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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217416/identification-of-target-proteins-of-clinical-immunity-to-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-region-of-low-malaria-transmission
#1
Hirokazu Sakamoto, Satoru Takeo, Eizo Takashima, Kazutoyo Miura, Bernard N Kanoi, Takamasa Kaneko, Eun-Taek Han, Mayumi Tachibana, Kazuhiro Matsuoka, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Rachanee Udomsangpetch, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
The target molecules of antibodies against falciparum malaria remain largely unknown. Recently we have identified multiple proteins as targets of immunity against Plasmodium falciparum using African serum samples. To investigate whether potential targets of clinical immunity differ with transmission intensity, we assessed immune responses in residents of low malaria transmission region in Thailand. Malaria asymptomatic volunteers (Asy: n=19) and symptomatic patients (Sym: n=21) were enrolled into the study...
December 4, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207637/wheat-germ-agglutinin-induced-paraptosis-like-cell-death-and-protective-autophagy-is-mediated-by-autophagy-linked-fyve-inhibition
#2
Tsung Lin Tsai, Hao Chen Wang, Chun Hua Hung, Peng Chan Lin, Yi San Lee, Helen H W Chen, Wu Chou Su
Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a lectin that specifically binds cell surface glycoproteins and disrupts nuclear pore complex function through its interaction with POM121. Our data indicate WGA induces paraptosis-like cell death without caspase activation. We observed the main features of paraptosis, including cytoplasmic vacuolation, endoplasmic reticulum dilation and increased ER stress, and the unfolded protein response in WGA-treated cervical carcinoma cells. Conversion of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3-I) into LC3-II and punctuate formation suggestive of autophagy were observed in WGA-treated cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206917/tunicamycin-induced-er-stress-in-breast-cancer-cells-neither-expresses-grp78-on-the-surface-nor-secretes-it-into-the-media
#3
Jesús E Serrano-Negrón, Zhenbo Zhang, Andrea P Rivera-Ruiz, Aditi Banerjee, Eva C Romero-Nutz, Neysharie Sánchez-Torres, Krishna Baksi, Dipak K Banerjee
GRP78 (an Mr 78 kDa calcium dependent glucose binding protein) located in ER lumen. It functions as ER chaperone and translocates proteins for glycosylation at the asparagine residue present in the sequon Asn-X-Ser/Thr. Paraffin sections from N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin treated ER-/PR-/HER2+ (double negative) breast tumor in athymic nude mice exhibited reduced N-glycan but increased GRP78 expression. We have evaluated the effect of tunicamycin on cellular localization of GRP78 in metastatic human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 (ER-/PR-/HER2-)...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187233/identification-of-o-glcnacylated-proteins-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#4
Mattis Kupferschmid, Moyira Osny Aquino-Gil, Hosam Shams-Eldin, Jörg Schmidt, Nao Yamakawa, Frédéric Krzewinski, Ralph T Schwarz, Tony Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) constitute a huge group of chemical modifications increasing the complexity of the proteomes of living beings. PTMs have been discussed as potential anti-malarial drug targets due to their involvement in many cell processes. O-GlcNAcylation is a widespread PTM found in different organisms including Plasmodium falciparum. The aim of this study was to identify O-GlcNAcylated proteins of P. falciparum, to learn more about the modification process and to understand its eventual functions in the Apicomplexans...
November 29, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176788/preservation-of-three-dimensional-spatial-structure-in-the-gut-microbiome
#5
Yuko Hasegawa, Jessica L Mark Welch, Blair J Rossetti, Gary G Borisy
Preservation of three-dimensional structure in the gut is necessary in order to analyze the spatial organization of the gut microbiota and gut luminal contents. In this study, we evaluated preparation methods for mouse gut with the goal of preserving micron-scale spatial structure while performing fluorescence imaging assays. Our evaluation of embedding methods showed that commonly used media such as Tissue-Tek Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound, paraffin, and polyester waxes resulted in redistribution of luminal contents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171909/lys12-lysm-receptor-decelerates-phytophthora-palmivora-disease-progression-in-lotus-japonicus
#6
Winnie Fuechtbauer, Temur Yunusov, Zoltán Bozsóki, Aleksandr Gavrin, Euan K James, Jens Stougaard, Sebastian Schornack, Simona Radutoiu
Phytophthora palmivora is a devastating oomycete plant pathogen. We found that P. palmivora induces disease in Lotus japonicus and used this interaction to identify cellular and molecular events in response to this broad host range oomycete. Transcript quantification revealed that Lys12 was highly and rapidly induced during P. palmivora infection. Mutants of Lys12 displayed an accelerated disease progression, earlier plant death, and lower level of defense gene expression, while the defense program after chitin, laminarin, oligogalacturonide or flg22 treatment, or the root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhiza were similar to wild-type...
