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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030178/a-lectin-mediated-delivery-system-for-the-intravesical-treatment-of-bladder-diseases-using-poly-l-glutamic-acid-as-polymeric-backbone
#1
Christina Apfelthaler, Patrick Gassenbauer, Sandra Weisse, Franz Gabor, Michael Wirth
In this study, we present a targeted drug delivery system to improve intravesical therapy of bladder diseases. The drug delivery system consists of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) to facilitate specific interaction with the surface of bladder cells and α-poly-(L)-glutamic acid (PGA) as polymeric backbone to increase the number of drug molecules per targeting moiety. Additionally, fluorescein cadaverine was coupled to PGA to visualise and track the delivery system. Using 5637 single cells and cell monolayers, the optimised F-PGA-WGA delivery system, with an approximate molecular weight of 670kDa, could convince with its promising cytoadhesive as well as cytoinvasive potential...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993238/thalamo-insular-pathway-conveying-orofacial-muscle-proprioception-in-the-rat
#2
Fumihiko Sato, Yume Uemura, Chiharu Kanno, Yumi Tsutsumi, Akiko Tomita, Ayaka Oka, Takafumi Kato, Katsuro Uchino, Jumpei Murakami, Tahsinul Haque, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Yoshida
Little is known about how proprioceptive signals arising from muscles reach to higher brain regions such as the cerebral cortex. We have recently shown that a particular thalamic region, the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM), conveys the proprioceptive signals from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) in rats. In this study, we further addressed how the orofacial thalamic inputs from the JCMSs were transmitted from the thalamus (VPMcvm) to the cerebral cortex in rats...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991999/effect-of-combined-xylanase-and-phytase-on-growth-performance-apparent-total-tract-digestibility-and-carcass-characteristics-in-growing-pigs-fed-corn-based-diets-containing-high-fiber-coproducts
#3
Y D Jang, P Wilcock, R D Boyd, M D Lindemann
Phytate has been shown to be an antinutrient, and the feeding of high levels of phytase can break down phytate to improve nutrient utilization and pig performance. Dietary xylanase targets arabinoxylan breakdown, thereby improving energy utilization in pigs. However, the effects of simultaneous supplementation have not been clearly determined. Crossbred pigs ( = 45; mean initial weight, 26.4 ± 0.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 9 treatments to evaluate the effects of both xylanase (endo-1,4-β xylanase [EC 3.2...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989078/effects-of-g-quadruplex-topology-on-translational-inhibition-by-trna-fragments-in-mammalian-and-plant-systems-in-vitro
#4
Paulina Jackowiak, Anna Hojka-Osinska, Katarzyna Gasiorek, Michal Stelmaszczuk, Dorota Gudanis, Zofia Gdaniec, Marek Figlerowicz
The folding of tRNA fragments (tRFs) into G-quadruplex structures and the implications of G-quadruplexes in translational inhibition have been studied mainly in mammalian systems. To increase our knowledge of these phenomena, we determined the influence of human and plant tRFs and model G-quadruplexes on translation in rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extract. The efficiency of translational inhibition in the mammalian system was strongly associated with the type of G-quadruplex topology. In the plant system, the ability of a small RNA to adopt the G-quadruplex conformation was not sufficient to repress translation, indicating the importance of other structural determinants...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963821/chairside-molecular-imaging-of-aberrant-glycosylation-in-subjects-with-suspicious-oral-lesions-using-fluorescently-labeled-wheat-germ-agglutinin
#5
John Baeten, Alexander Johnson, Sumsum Sunny, Amritha Suresh, Praveen Birur, K Uma, Deepak Kademani
BACKGROUND: Aberrant sialylation is accepted as a carcinogenic biomarker. In previous work, fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) distinguished between cancerous and normal oral biopsies. The purpose of this study was to investigate WGA-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as a point-of-care tool for detecting oral malignant and dysplastic lesions in vivo. METHODS: Subject recruitment was divided into two groups: (1) the clinically normal oral mucosa group; or (2) the presence of clinically suspicious oral lesion(s) group...
