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wheat germ

Takahiko Matsushita, Koji Tsuchibuchi, Tetsuo Koyama, Ken Hatano, Koji Matsuoka
Bivalent glycoconjugates have a minimal valence with avidity potential on protein-carbohydrate interactions as well as simplicity of chemical structures enabling simple synthesis with low cost. Understanding the way to maximize the affinities of bivalent glycoconjugates is important for the development of cost-effective tools for therapeutic and diagnostic research. However, there has been little discussion about the effects of constraints imposed from ligand scaffolds on the binding abilities. We synthesized three kinds of biantennary N-acetylglucosamine glycosides with different scaffolds using isobutenyl bis(propargyl)ether as a common scaffold precursor...
April 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
P D'Incecco, L Ong, S Gras, L Pellegrino
Non-pathogenic spore-forming Clostridia are of increasing interest due to their application in biogas production and their capability to spoil different food products. The life cycle for Clostridium includes a spore stage that can assist in survival under environmentally stressful conditions, such as extremes of temperature or pH. Due to their size, spores can be investigated by a range of microscopic techniques, many of which involve sample pre-treatment. We have developed a quick, simple and non-destructive fluorescent staining procedure that allows a clear differentiation between spores and vegetative cells and effectively stains spores, allowing recovery and tracking in subsequent experiments...
April 18, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of physicochemical characteristics of feed ingredients on DE and ME and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, DM, and nutrients were determined in growing pigs using ingredients with different ratios between insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF). Eighty growing barrows (BW: 48.41 ± 1.50 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 10 diets and 8 replicate pigs per diet. Dietary treatments included a corn-based diet, a wheat-based diet, a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet, and 7 diets based on a mixture of the corn-SBM diet and canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal (CGM), copra expellers, sugar beet pulp (SBP), synthetic cellulose, or pectin...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Rita Azevedo, Janine Soares, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Andreia Peixoto, Luís Lima, Dylan Ferreira, Marta Relvas-Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Ana Tavares, Sofia Cotton, Ana Luísa Daniel-da-Silva, Lúcio Lara Santos, Rui Vitorino, Francisco Amado, José Alexandre Ferreira
Bladder Cancer (BC) presents one of the highest recurrence rates amongst solid tumours and constitutes the second deadliest disease of the genitourinary track. Non-invasive identification of patients facing disease recurrence and/or progression remains one of the most critical and challenging aspects in disease management. To contribute to this goal, we demonstrate the potential of glycan-affinity glycoproteomics nanoplatforms for urinary biomarkers discovery in bladder cancer. Briefly, magnetic nanoprobes (MNP) coated with three broad-spectrum lectins, namely Concanavalin A (ConA; MNP@ConA), Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA; MNP@WGA), and Sambucus nigra (SNA; MNP@SNA), were used to selectively capture glycoproteins from the urine of low-grade and high-grade non-muscle invasive as well as muscle-invasive BC patients...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Toyokazu Miura, Satoru Takeo, Edward H Ntege, Hitoshi Otsuki, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Tomoko Ishino, Eizo Takashima, Takafumi Tsuboi
Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH)...
April 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
William S Kish, Matthew K Roach, Hiroyuki Sachi, Amith D Naik, Stefano Menegatti, Ruben G Carbonell
Prior work described the identification and characterization of erythropoietin-binding cyclic peptides SLFFLH, VVFFVH, FSLLHH and FSLLSH (all of the form cyclo[(Nα -Ac)Dap(A)-X1 -X6 -AE], wherein X1 -X6 is the listed sequences). In this work, the peptide ligands were synthesized on Toyopearl chromatographic resins and utilized for purifying recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) from complex sources. Elution buffer pH and composition were optimized to maximize the recovery of standard rHuEPO from the peptide resins...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chikara Sato, Mari Sato, Shinichi Ogawa
Helium ion microscopy (HIM) scans samples with a fine ion beam exploiting the very short de Broglie wavelength of helium ions. Because the radiation induces only a small sample region to emit secondary electrons (SEs), very high resolution is expected. In order to explore the applications of SE-HIM in biology, COS7 kidney fibroblast cells and C2C12 myoblast cells cultured on a silicon (Si) nitride (SiN)/Si bilayer were dried and directly observed in high vacuum, without coating or staining. High contrast, high depth-of-field images were obtained revealing the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton and putative mitochondria above a bright background from the support...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
C Zimmermann, A D Eaton, B B Lanter, J Roper, B P Hurley, B Delaney
Recent studies suggest that human derived intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) cultured as polarized monolayers on Transwell® filters may respond differently when exposed to hazardous and non-hazardous proteins. This experimental platform was based on apical exposure of IEC monolayers to test proteins for 24 h followed by assessment of barrier integrity and cell viability. In this study, Caco-2 and T84 IEC polarized monolayers were evaluated for barrier integrity and cytotoxicity following exposure to hazardous and non-hazardous proteins for 24, 48 and 72 h...
