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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908598/cell-compaction-influences-the-regenerative-potential-of-passaged-bovine-articular-chondrocytes-in-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-cartilage-defect-model
#1
Michael Schmutzer
The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867698/mapping-3d-fiber-orientation-in-tissue-using-dual-angle-optical-polarization-tractography
#2
Y Wang, M Ravanfar, K Zhang, D Duan, G Yao
Optical polarization tractography (OPT) has recently been applied to map fiber organization in the heart, skeletal muscle, and arterial vessel wall with high resolution. The fiber orientation measured in OPT represents the 2D projected fiber angle in a plane that is perpendicular to the incident light. We report here a dual-angle extension of the OPT technology to measure the actual 3D fiber orientation in tissue. This method was first verified by imaging the murine extensor digitorum muscle placed at various known orientations in space...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858401/intervertebral-disc-degeneration-ectopic-calcification-advanced-glycation-end-products-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#3
S Illien-Jünger, O M Torre, W F Kindschuh, X Chen, D M Laudier, J C Iatridis
Ectopic calcifications in intervertebral discs (IVDs) are known characteristics of IVD degeneration that are not commonly reported but may be implicated in structural failure and dysfunctional IVD cell metabolic responses. This study investigated the novel hypothesis that ectopic calcifications in the IVD are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via hypertrophy and osteogenic differentiation. Histological analyses of human IVDs from several degeneration stages revealed areas of ectopic calcification within the nucleus pulposus and at the cartilage endplate...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856937/allylpyrocatechol-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-secondary-to-modulation-of-the-mapk-jak-stat-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#4
Soumita De, Alak Manna, Sunanda Kundu, Sritama De Sarkar, Uttara Chatterjee, Tuhinadri Sen, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Mitali Chatterjee
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disorder is characterized by synovial hyperplasia and bony destruction. The pathogenesis of RA includes redox dysregulation, concomitant with increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. As the ability of Allylpyrocatechol (APC), a phytoconstituent of Piper betle leaves to alleviate oxidative stress has been demonstrated in patients with RA, its anti-arthritic activity was evaluated in an animal model of arthritis, along with establishment of the underlying mechanism(s) of action...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855926/sulfated-glycosaminoglycan-derived-oligosaccharides-produced-from-chicken-connective-tissue-promote-iron-uptake-in-a-human-intestinal-caco-2-cell-line
#5
Henan Wang, Mirko Betti
Food grade sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides were successfully extracted from chicken cartilage and skin. Their respective oligosaccharides were obtained by bovine testicular hyaluronidase digestion. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed to determine the possible mechanism explaining how GAGs promote iron uptake by the Caco-2 cells. The sulfated GAG oligosaccharides derived from cartilage possessed the greatest DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing activities (p<0.05), but limited ferrous chelating activities...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807861/interplay-between-cytoskeletal-polymerization-and-the-chondrogenic-phenotype-in-chondrocytes-passaged-in-monolayer-culture
#6
Justin Parreno, Mortah Nabavi Niaki, Katarina Andrejevic, Amy Jiang, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Tubulin and actin exist as monomeric units that polymerize to form either microtubules or filamentous actin. As the polymerization status (monomeric/polymeric ratio) of tubulin and/or actin have been shown to be important in regulating gene expression and phenotype in non-chondrocyte cells, the objective of this study was to examine the role of cytoskeletal polymerization on the chondrocyte phenotype. We hypothesized that actin and/or tubulin polymerization status modulates the chondrocyte phenotype during monolayer culture as well as in 3D culture during redifferentiation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784235/study-in-treatment-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dba-1-mice-model-by-genistein
#7
Peng Zhang, Yiping Hu, Jinchao Li, Ling Qin, Ye Yue, Wenxiang Cheng, Xiaohua Pan
BACKGROUND: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of genistein treatment in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA) mouse model. METHODS: CIA was elicited in DBA/1 Mice by an intradermal injection of 100 μL of an emulsion of bovine type II collagen (CII) in isovolumic incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Twenty-one days later, a second injection of CII in IFA was administered at the base of the tail. After the symptoms of arthritis showed in mouse model, we divided animals into two groups according to their clinical symptom scores...