November 24, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171435/central-projections-and-connections-of-lumbar-primary-afferent-fibers-in-adult-rats-effectively-revealed-using-texas-red-dextran-amine-tracing
#7
Shi-de Lin, Tao Tang, Ting-Bao Zhao, Shao-Jun Liu
Signals from lumbar primary afferent fibers are important for modulating locomotion of the hind-limbs. However, silver impregnation techniques, autoradiography, wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase and cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase cannot image the central projections and connections of the dorsal root in detail. Thus, we injected 3-kDa Texas red-dextran amine into the proximal trunks of L4 dorsal roots in adult rats. Confocal microscopy results revealed that numerous labeled arborizations and varicosities extended to the dorsal horn from T12-S4, to Clarke's column from T10-L2, and to the ventral horn from L1-5...
October 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159968/histochemical-and-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-rodlet-cells-in-the-intestine-of-two-teleosts-anguilla-anguilla-and-cyprinus-carpio
#8
G Bosi, J A DePasquale, M Manera, G Castaldelli, L Giari, B Sayyaf Dezfuli
Rodlet cells (RC) are characterized by a distinctive cell cortex and conspicuous inclusions named "rodlets." These cells are particularly abundant and large in size in intestine of eels. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural investigations were carried out on European eel Anguilla anguilla and Common carp Cyprinus carpio from Northern Italy. Eight biotinylated lectins were used to probe for specific carbohydrate residues in deparaffinized, hydrated intestinal sections of eel and carp. Five antibodies were tested on intestinal sections of both fish species: inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS), leu-enkephalin, lysozyme, serotonin and tumour necrosis factor-α...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156562/biodegradable-chitosan-decreases-the-immune-response-to-trichinella-spiralis-in-mice
#9
Klaudia Brodaczewska, Natalia Wolaniuk, Katarzyna Lewandowska, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Maria Doligalska
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of chitosan units released during natural degradation of the polymer to activate the immune system against T. spiralis infection. High molecular weight chitosan was injected intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice. Flow cytometry and cytokine concentration, measured by ELISA, were used to characterize peritoneal cell populations during T. spiralis infection. The strong chemo-attractive properties of chitosan caused considerable infiltration into the peritoneal cavity of CD11b⁺ cells, with reduced expression of MHC class II, CD80, CD86, Dectin-1 or CD23 receptors in comparison to T...
November 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155760/echocardiographic-and-histological-examination-of-cardiac-morphology-in-the-mouse
#10
Delphine Baudouy, Jean-François Michiels, Ana Vukolic, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Nicole Wagner
An increasing number of genetically modified mouse models has become available in recent years. Moreover, the number of pharmacological studies performed in mice is high. Phenotypic characterization of these mouse models also requires the examination of cardiac function and morphology. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used approaches to characterize cardiac function and morphology in mice. Echocardiographic and MRI equipment specialized for use in small rodents is expensive and requires a dedicated space...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141882/transparent-anemone-shrimp-ancylomenes-pedersoni-become-opaque-after-exercise-and-physiological-stress-in-correlation-with-increased-hemolymph-perfusion
#11
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125863/lectins-identify-distinct-populations-of-coelomocytes-in-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus
#12
Wen-Yun Liao, Sebastian D Fugmann
Coelomocytes represent the immune cells of echinoderms, but detailed knowledge about their roles during immune responses is very limited. One major challenge for studying coelomocyte biology is the lack of reagents to identify and purify distinct populations defined by objective molecular markers rather than by morphology-based classifications that are subjective at times. Glycosylation patterns are known to differ significantly between cell types in vertebrates, and furthermore they can vary depending on the developmental stage and activation states within a given lineage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076410/proteonmic-analysis-and-immunoregulation-mechanism-of-wheat-germ-globulin
#13
Xiaoguo Ji, Jihong Huang, Ming Hui, Yaqi Zhang, Yi Zhao
Wheat germ, one of the byproducts of flour milling, contains many physiologically active components. In this study, the immunoregulatory effects of wheat germ globulin (WGG) on immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide were investigated, and the immunological activity of this molecule was explored. The main components, functions and metabolic signaling pathways of this protein were analyzed by a combination of proteomic technology and bioinformatics. The structure of WGG was predicted with the Phyre2 tool...
October 26, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052233/heterogeneous-expression-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-primary-olfactory-centre-of-the-japanese-sword-tailed-newt-cynops-ensicauda
#14
T Matsui, K Tanaka, Y Kobayashi
Histochemical organization of the Caudata olfactory system remains largely unknown, despite this amphibian order showing phylogenetic diversity in the development of the vomeronasal organ and its primary centre, the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, we investigated the glycoconjugate distribution in the olfactory bulb of a semi-aquatic salamander, the Japanese sword-tailed newt (Cynops ensicauda), by histochemical analysis of the lectins that were present. Eleven lectins showed a specific binding to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerves as well as to the olfactory glomeruli...
