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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638116/laser-ultrasonic-delivery-of-agents-into-articular-cartilage
#1
Heikki J Nieminen, Gonçalo Barreto, Mikko A Finnilä, Alejandro García-Pérez, Ari Salmi, Sanjeev Ranjan, Kari K Eklund, Kenneth P H Pritzker, Simo Saarakkala, Edward Hæggström
Research is ongoing to develop drug therapies to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and articular cartilage (AC) injuries. However, means to deliver drug to localized AC lesions are highly limited and not clinically available. This study investigates the capability of laser ultrasound (laser-induced plasma sound source) to deliver agents (methylene blue, MB, in PBS) into bovine AC. Treatment samples (n = 10) were immersed in MB solution simultaneously with LU exposure, while adjacent control 1 tissue (n = 10) was pre-treated with LU followed by immersion in MB and adjacent control 2 tissue (n = 10) was only immersed in MB...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627226/light-absorptive-properties-of-articular-cartilage-ecm-molecules-synovial-fluid-and-photoinitiators-as-potential-barriers-to-light-initiated-polymer-scaffolding-procedures
#2
Anthony J Finch, Jamie M Benson, Patrick E Donnelly, Peter A Torzilli
Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618866/characterization-of-articular-cartilage-recovery-and-its-correlation-with-optical-response-in-the-near-infrared-spectral-range
#3
Isaac Oluwaseun Afara, Sanjleena Singh, Hayley Moody, Lihai Zhang, Adekunle Oloyede
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. DESIGN: Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading...
July 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612188/direct-quantification-of-solute-diffusivity-in-agarose-and-articular-cartilage-using-correlation-spectroscopy
#4
Janty S Shoga, Brian T Graham, Liyun Wang, Christopher Price
Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue; diffusive transport is critical for its homeostasis. While numerous techniques have been used to quantify diffusivity within porous, hydrated tissues and tissue engineered constructs, these techniques have suffered from issues regarding invasiveness and spatial resolution. In the present study, we implemented and compared two separate correlation spectroscopy techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), for the direct, and minimally-invasive quantification of fluorescent solute diffusion in agarose and articular cartilage...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602577/fabrication-of-porous-scaffolds-with-decellularized-cartilage-matrix-for-tissue-engineering-application
#5
Bita Nasiri, Shohreh Mashayekhan
Due to the avascular nature of articular cartilage, damaged tissue has little capacity for spontaneous healing. Three-dimensional scaffolds have potential for use in tissue engineering approach for cartilage repair. In this study, bovine cartilage tissue was decellularized and chemically crosslinked hybrid chitosan/extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds were fabricated with different ECM weight ratios by simple freeze drying method. Various properties of chitosan/ECM scaffolds such as microstructure, mechanical strength, swelling ratio, and biodegradability rate were investigated to confirm improved structural and biological characteristics of chitosan scaffolds in the presence of ECM...
June 8, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600846/ectopic-implantation-of-juvenile-osteochondral-tissues-recapitulates-endochondral-ossification
#6
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Sarindr Bhumiratana, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Subcutaneous implantation in a mouse can be used to investigate tissue maturation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this simple model can recapitulate endochondral ossification associated with native skeletal development. By histological and μCT analysis, we investigated morphological changes of immature bovine osteochondral tissues over the course of subcutaneous implantation in immunocompromised mice for up to 10 weeks. We observed multiple similarities between the ectopic process and native endochondral ossification: (i) permanent cartilage retention in the upper zones, (ii) progressive loss of transient cartilage accompanied by bone formation at the interface, and (iii) remodeling of nascent endochondral bone into mature cancellous bone...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577187/autofluorescence-imaging-for-improved-visualization-of-joint-structures-during-arthroscopic-surgery
#7
Duy Tan Nguyen, Pepijn van Horssen, Hans Derriks, Martijn van de Giessen, Ton van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study is to develop the arthroscopic autofluorescence imaging (AFI) system to improve the visualization during arthroscopic surgery by real-time enhancing the contrast between joint structures with autofluorescence imaging. Its validity was evaluated around the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, specifically improving the contrast between the femoral insertion site and its background. The feasibility of the AFI system was validated with bovine and human knees...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575984/chitosan-%C3%AE-poly-glutamic-acid-scaffolds-with-surface-modified-albumin-elastin-and-poly-l-lysine-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#8
Yung-Chih Kuo, Hao-Fu Ku, Rajendiran Rajesh
Cartilage has limited ability to self-repair due to the absence of blood vessels and nerves. The application of biomaterial scaffolds using biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM)-related polymers has become an effective approach to production of engineered cartilage. Chitosan/γ-poly(glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) scaffolds with different mass ratios were prepared using genipin as a cross-linker and a freeze-drying method, and their surfaces were modified with elastin, human serum albumin (HSA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL)...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569204/tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-smad2-3-and-smad1-5-phosphorylation-are-both-alk5-kinase-dependent-in-primary-chondrocytes-and-mediated-by-tak1-kinase-activity
#9
Arjan van Caam, Wojciech Madej, Amaya Garcia de Vinuesa, Marie-José Goumans, Peter Ten Dijke, Esmeralda Blaney Davidson, Peter van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is implicated in osteoarthritis development, making normalizing TGFβ signaling a possible therapy. Theoretically, this can be achieved with small molecule inhibitors specifically targeting the various TGFβ receptors and downstream mediators. In this study we explore in primary chondrocytes the use of small molecule inhibitors to target TGFβ-induced pSmad1/5/9-, pSmad2/3- and TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent signaling...