October 25, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770937/evaluation-of-the-potential-of-rhtgf-%C3%AE-3-encapsulated-p-lla-cl-collagen-nanofibers-for-tracheal-cartilage-regeneration-using-mesenchymal-stems-cells-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-of-human-umbilical-cord
#8
Jing Wang, Binbin Sun, Lingling Tian, Xiaomin He, Qiang Gao, Tong Wu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Jinghao Zheng, Xiumei Mo
Tracheal injuries are one of major challenging issues in clinical medicine because of the poor intrinsic ability of tracheal cartilage for repair. Tissue engineering provides an alternative method for the treatment of tracheal defects by generating replacement tracheal structures. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated to encapsulate bovine serum albumin & rhTGF-β3 (recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3) into the core of the nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration. Characterization of the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and tensile mechanical test...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763638/1-25-dihydroxy-vitamin-d3-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-protects-against-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-promoting-p53-acetylation-mediated-apoptosis-via-sirt1-in-synoviocytes
#9
Xin Gu, Bingjie Gu, Xianhui Lv, Zhenzhen Yu, Rong Wang, Xiaoli Zhou, Wanxin Qiao, Zhiyuan Mao, Guoping Zuo, Qing Li, Dengshun Miao, Jianliang Jin
Impaired apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) causes synovial hyperplasia, facilitating destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a dominant inflammatory mediator in RA pathogenesis, promotes progression of RA symptoms. Prevalence of 1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (hereafter termed VD) deficiency is 30-63% in patients with RA. Whether VD leads to apoptosis or enhances TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in FLSs to ameliorate RA is unclear. To determine this, 10-week-old CYP27B1-deficient (CYP27B1(-/-)) mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were intraperitoneally treated with 1 μg/kg VD every other day for 9 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760253/multi-scale-strain-as-a-predictor-of-impact-induced-fissuring-in-articular-cartilage
#10
Corinne R Henak, Lena R Bartell, Itai Cohen, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746378/sox9-protein-is-stabilized-by-tgf-%C3%AE-and-regulates-papss2-mrna-expression-in-chondrocytes
#11
R D Chavez, G Coricor, J Perez, H-S Seo, R Serra
OBJECTIVE: We previously identified PAPSS2 as a transcriptional target of TGF-β in chondrocytes. PAPSS2 is required for proper sulfation of proteoglycans in cartilage. Defective sulfation in the matrix results in alterations in mechanical properties of the cartilage that would be expected to result in degeneration. The objective of this study was to identify factors that regulate PAPSS2 expression and compare to a known TGF-β responsive gene, PRG4. In this study, TGF-β-mediated regulation of SOX9 was characterized, and the involvement of SOX9 in regulation of PAPSS2 mRNA was investigated...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726455/co-culture-with-infrapatellar-fat-pad-differentially-stimulates-proteoglycan-synthesis-and-accumulation-in-cartilage-and-meniscus-tissues
#12
James F Nishimuta, Monica F Bendernagel, Marc E Levenston
PURPOSE: Although osteoarthritis is widely viewed as a disease of the whole joint, relatively few studies have focused on interactions among joint tissues in joint homeostasis and degeneration. In particular, few studies have examined the effects of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) on cartilaginous tissues. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that co-culture with healthy IFP would induce degradation of cartilage and meniscus tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage, meniscus, and IFP were cultured isolated or as cartilage-fat or meniscus-fat co-cultures for up to 14 days...
October 11, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716169/viscoelastic-properties-of-human-and-bovine-articular-cartilage-a-comparison-of-frequency-dependent-trends
#13
Duncan K Temple, Anna A Cederlund, Bernard M Lawless, Richard M Aspden, Daniel M Espino
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of human and bovine cartilage. METHODS: Full-depth cartilage specimens were extracted from bovine and human femoral heads. Using dynamic mechanical analysis, the viscoelastic properties of eight bovine and six human specimens were measured over the frequency range 1 Hz to 88 Hz. Significant differences between bovine and human cartilage viscoelastic properties were assessed using a Mann-Whitney test (p < 0...