September 30, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939893/characterization-of-the-antifungal-functions-of-a-wga-fc-igg2a-fusion-protein-binding-to-cell-wall-chitin-oligomers
#6
Susie Coutinho Liedke, Daniel Zamith Miranda, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Jorge Luis S Gonçalves, Susana Frases, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Marcio L Rodrigues, Leonardo Nimrichter, José Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimarães
The majority of therapeutic strategies for mycosis require the protracted administration of antifungals, which can result in significant toxicities and have unacceptable failure rates. Hence, there is an urgent need for the development of improved therapeutic approaches, and monoclonal antibody-based drugs are potentially a powerful alternative to standard antifungals. To develop a broad antibody-like reagent against mycosis, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was linked to the effector Fc region of murine IgG2a. The resultant WGA-Fc displayed high affinity to purified chitin and bound efficiently to fungal cell walls, co-localizing with chitin, in patterns ranging from circular (Histoplasma capsulatum) to punctate (Cryptococcus neoformans) to labeling at the bud sites (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae)...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916708/architectural-delineation-and-molecular-identification-of-extracellular-matrix-in-ascidian-embryos-and-larvae
#7
Jiankai Wei, Guilin Wang, Xiang Li, Ping Ren, Haiyan Yu, Bo Dong
The extracellular matrix (ECM) not only provides essential physical scaffolding for cellular constituents but also initiates crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues that are required for tissue morphogenesis. In this study, we utilized wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining to characterize the ECM architecture in ascidian embryos and larvae. The results showed three distinct populations of ECM presenting in Ciona embryogenesis: the outer layer localized at the surface of embryo, an inner layer of notochord sheath and the apical ECM secreted by the notochord...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904403/an-in-planta-biolistic-method-for-stable-wheat-transformation
#8
Haruyasu Hamada, Qianyan Linghu, Yozo Nagira, Ryuji Miki, Naoaki Taoka, Ryozo Imai
The currently favoured method for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation is inapplicable to many elite cultivars because it requires callus culture and regeneration. Here, we developed a simple, reproducible, in planta wheat transformation method using biolistic DNA delivery without callus culture or regeneration. Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) grown from dry imbibed seeds were exposed under a microscope and subjected to bombardment with different-sized gold particles coated with the GFP gene construct, introducing DNA into the L2 cell layer...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886325/nullification-of-aspirin-induced-gastrotoxicity-and-hepatotoxicity-by-prior-administration-of-wheat-germ-oil-in-mus-musculus-histopathological-ultrastructural-and-molecular-studies
#9
H R H Mohamed, S R Hamad
Aspirin (salicylic acetyl acid) is used worldwide to treat various inflammatory conditions and prevent cardiovascular disease, along with reducing the risk of cancer. However, administration of aspirin causes toxic effects, especially in the stomach and liver. Thus, our study examined the protective effect of wheat germ oil on aspirin-induced toxicity in the stomach and liver tissues of albino white mice. Administration of wheat germ oil before aspirin has restored normal hepatic and gastric tissue architecture and DNA integrity has become better than that of a negative health control group compared with the aspirin only treated group...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875871/wheat-germ-supplementation-alleviates-insulin-resistance-and-cardiac-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-an-animal-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Babajide Ojo, Ashley J Simenson, Crystal O'Hara, Lei Wu, Xin Gou, Sandra K Peterson, Daniel Lin, Brenda J Smith, Edralin A Lucas
Obesity is strongly associated with insulin resistance (IR), along with mitochondrial dysfunction to metabolically active tissues and increased production of reactive O2 species (ROS). Foods rich in antioxidants such as wheat germ (WG), protect tissues from damage due to ROS and modulate some negative effects of obesity. This study examined the effects of WG supplementation on markers of IR, mitochondrial substrate metabolism and innate antioxidant markers in two metabolically active tissues (i.e. liver and heart) of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-high-sucrose (HFS) diet...
August 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873586/isolation-of-a-novel-calcium-binding-peptide-from-wheat-germ-protein-hydrolysates-and-the-prediction-for-its-mechanism-of-combination
#11
Li Wang, Yuanyuan Ding, Xinxia Zhang, Yongfu Li, Ren Wang, Xiaohu Luo, Yanan Li, Juan Li, Zhengxing Chen
To isolate a novel peptide with specific calcium-binding capacity, wheat germ protein was hydrolyzed. The hydrolysates were purified using ultrafiltration, anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the purified peptide was determined and confirmed to be FVDVT (Phe-Val-Asp-Val-Thr). The calcium-binding capacity of FVDVT reached 89.94±0.75%, increased by 86.37% compared to the hydrolysates. The chelating mechanism between FVDVT and calcium was further investigated by Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonances spectroscopy...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846733/paracoccin-distribution-supports-its-role-in-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-growth-and-dimorphic-transformation
#12
Aline Ferreira Oliveira, Fabricio Freitas Fernandes, Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Fausto Almeida, Luciana Pereira Ruas, Leandro Licursi Oliveira, Constance Oliver, Maria Celia Jamur, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast was reported to express paracoccin, a GlcNAc-binding protein that displays N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity. Highly specific anti-paracoccin antibodies have been previously used to examine the localization of paracoccin in yeast and inhibit its growth in vitro. In the present study, anti-paracoccin antibodies were used to characterize, by scanning confocal microscopy, the distribution of paracoccin in P. brasiliensis hyphae, transition forms from hyphae to yeast, and mature yeast...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846456/technologies-for-enhancement-of-bioactive-components-and-potential-health-benefits-of-cereal-and-cereal-based-foods-research-advances-and-application-challenges
#13
Ahmed S M Saleh, Peng Wang, Na Wang, Shu Yang, Zhigang Xiao
Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein...