October 19, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030178/a-lectin-mediated-delivery-system-for-the-intravesical-treatment-of-bladder-diseases-using-poly-l-glutamic-acid-as-polymeric-backbone
#15
Christina Apfelthaler, Patrick Gassenbauer, Sandra Weisse, Franz Gabor, Michael Wirth
In this study, we present a targeted drug delivery system to improve intravesical therapy of bladder diseases. The drug delivery system consists of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to facilitate specific interaction with the surface of bladder cells and α-poly-(L)-glutamic acid (PGA) as polymeric backbone to increase the number of drug molecules per targeting moiety. Additionally, fluorescein cadaverine was coupled to PGA to visualise and track the delivery system. Using 5637 single cells and cell monolayers, the optimised F-PGA-WGA delivery system, with an approximate molecular weight of 670kDa, could convince with its promising cytoadhesive as well as cytoinvasive potential...
October 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993238/thalamo-insular-pathway-conveying-orofacial-muscle-proprioception-in-the-rat
#16
Fumihiko Sato, Yume Uemura, Chiharu Kanno, Yumi Tsutsumi, Akiko Tomita, Ayaka Oka, Takafumi Kato, Katsuro Uchino, Jumpei Murakami, Tahsinul Haque, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Yoshida
Little is known about how proprioceptive signals arising from muscles reach to higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. We have recently shown that a particular thalamic region, the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), receives the proprioceptive signals from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) in rats. In this study, we further addressed how the orofacial thalamic inputs from the JCMSs were transmitted from the thalamus (VPMcvm) to the cerebral cortex in rats...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991999/effect-of-combined-xylanase-and-phytase-on-growth-performance-apparent-total-tract-digestibility-and-carcass-characteristics-in-growing-pigs-fed-corn-based-diets-containing-high-fiber-coproducts
#17
Y D Jang, P Wilcock, R D Boyd, M D Lindemann
Phytate has been shown to be an antinutrient, and the feeding of high levels of phytase can break down phytate to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. Dietary xylanase targets arabinoxylan breakdown, thereby improving energy utilization in pigs. However, the effects of simultaneous supplementation have not been clearly determined. Crossbred pigs ( = 45; mean initial weight, 26.4 ± 0.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 9 treatments to evaluate the effects of both xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [EC 3.2...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989078/effects-of-g-quadruplex-topology-on-translational-inhibition-by-trna-fragments-in-mammalian-and-plant-systems-in-vitro
#18
Paulina Jackowiak, Anna Hojka-Osinska, Katarzyna Gasiorek, Michal Stelmaszczuk, Dorota Gudanis, Zofia Gdaniec, Marek Figlerowicz
The folding of tRNA fragments (tRFs) into G-quadruplex structures and the implications of G-quadruplexes in translational inhibition have been studied mainly in mammalian systems. To increase our knowledge of these phenomena, we determined the influence of human and plant tRFs and model G-quadruplexes on translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract. The efficiency of translational inhibition in the mammalian system was strongly associated with the type of G-quadruplex topology. In the plant system, the ability of a small RNA to adopt the G-quadruplex conformation was not sufficient to repress translation, indicating the importance of other structural determinants...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963821/chairside-molecular-imaging-of-aberrant-glycosylation-in-subjects-with-suspicious-oral-lesions-using-fluorescently-labeled-wheat-germ-agglutinin
#19
John Baeten, Alexander Johnson, Sumsum Sunny, Amritha Suresh, Praveen Birur, K Uma, Deepak Kademani
BACKGROUND: Aberrant sialylation is accepted as a carcinogenic biomarker. In previous work, fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) distinguished between cancerous and normal oral biopsies. The purpose of this study was to investigate WGA-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as a point-of-care tool for detecting oral malignant and dysplastic lesions in vivo. METHODS: Subject recruitment was divided into two groups: (1) the clinically normal oral mucosa group; or (2) the presence of clinically suspicious oral lesion(s) group...
September 30, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939893/characterization-of-the-antifungal-functions-of-a-wga-fc-igg2a-fusion-protein-binding-to-cell-wall-chitin-oligomers
#20
Susie Coutinho Liedke, Daniel Zamith Miranda, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Jorge Luis S Gonçalves, Susana Frases, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues, Leonardo Nimrichter, José Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimarães
The majority of therapeutic strategies for mycosis require the protracted administration of antifungals, which can result in significant toxicities and have unacceptable failure rates. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of improved therapeutic approaches, and monoclonal antibody-based drugs are potentially a powerful alternative to standard antifungals. To develop a broad antibody-like reagent against mycosis, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was linked to the effector Fc region of murine IgG2a. The resultant WGA-Fc displayed high affinity to purified chitin and bound efficiently to fungal cell walls, co-localizing with chitin, in patterns ranging from circular (Histoplasma capsulatum) to punctate (Cryptococcus neoformans) to labeling at the bud sites (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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