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Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Kelly L Matson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Meghan Kelly, Asieh Karimani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Brianne E Bimson, Barak M Rosenn, Sara A Morris, Elizabeth B Sasso, Rachelle A Schwartz, Lois E Brustman
OBJECTIVE: To assess current practice patterns among members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) with respect to the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A 38 question survey on GDM diagnosis and management was distributed to SMFM members. RESULTS: 2330 SMFM members were surveyed with a 40% response rate. Overall, 90.6% of respondents recommend a 2-step (versus a 1-step) diagnostic test. Cutoff values for the 1-h-50 g glucose challenge test vary from 130-140 mg/dL, but the majority (83%) adopts Carpenter Coustan criteria for the 3-h-100 g oral glucose tolerance test...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Riki Bergel, Eran Hadar, Yoel Toledano, Moshe Hod
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common morbidities complicating pregnancy, with short- and long-term consequences to the mothers, fetuses, and newborns. Management and treatment are aimed to achieve best possible glycemic control, while avoiding hypoglycemia and ensuring maternal and fetal safety. It involves behavioral modifications, nutrition and medications, if needed; concurrent with maternal and fetal surveillance for possible adverse outcomes. This review aims to elaborate on the pharmacological options for GDM therapy...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Thomas Vanhove, Quinten Remijsen, Dirk Kuypers, Pieter Gillard
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors...
September 14, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Hai Lin, Zhipeng Li, Dong Lin, Chunquan Zheng, Weitian Zhang
The pathophysiologic mechanisms of human chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate expression and biologic role of NLRP3 inflammasome in CRSwNP. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to assess NLRP3 immunolabeling, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for IL-9 and NLRP3, and caspase-1 level quantitation in CRSwNP and control subjects. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed for analyzing concentrations of IL-1β and IL-18 in the homogenates prepared from tissue specimens...
December 2016: Inflammation
Ronit Koren, Eran Ashwal, Moshe Hod, Yoel Toledano
AIM: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and pregnancy outcomes of insulin detemir (IDet) versus glyburide treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with GDM who were treated with either glyburide or IDet for GDM in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients with GDM were enrolled, 62 were administered glyburide and 29 IDet. Maternal age, pregestational body mass index (BMI) and rate of abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood glucose values were not significantly different between groups...
September 5, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Kevin N Sheth, Jordan J Elm, Bradley J Molyneaux, Holly Hinson, Lauren A Beslow, Gordon K Sze, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Gregory J Del Zoppo, J Marc Simard, Sven Jacobson, W Taylor Kimberly
BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of stroke have shown that intravenous glyburide reduces brain swelling and improves survival. We assessed whether intravenous glyburide (RP-1127; glibenclamide) would safely reduce brain swelling, decrease the need for decompressive craniectomy, and improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with a large hemispheric infarction. METHODS: For this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, we enrolled patients (aged 18-80 years) with a clinical diagnosis of large anterior circulation hemispheric infarction for less than 10 h and baseline diffusion-weighted MRI image lesion volume of 82-300 cm(3) on MRI at 18 hospitals in the USA...
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Graeme J Hankey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet Neurology
Stephen J Gainey, Kristin A Kwakwa, Julie K Bray, Melissa M Pillote, Vincent L Tir, Albert E Towers, Gregory G Freund
Obesity-associated comorbidities such as cognitive impairment and anxiety are increasing public health burdens that have gained prevalence in children. To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on brain function, mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) from weaning for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. When compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice (LFD-mice), HFD-fed mice (HFD-mice) had impaired novel object recognition (NOR) after 1 week. After 3 weeks, HFD-mice had impaired NOR and object location recognition (OLR)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Akram Ahangarpour, Fatemeh Ramezani Ali Akbari, Hadi Fathi Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Both c-peptide and nicotinamide are known to increase blood insulin in diabetes. In the present study, we examined the effect of c-peptide alone or in combination with nicotinamide on insulin levels in pancreatic islets in mice. METHODS: This study was conducted with 60 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMARI) mice weighing 25 to 30 g. Pancreatic islets from normal mice were isolated by the collagenase digestion method. Mice were divided into ten groups of six (n = 6): control, glyburide (1 and 10 μM), C-peptide (50 and 100 nM), nicotinamide (10, 25, and 100 mM), nicotinamide + C-peptide (100 mM and 100 nM), and buffer in different glucose concentrations (2...