August 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830553/immunogenicity-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-micronemal-antigen-in-natural-plasmodium-vivax-exposure
#14
Siriruk Changrob, Jin-Hee Han, Kwon-Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Patchanee Chootong, Eun-Taek Han
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread malaria species and codominates with Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest form of the malaria parasite. For the last few years, the number of vivax malaria cases has increased, but vivax malaria is still considered a neglected disease. During the blood stages of their life cycle, P. vivax parasites export several hundred proteins into host red blood cells. Some of these exported proteins have been discovered and studied for use as a blood-stage malaria vaccine...
August 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812241/plasma-glycoproteomic-study-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-reveals-novel-markers-predicting-neurologic-outcome-post-cardiac-arrest
#15
Wenjun Deng, Jing Cao, Lei Chen, David McMullin, James L Januzzi, Ferdinando S Buonanno, Eng H Lo, MingMing Ning
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a neuroprotective treatment post-cardiac arrest but is grossly underutilized. After TH induction, traditional biomarkers and parameters can no long predict clinical outcome due to a lack of understanding of hypothermic response. Innovative approaches to better understand the clinical effect of TH will help to prognosticate outcome and expand beneficial population. Protein glycosylation is an important extracellular post-translational modification, regulating various extracellular signaling pathways...
August 15, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811027/design-of-carbohydrate-electron-transfer-peptides-for-human-histocytic-lymphoma-cell-sensing
#16
Kazuharu Sugawara, Toshihiko Kadoya, Hideki Kuramitz, Yoshihiro Mihara
A carbohydrate/electro-transfer peptide probe was fabricated to perform cell sensing. The probe consisted of a cello-oligosaccharide that was created by the conjugation of an electron-transfer peptide (Y5C) and a carbohydrate via a Schiff base. An oxidation wave due to a phenolic hydroxyl group was obtained by scanning with a glassy carbon electrode. This cell-sensing system was based on a competitive reaction between carbohydrates on a cell surface and the probe as each reacted to a protein that recognized the carbohydrate...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803003/pathogenic-features-and-characteristics-of-food-borne-pathogens-biofilm-biomass-viability-and-matrix
#17
REVIEW
Shiqi Lin, Ling Yang, Gu Chen, Bing Li, Dingqiang Chen, Lin Li, Zhenbo Xu
Biofilm is a ubiquitous growth pattern of bacterial species survival but is notorious for its threat on public health and food contamination. Extensive studies of the biofilm structure, formation, quantification, quorum sensing system and underlying control strategies have been reported during the past decades. Insightful elucidation of the pathogenic features and characteristic of bacterial biofilm can facilitate in devising appropriate control strategies for biofilm eradication. Therefore, this review mainly summarized the pathogenic features of biofilms from food borne microorganisms, including the biomass (which could be quantified using crystal violet and fluorogenic dye Syto9 assays), viability (which could be determined by tetrazolium salts, fluorescein diacetate, resazurin staining and alamar blue assays) and matrix (which are commonly detected by dimethyl methylene blue and wheat germ agglutinin assays)...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782554/endocytosis-in-primary-mesenchyme-cells-during-sea-urchin-larval-skeletogenesis
#18
Christopher E Killian, Fred H Wilt
The sea urchin larval embryo elaborates two calcitic endoskeletal elements called spicules. Spicules are synthesized by the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and begin to form at early gastrula stage. It is known that the calcium comprising the spicules comes from the seawater and we wish to further consider the mode of calcium transport from the extracellular seawater to the PMCs and then onto the forming spicules. We used PMC in vitro cultures, calcein, fluorescently labeled dextran, and fluorescently labeled Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) to track calcium transport from the seawater into PMCs and spicules and to determine how molecules from the surface of PMCs interact with the incoming calcium...
October 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755365/wheat-germ-cell-free-overexpression-for-the-production-of-membrane-proteins
#19
Marie-Laure Fogeron, Aurélie Badillo, François Penin, Anja Böckmann
Due to their hydrophobic nature, membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to express in classical cell-based protein expression systems. Often toxic, they also undergo degradation in cells or aggregate in inclusion bodies, making delicate issues further solubilization and renaturation. These are major bottlenecks in their structural and functional analysis. The wheat germ cell-free (WGE-CF) system offers an effective alternative not only to classical cell-based protein expression systems but also to other cell-free systems for the expression of membrane proteins...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752591/comparison-and-evaluation-of-capacitation-and-acrosomal-reaction-in-freeze-thawed-human-ejaculated-spermatozoa-treated-with-l-carnitine-and-pentoxifylline
#20
E Aliabadi, S Jahanshahi, T Talaei-Khozani, M Banaei
Cryopreservation is used to preserve the spermatozoa; however, it leads to a reduction in sperm quality. L-carnitine (LC) influences sperm motility and preserves the sperm membrane and DNA integrity. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the protective effects of LC on the membrane integrity of normal human spermatozoa and compare it with pentoxifylline (PT) during cryopreservation. Thirty normal semen samples, prepared by swim-up procedure, were divided into three aliquots: a control without any treatment and two experimental aliquots that were incubated in PT or LC for 30 min...
July 28, 2017: Andrologia
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