the University of Exeter, U...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Na Wang, Renkai Wang, Ruoqing Wang, Songlin Chen
The Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a typical female heterogamete species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has severely hindered the sustainable development of the species in aquaculture. In the present study, four important somatotropic and reproductive tissues including brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad from 15 females and 15 males were used for transcriptome analysis via RNA-seq. A mean of 37,533,991 high-quality clean reads was obtained from each library and 806, 1482, 818, and 14,695 differentially expressed genes in female and male were identified from the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad, respectively (fold change ≥ 2 and q < 0...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Soo Ji Woo, Na Young Kim, Shin Hu Kim, Sang Jung Ahn, Jung Soo Seo, Sung Hee Jung, Joon Ki Chung
Trichlorfon is a moderately toxic organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of trichlorfon on hematological parameters, biochemical factors, and stress reaction in Cyprinus carpio L. The fish were exposed to acute concentrations of trichlorfon (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg L-1 ) at 25 °C and 15 °C for 1 and 2 weeks, after which several parameters were evaluated to assess the effects of the pesticide. Significant decreases were observed in red blood cell (RBC) Count, hemoglobin (Hb) level, hematocrit (Ht), and plasma protein levels after each exposure period...
March 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Kate Suzanne Hutson, Alexander Karlis Brazenor, David Brendan Vaughan, Alejandro Trujillo-González
Global expansion in fish production and trade of aquatic ornamental species requires advances in aquatic animal health management. Aquatic parasite cultures permit diverse research opportunities to understand parasite-host dynamics and are essential to validate the efficacy of treatments that could reduce infections in captive populations. Monogeneans are important pathogenic parasites of captured captive fishes and exhibit a single-host life cycle, which makes them amenable to in vivo culture. Continuous cultures of oviparous monogenean parasites provide a valuable resource of eggs, oncomiracidia (larvae) and adult parasites for use in varied ecological and applied scientific research...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Shazia Farzana, Nora Fung Yee Tam
Mangrove wetland receives nutrient-rich aquaculture effluent (AE) from nearby farming activities and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from the production and usage of flame retardants. The effects of BDE-209 (the most common PBDE congener), AE and their combination on two true mangrove species, namely Kandelia obovata and Avicennia marina, were compared in a 6-month microcosm study. Results showed that K. obovata was more sensitive to these contaminants than A. marina, as reflected by its enhanced production of leaf superoxide (O2 -∗ ) by BDE-209 and root malondialdehyde (MDA) by the combined BDE-209 and AE treatment...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Sara Fernandez, Miguel M Sandin, Paul G Beaulieu, Laura Clusa, Jose L Martinez, Alba Ardura, Eva García-Vázquez
Background: Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture...
2018: PeerJ
Regina Elizondo-González, Eduardo Quiroz-Guzmán, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Paola Magallón-Servín, Alberto Peña-Rodríguez
Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p  < 0...
2018: PeerJ
S Rebekah Burket, Yelena Sapozhnikova, Shan S Chung, Bryan W Brooks
Aquaculture, which is growing 3-5 times faster than terrestrial agriculture, will play an important role to meet future global food production needs. However, over 80% of global sewage production is returned to the environment untreated or poorly treated. In developing nations, these non-traditional waters of diverse quality are being recycled for aquaculture, yet chemical residues are differentially studied. Here, we examined pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PCBs, PBDEs, PAHs and flame retardants in marine bivalves using isotope dilution LC-MS/MS and low pressure (LP)GC-MS/MS...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Chunyan Zhao, Qinghua Liu, Shihong Xu, Yongshuang Xiao, Wenqi Wang, Jingkun Yang, Yang Yang, Yanfeng Wang, Zongcheng Song, Jun Li
Turbot (Schophthalmus maximus) is one of the most important economic marine flatfish species. However, due to rapid development of the industry, genetic resource recession has brought down the efficiency of aquaculture. Therefore, conservation of the genetic resource is increasingly demanded. Recent research proved that type A spermatogonia possesses the properties of spermatogonia stem cell, and it might provide an ideal solution. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an appropriate molecular marker on type A spermatogonia to further isolate and purify of type A spermatogonia in turbot...
December 16, 2017: Theriogenology
Renée Katrin Bechmann, Emily Lyng, Stig Westerlund, Shaw Bamber, Mark Berry, Maj Arnberg, Alfhild Kringstad, Piero Calosi, Paul J Seear
Increasing use of fish feed containing the chitin synthesis inhibiting anti-parasitic drug diflubenzuron (DFB) in salmon aquaculture has raised concerns over its impact on coastal ecosystems. Larvae of Northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) were exposed to DFB medicated feed under Control conditions (7.0 °C, pH 8.0) and under Ocean Acidification and Warming conditions (OAW, 9.5 °C and pH 7.6). Two weeks' exposure to DFB medicated feed caused significantly increased mortality. The effect of OAW and DFB on mortality of shrimp larvae was additive; 10% mortality in Control, 35% in OAW, 66% in DFB and 92% in OAW + DFB...
February 28, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rômulo V Paixão, Josiane Ribolli, Evoy Zaniboni-Filho
Steindachneridion scriptum is an important species as a resource for fisheries and aquaculture; it is currently threatened and has a reduced occurrence in South America. The damming of rivers, overfishing, and contamination of freshwater environments are the main impacts on the maintenance of this species. We accessed the genetic diversity and structure of S. scriptum using the DNA barcode and control region (D-loop) sequences of 43 individuals from the Upper Uruguay River Basin (UUR) and 10 sequences from the Upper Paraná River Basin (UPR), which were obtained from GenBank...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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