March 31, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Susanne C Diesner, Cornelia Bergmayr, Xue-Yan Wang, Denise Heiden, Sarah Exenberger, Franziska Roth-Walter, Philipp Starkl, Davide Ret, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franz Gabor, Eva Untersmayr
To improve current mucosal allergen immunotherapy Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NA) was evaluated as a novel epithelial targeting molecule for functionalization of allergen-loaded, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) and compared to the previously described epithelial targeting lectins wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL). All targeters revealed binding to Caco-2 cells, but only NA had high binding specificity to α-L fucose and monosialoganglioside-1. An increased transepithelial uptake was found for NA-MPs in a M-cell co-culture model...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Bal R Singh, Yadu N Timsina, Ole C Lind, Simone Cagno, Koen Janssens
Nearly half of the world cereal production comes from soils low or marginal in plant available zinc, leading to unsustainable and poor quality grain production. Therefore, the effects of nitrogen (N) rate and application time on zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in wheat grain were investigated. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum var. Krabat) was grown in a growth chamber with 8 and 16 h of day and night periods, respectively. The N rates were 29, 43, and 57 mg N kg-1 soil, equivalent to 80, 120, and 160 kg N ha-1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Héliciane Clément, Carole Prost, Hubert Chiron, Maren Bonnand Ducasse, Guy Della Valle, Philippe Courcoux, Bernard Onno
In this study, we determined the effect of organic (i) flour ash content (1%-1.4%) and (ii) flour by-product addition (bran, shorts and germ) on sourdough performances. After five consecutive back-sloppings, sourdough was used for bread-making and its bread-related properties were assessed. No effect of flour composition factors (i & ii) on sourdough lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were highlighted. Nonetheless, they greatly altered lactic acid and acetic acid sourdough contents from 6.9 to 17.4 g/kg and from 0...
April 2018: Food Research International
Mandy Berndt-Paetz, Luise Herbst, Annett Weimann, Andreas Gonsior, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Jochen Neuhaus
PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e...
March 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
Effects of inclusion rate of fiber rich ingredients on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and on the concentration of DE and ME in mixed diets fed to growing pigs were determined. The hypothesis was that increasing the inclusion rate of fiber decreases digestibility of GE, and thus, the contribution of DE and ME from hindgut fermentation because greater concentrations may reduce the ability of microbes to ferment fiber. Twenty ileal-cannulated pigs (BW: 30...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Alessia Battigelli, Jae Hong Kim, Dilani C Dehigaspitiya, Caroline Proulx, Ellen J Robertson, Daniel J Murray, Behzad Rad, Kent Kirshenbaum, Ronald N Zuckermann
Glycoproteins adhered on the cellular membrane play a pivotal role in a wide range of cellular functions. Their importance is particularly relevant in the recognition process between infectious pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, toxins) and their host cells. Multivalent interactions at the pathogen-cell interfaces govern binding events and can result in a strong and specific interaction. Here we report an approach to mimic the cell surface presentation of carbohydrate ligands by the multivalent display of sugars on the surface of peptoid nanosheets...
March 7, 2018: ACS Nano
E A Sogorin, S Ch Agalarov
The translation of uncapped mRNAs encoding luciferase and green fluorescent protein in a cell-free translation system based on wheat germ extract has been studied. It turned out that two simultaneously translated (in one tube) different templates in a certain range of concentrations not only do not compete, but mutually enhance each other's translation. It has been shown that the synthesis of luciferase in the presence of mRNA that encodes green fluorescent protein is much more effective than in the translation of only luciferase mRNA at the same concentration...
January 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Sayed Saad Smuda, Sobhy Mohamed Mohsen, Karsten Olsen, Mohamed Hassan Aly
The present study was performed to evaluate the phytochemicals profiles of some cereal milling by-products such as wheat (bran, germ and shorts), rice (bran, germ and husk) and corn (bran, germ and germ meal) to assess their potentiality as bioactive compounds sources. Distilled water, ethanol, methanol, and acetone separately were used as solvents for the extraction of phytochemicals compounds. The antioxidant activity (AOA), total phenolics content (TPC), and total flavonoids content (TFC) of the extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
S Vernygorodskyi, V Shkolnikov, D Suhan
AIM: To analyze the glycoprotein binding sites of the gastric mucosa and its secreted mucus using lectin histochemistry in patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis (CNAG) associated or not-associated with Helicobacter pylori infection with or without dysplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to identify the areas with glycoconjugates expression in gastric mucosa, 6 lectins (Canavalia ensiformis agglutinin - Con A, Sambucus nigra agglutinin - SNA, wheat germ agglutinin - WGA, soybean agglutinin - SBA, Helix pomatia agglutinin - HPA, peanut agglutinin - PNA) were used...
July 2017: Experimental Oncology
Yasuyuki Suzuki, Tomio Ogasawara, Yuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Masaki Mogi, Shuang Liu, Kazutaka Maeyama
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins distributed on the cell surface, and they may be potential drug targets. However, synthesizing GPCRs in vitro can be challenging. Recently, some cell-free protein synthesis systems have been shown to produce a large amount of membrane protein combined with chemical chaperones that include liposomes and glycerol. Liposomes containing high concentrations of glycerol are known as glycerosomes, which are used in new drug delivery systems. Glycerosomes have greater morphological stability than liposomes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Sachin Sharma, Aaron Hanukoglu, Israel Hanukoglu
Spermatogenesis starts within the seminiferous tubules of the testis by mitotic division of spermatogonia that produces spermatocytes. Meiotic division of these spermatocytes produces haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. In this study, we examined the expression of ENaC and CFTR (a Cl - channel) in rat testicular sections using confocal microscopic immunofluorescence. The structural integrity of the seminiferous tubule sections was verified by precise phalloidin staining of the actin fibers located abundantly at both basal and adluminal tight junctions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
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