October 6, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714971/changes-in-endogenous-uv-fluorescence-and-biomechanical-stiffness-of-bovine-articular-cartilage-after-collagenase-digestion-are-strongly-correlated
#14
William Lewis, Juan-Pablo Padilla-Martinez, Antonio Ortega-Martinez, Walfre Franco
A significant source of morbidity in the elderly population of the United States is osteoarthritis (OA), a disease caused by the breakdown and loss of articular cartilage. The exact causes of OA remain unknown, though biomechanical forces and biochemical alterations are important factors. There exists an unmet need for an imaging tool to identify early lesions of OA via metabolic, chemical or structural changes. Our work aims to characterize changes in the intensity of UV fluorescent bands associated with known structural proteins of cartilage...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688846/modulation-of-superficial-zone-protein-lubricin-prg4-by-kartogenin-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-in-surface-zone-chondrocytes-in-bovine-articular-cartilage
#15
Kazumasa Miyatake, Kenjiro Iwasa, Sean M McNary, Gordon Peng, A Hari Reddi
OBJECTIVE: Superficial zone protein (SZP)/lubricin/PRG4 functions as a boundary lubricant in articular cartilage to decrease friction and wear. As articular cartilage lubrication is critical for normal joint function, the accumulation of SZP at the surface of cartilage is important for joint homeostasis. Recently, a heterocyclic compound called kartogenin (KGN) was found to induce chondrogenic differentiation and enhance mRNA expression of lubricin. The objective of this study was to determine whether KGN can stimulate synthesis of SZP in superficial zone, articular chondrocytes...
October 2016: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688845/the-chondroprotective-role-of-erythromycin-in-a-murine-joint-destruction-model
#16
Tomoya Uchimura, Andrea T Foote, David C Markel, Weiping Ren, Li Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is a major player in the joint destruction process. Macrolide antibiotics have recently been found to have a novel anti-inflammatory function, but their effects on the joint are unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effect of macrolide antibiotic erythromycin on cartilage gene expression under inflammatory conditions as well as on joint pathology in an in vivo inflammatory joint destruction model. DESIGN: In our in vivo studies, mouse knee joints were injected with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), a chemical that inhibits glycolysis and causes joint inflammation and matrix loss...
October 2016: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688844/transplantation-of-scaffold-free-cartilage-like-cell-sheets-made-from-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cartilage-repair-a-preclinical-study
#17
Maki Itokazu, Shigeyuki Wakitani, Hisashi Mera, Yoshihiro Tamamura, Yasushi Sato, Mutsumi Takagi, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to determine culture conditions that create stable scaffold-free cartilage-like cell-sheets from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and to assess their effects after transplantation into osteochondral defects in nude rats. DESIGN: (Experiment 1) The hBMSCs were harvested from 3 males, the proliferative and chondrogenic capacities were assessed at passage 1, and the cells were expanded in 3 different culture conditions: (1) 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), (2) 10% FBS, and (3) 5% FBS with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2)...
October 2016: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688842/expression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulator-rbpms-rna-binding-protein-with-multiple-splicing-is-regulated-by-il-1%C3%AE-and-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-members-and-decreased-in-aged-and-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#18
S Shanmugaapriya, A van Caam, L de Kroon, Elly L Vitters, B Walgreen, H van Beuningen, E Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan
OBJECTIVE: RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) has been shown to physically interact with Smads and enhance transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated Smad2/3 transcriptional activity in mammalian cells. Objective of this study was to examine whether expression of RBPMS is regulated by interleukin-1β (IL)-1β and TGF-β superfamily growth factors and whether expression of RBPMS is altered during aging and experimental osteoarthritis. METHODS: Expression of RBPMS protein was investigated in chondrocyte cell lines of murine (H4) and human (G6) origin using Western blot analysis...
October 2016: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647392/anisotropy-in-the-viscoelastic-response-of-knee-meniscus-cartilage
#19
Luca Coluccino, Chiara Peres, Riccardo Gottardi, Paolo Bianchini, Alberto Diaspro, Luca Ceseracciu
BACKGROUND: The knee meniscus is instrumental to stability, shock absorption, load transmission and stress distribution within the knee joint. Such functions are mechanically demanding, and replacement constructs used in meniscus repair often fail because of a poor match with the surrounding tissue. This study focused on the native structure-mechanics relationships and on their anisotropic behavior in meniscus, to define the target biomechanical viscoelastic properties required by scaffolds upon loading...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630166/quantitative-mass-spectrometry-to-study-inflammatory-cartilage-degradation-and-resulting-interactions-with-the-complement-system
#20
Camilla Melin Fürst, Emma Åhrman, Klas Bratteby, Sofia Waldemarson, Johan Malmström, Anna M Blom
Joint diseases are often characterized by inflammatory processes that result in pathological changes in joint tissues, including cartilage degradation and release of components into the synovial fluid. The complement system plays a central role in promoting the inflammation. Because several cartilage proteins are known to interact with complement, causing either activation or inhibition of the system, we aimed to investigate these interactions comprehensively. Bovine cartilage explants were cultured with IL-1α to induce cartilage degradation, followed by incubation with human serum...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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