May 31, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567592/transcriptional-profiling-distinguishes-inner-and-outer-annulus-fibrosus-from-nucleus-pulposus-in-the-bovine-intervertebral-disc
#10
Guus G H van den Akker, Marije I Koenders, Fons A J van de Loo, Peter L E M van Lent, Esmeralda Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Cells in the intervertebral disc have unique phenotypes and marker genes that separate the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF) and articular cartilage (AC) have been identified. Recently, it was shown that phenotypic marker genes exhibit variable expression in humans. In this study, the bovine tail was used to determine the ability of marker genes to distinguish the outer and inner AF from NP tissue and isolated cells. METHODS: Bovine tail intervertebral discs from 13 donors were dissected and correct isolation of tissue was confirmed...
May 31, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542098/comparison-of-oxygen-consumption-rates-of-nondegenerate-and-degenerate-human-ivd-cells
#11
Sarah E Cisewski, Yongren Wu, Brooke J Damon, Barton L Sachs, Michael J Kern, Hai Yao
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro measurements of the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the OCR of nondegenerate and degenerate human annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), and cartilage endplate (CEP) cells at different glucose concentrations. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The avascular nature of the IVD creates a delicate balance between rate of nutrient transport through the matrix and rate of disc cell consumption necessary to maintain tissue health...
May 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536017/do-chondroitin-sulfates-with-different-structures-have-different-activities-on-chondrocytes-and-macrophages
#12
André L da Cunha, Jair A K Aguiar, Flavio S Correa da Silva, Yara M Michelacci
The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of natural chondroitin sulfates (CS) with different structures on cultured chondrocytes and macrophages. CS were isolated from cartilages of bovine trachea (BT), porcine trachea (PT), chicken sternum (Ch) and skate (Sk). The preparations were 90-98% pure, with ∼1% proteins, nucleic acids and keratan sulfate contaminants. Structural analysis of these CS and of commercial chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate (C4S, C6S) have shown that most of their disaccharides are monosulfated, with varying proportions of 4- and 6-sulfation, and 2-7% non-sulfated disaccharides...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508410/lipid-distribution-composition-and-uptake-in-bovine-articular-cartilage-studied-using-raman-micro-spectrometry-and-confocal-microscopy
#13
Jessica Claire Mansfield, C Peter Winlove
The distribution and composition of endogenous lipids in articular cartilage and transport of exogenous fatty acids have been investigated on a microscopic scale in fresh bovine articular cartilage. To investigate the distribution and composition of the endogenous lipids, hyperspectral Raman maps were taken of chondrocytes and their surrounding matrix in both the deep and superficial zones. These revealed differences in both lipid distribution and composition between the two zones. Extracellular lipid was observed surrounding the cells in the superficial zone but not in the deep zone...