January 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
L L Qian, R X Wang, M Q Sun, D Y Xia, X Tang, Y Ji, Y Wu, X Y Liu, S P Dang, Q Chai, T Lu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the composition of potassium channels in normal rat coronary smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and the activation effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). METHODS: CASMCs were isolated by enzyme digestion.Effects of different types of potassium channel blockers and/or DHA on potassium channels currents were studied by whole-cell patch clamp technique. RESULTS: Potassium currents were significantly increased with 5 μmol/L DHA perfusion (P<0...
July 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
Nancy A Niemczyk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie
PURPOSE: This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional observational study design was used to sample 31 pharmacies, 25 drug stores, and two rural drug vendors from August 11, 2015, to October 21, 2015, through a simple random sampling method. A simulated-patient method of visit was implemented to collect data...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
S Zhai, A Georgy, Z Liang, J Zhi
A glucokinase activator and a sulfonylurea might be coprescribed to synergize treatment success for type 2 diabetes (T2D). This clinical pharmacology study was designed to investigate the potential glucose-lowering effect or pharmacodynamic (PD), pharmacokinetic (PK), and safety/tolerability interactions between piragliatin and glyburide in T2D patients already taking glyburide but not adequately controlled. This was an open-label, multiple-dose, 3-period, single-sequence crossover design: on days -1, 6, and 12, PD and PK samples were drawn with glyburide alone (period 0), piragliatin + glyburide (period 1), and piragliatin alone (period 2) treatments...
November 2016: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Shelley Jayne Thorkelson, Kristi R Anderson
IN BRIEF The oral agents glyburide and metformin are both recommended by many professional societies for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Both therapeutic modalities have published safety and efficacy data, but there remains much debate among experts. Providers need a clear treatment plan for GDM based on a predictable level of clinical success in obtaining treatment goals. The proper selection of ideal candidates is paramount in achieving clinical success with the use of these medications in the treatment of GDM...
May 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Rana Malek, Stephen N Davis
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 10% of all pregnancies and is defined as hyperglycemia first noted during pregnancy. Rates of GDM are rising and untreated GDM results in complications for both mother and fetus. GDM is often managed by diet and exercise but 30-40% of women will require pharmacological intervention. Insulin has traditionally been the treatment of choice but since 2007, glyburide, a second generation sulfonylurea has become the most prescribed medication for GDM...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ahmed S Abdelmoneim, Dean T Eurich, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Weiyu Qiu, Scot H Simpson
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if there is a dose-response relationship between sulfonylureas and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among elderly patients with no history of acute coronary syndrome or stroke who initiated gliclazide or glyburide therapy between 1998 and 2010. Gliclazide and glyburide users were evaluated separately, and a high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) was used to match patients initiating therapy with a low or high dose...
April 22, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Marzia Cirri, Alessandra Roghi, Maurizio Valleri, Paola Mura
The aim of this work was to develop effective fast-dissolving tablet formulations of glyburide, endowed with improved dissolution and technological properties, investigating the actual effectiveness of the Solid-Self MicroEmulsifying Drug Delivery System (S-SMEDDS) approach. An initial screening aimed to determine the solubility of the drug in different oils, Surfactants and CoSurfactants allowed the selection of the most suitable components for liquid SMEDDS, whose relative amounts were defined by the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagrams...
July 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Madiha Maboos, Rabia Ismail Yousuf, Muhammad Harris Shoaib
PURPOSE: Objective of this study is to develop; tablet-in-a capsule system, to deliver Atenolol 25mg and Glyburide 5mg in the hard gelatin capsule. In order to improve patient compliance and reduce problems associated with complex therapeutic regimen Atenolol (cardio-selective beta-blocker) and Glyburide (anti-diabetic; sulfonylurea) are commonly, prescribed to the diabetic hypertensive patient. Metgod: In present work six different formulations of Atenolol (AF1-AF6) and Glyburide (GF1-GF6) were prepared by direct compression method using Avicel, Lactose DC, Crospovidone and Magnesium Stearate in different proportions and encapsulated in hard gelatin shells...
March 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Francis M Hughes, James G Kennis, Melissa N Youssef, Danielle W Lowe, Brooke E Shaner, J Todd Purves
OBJECTIVE: NOD-like receptors (NLRs) sense sterile and non-sterile signals and form inflammasomes which trigger an inflammatory response through the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β. Recently we have shown the presence of several NLRs in the bladder urothelia and demonstrated the importance of NLRP3 in bladder outlet obstruction and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, both models of sterile inflammation. In this study we explore a role for NLRP3 in mediating the response to LPS, a key antigen of uropathogenic bacteria...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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