July 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495577/delivery-of-anti-inflammatory-peptides-from-hollow-pegylated-poly-nipam-nanoparticles-reduces-inflammation-in-an-ex-vivo-osteoarthritis-model
#14
James McMasters, Scott Poh, Jenny B Lin, Alyssa Panitch
Targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory osteoarthritis treatments have the potential to significantly decrease undesirable systemic side effects and reduce required therapeutic dosage. Here we present a targeted, non-invasive drug delivery system to decrease inflammation in an osteoarthritis model. Hollow thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) nanoparticles have been synthesized via degradation of a N,N'-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BAC) cross-linked core out of a non-degradable pNIPAM shell. Sulfated 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) was copolymerized in the shell to increase passive loading of an anti-inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2)-inhibiting cell-penetrating peptide (KAFAK)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488318/platelet-rich-plasma-enhances-the-integration-of-bio-engineered-cartilage-with-native-tissue-in-an-in-vitro-model
#15
Corey Sermer, Rita Kandel, Jesse Anderson, Mark Hurtig, John Theodoropoulos
Current therapies for cartilage repair can be limited by an inability of the repair tissue to integrate with host tissue. Thus there is interest in developing approaches to enhance integration. We have previously shown that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improves cartilage tissue formation. This raised the question as to whether PRP could promote cartilage integration. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage harvested from bovine joints, seeded on a porous bone substitute, and grown in vitro to form an osteochondral-like implant...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474620/bone-marrow-extract-as-a-growth-supplement-for-human-iliac-apophyseal-chondrocyte-culture
#16
Balasubramanian Balakumar, Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Vrisha Madhuri
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Human bone marrow is rich in various growth factors which may support the chondrocyte growth. This study was conducted to compare the culture characteristics of human growth plate chondrocyte in foetal bovine serum (FBS) and human autologous bone marrow extract (BME) in monolayer culture. METHODS: Iliac crest apophyseal cartilage was harvested from four donors, aged between two and nine years, undergoing hip surgery. Chondrocytes were propagated under two culture conditions, with 10 per cent FBS and 10 per cent autologous BME harvested from the same donors...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447291/investigation-of-contact-characteristics-and-frictional-properties-of-natural-articular-cartilage-at-two-different-surface-configurations
#17
Shanhua Qian, Liyong Zhang, Zi Feng Ni, Chuanhui Huang, Dekun Zhang
Natural cartilage surfaces were macroscopically curved with multi-porous viscoelastic biologic materials with extremely high water, but whether curved surface configuration could play an important role on the contact and frictional properties of natural cartilages fails to be completely understood up to now. In this current study, cartilage samples came from the 18-24 month-old bovine femora. Contact characteristic and frictional properties at two cartilage configurations were investigated using the UMT-2 testing rig and the five-point sliding average method would be adopted to analyze these tested data...
June 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436002/characterization-of-the-chondrocyte-secretome-in-photoclickable-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels
#18
Margaret C Schneider, Christopher A Barnes, Stephanie J Bryant
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are highly tunable platforms that are promising cell delivery vehicles for chondrocytes and cartilage tissue engineering. In addition to characterizing the type of extracellular matrix (ECM) that forms, understanding the types of proteins that are secreted by encapsulated cells may be important. Thus, the objectives for this study were to characterize the secretome of chondrocytes encapsulated in PEG hydrogels and determine whether the secretome varies as a function of hydrogel stiffness and culture condition...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418007/saturated-fatty-acids-induce-development-of-both-metabolic-syndrome-and-osteoarthritis-in-rats
#19
Sunderajhan Sekar, Siti Raihanah Shafie, Indira Prasadam, Ross Crawford, Sunil K Panchal, Lindsay Brown, Yin Xiao
The predominant saturated fatty acids (SFA) in human diets are lauric acid (LA, C12:0), myristic acid (MA, C14:0), palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) and stearic acid (SA, C18:0). The aim of this study was to investigate whether diets containing individual SFA together with excess simple carbohydrates induce osteoarthritis (OA)-like changes in knee joints and signs of metabolic syndrome in rats. Rats were given either a corn starch diet or a diet composed of simple carbohydrates together with 20% LA, MA, PA, SA or beef tallow for 16 weeks...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414616/biphasic-finite-element-modeling-reconciles-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilage-constructs-across-testing-platforms
#20
Gregory R Meloni, Matthew B Fisher, Brendan D Stoeckl, George R Dodge, Robert L Mauck
Cartilage tissue engineering is emerging as a promising treatment for osteoarthritis, and the field has progressed toward utilizing large animal models for proof of concept and preclinical studies. Mechanical testing of the regenerative tissue is an essential outcome for functional evaluation. However, testing modalities and constitutive frameworks used to evaluate in vitro grown samples differ substantially from those used to evaluate in vivo derived samples. To address this, we developed finite element (FE) models (using FEBio) of unconfined compression and indentation testing, modalities commonly used for such samples...
April 14, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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