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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095064/adipokines-induce-catabolism-of-newly-synthesized-matrix-in-cartilage-and-meniscus-tissues
#1
James F Nishimuta, Marc E Levenston
PURPOSE: Altered synovial levels of various adipokines (factors secreted by fat as well as other tissues) have been associated with osteoarthritis onset and progression. However, the metabolic effects of adipokines on joint tissues, in particular the fibrocartilaginous menisci, are not well understood. This study investigated effects of several adipokines on release of recently synthesized extracellular matrix in bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After labeling newly synthesized proteins and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) with (3)H-proline and (35)S-sulfate, respectively, bovine cartilage and meniscus tissue explants were cultured for 6 days in basal medium (control) or media supplemented with adipokines (1 µg/ml of leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, or resistin) or 20ng/ml interleukin-1 (IL-1)...
January 17, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063645/anisotropy-and-inter-condyle-heterogeneity-of-cartilage-under-large-strain-shear
#2
Stephany Santos, Franz Maier, David M Pierce
We were the first to examine the mechanical responses of skeletally mature bovine femoral cartilage under large-strain simple shear (up to ±20%) using a multiaxial shear testing device. Since shear loading is critical in both tissue failure and chondrocyte responses, we aimed to probe (1) anisotropy with respect to the split-line direction (principal alignment of the collagen fibers near the articulating surface), (2) heterogeneity between femoral condyles, and (3) the influence of local cartilage thickness...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058277/raman-spectroscopy-reveals-new-insights-into-the-zonal-organization-of-native-and-tissue-engineered-articular-cartilage
#3
Mads S Bergholt, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Giovanni S Offeddu, Paresh A Parmar, Michael B Albro, Jennifer L Puetzer, Michelle L Oyen, Molly M Stevens
Tissue architecture is intimately linked with its functions, and loss of tissue organization is often associated with pathologies. The intricate depth-dependent extracellular matrix (ECM) arrangement in articular cartilage is critical to its biomechanical functions. In this study, we developed a Raman spectroscopic imaging approach to gain new insight into the depth-dependent arrangement of native and tissue-engineered articular cartilage using bovine tissues and cells. Our results revealed previously unreported tissue complexity into at least six zones above the tidemark based on a principal component analysis and k-means clustering analysis of the distribution and orientation of the main ECM components...
December 28, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987759/covalent-and-injectable-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-hydrogels-embedded-with-chitosan-microspheres-for-drug-delivery-and-tissue-engineering
#4
Ming Fan, Ye Ma, Huaping Tan, Yang Jia, Siyue Zou, Shuxuan Guo, Meng Zhao, Hao Huang, Zhonghua Ling, Yong Chen, Xiaohong Hu
Injectable hydrogels and microspheres derived from natural polysaccharides have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems and cell scaffolds. In this study, we report a preparation of covalent hydrogels basing polysaccharides via the Schiff' base reaction. Water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and oxidized chondroitin sulfate (OCS) were prepared for cross-linking of hydrogels. The mechanism of cross-linking is attributed to the Schiff' base reaction between amino and aldehyde groups of polysaccharides...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983955/reconstruction-of-anterior-tracheal-defects%C3%A2-using-a-bioengineered-graft-in-a%C3%A2-porcine-model
#5
Adnan M Al-Ayoubi, Sadiq S Rehmani, Catherine F Sinclair, Robert S Lebovics, Faiz Y Bhora
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects can be challenging and a suitable tracheal substitute remains lacking. We sought to create a bioengineered tracheal graft to repair such lesions using acellullar bovine dermis extracellular matrix (ECM) and male human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and implant it in a porcine model. METHODS: hMSCs were seeded on the ECM and incubated for 1 week with chondrogenic factors. An anterior 4 cm × 3 cm defect was surgically created in the trachea of 4-week-old female Yorkshire pigs...
October 27, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980494/in-vivo-osteoinduction-evaluating-2-beta-coxatene-as-an-immunoinductive-compound-and-novel-ingredient-for-joint-support
#6
Katherine Spinks, James J Scaffidi
CONTEXT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by progressive loss of articular cartilage. Many treatments lack the ability to stimulate the growth of native cartilage tissue while they simultaneously increase joint comfort. For the past few decades, dietary supplements have been investigated for the ability to both address joint inflammation and stimulate cartilage tissue. OBJECTIVES: The present study intended to examine the supplement's in vivo osteoinductive capabilities and clinical efficacy for overall joint health...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975090/near-infrared-spectroscopic-assessment-of-developing-engineered-tissues-correlations-with-compositional-and-mechanical-properties
#7
Arash Hanifi, Uday Palukuru, Cushla McGoverin, Michael Shockley, Eliot Frank, Alan Grodzinsky, Richard G Spencer, Nancy Pleshko
Articular cartilage degeneration causes pain and reduces the mobility of millions of people annually. Regeneration of cartilage is challenging, due in part to its avascular nature, and thus tissue engineering approaches for cartilage repair have been studied extensively. Current techniques to assess the composition and integrity of engineered tissues, including histology, biochemical evaluation, and mechanical testing, are destructive, which limits real-time monitoring of engineered cartilage tissue development in vitro and in vivo...
December 15, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966948/discovery-of-novel-highly-potent-and-selective-matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp-13-inhibitors-with-a-1-2-4-triazol-3-yl-moiety-as-a-zinc-binding-group-using-a-structure-based-design-approach
#8
Hiroshi Nara, Akira Kaieda, Kenjiro Sato, Takako Naito, Hideyuki Mototani, Hideyuki Oki, Yoshio Yamamoto, Haruhiko Kuno, Takashi Santou, Naoyuki Kanzaki, Jun Terauchi, Osamu Uchikawa, Masakuni Kori
On the basis of a superposition study of X-ray crystal structures of complexes of quinazoline derivative 1 and triazole derivative 2 with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 catalytic domain, a novel series of fused pyrimidine compounds which possess a 1,2,4-triazol-3-yl group as a zinc binding group (ZBG) was designed. Among the herein described and evaluated compounds, 31f exhibited excellent potency for MMP-13 (IC50 = 0.036 nM) and selectivities (greater than 1,500-fold) over other MMPs (MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10, and -14) and tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917821/optimizing-cell-sourcing-for-clinical-translation-of-tissue-engineered-ears
#9
Kerry A Morrison, Benjamin P Cohen, Ope Asanbe, Xue Dong, Alice Harper, Lawrence J Bonassar, Jason A Spector
: Background . Currently, the major impediment to clinical translation of our previously described platform for the fabrication of high fidelity, patient-specific tissue engineered ears is the development of a clinically optimal cell sourcing strategy. A limited autologous auricular chondrocyte (AuC) supply in conjunction with rapid chondrocyte de-differentiation during in vitro expansion currently makes clinical translation more challenging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise due to their inherent chondrogenic potential, and large availability through minimally invasive procedures...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908598/cell-compaction-influences-the-regenerative-potential-of-passaged-bovine-articular-chondrocytes-in-an-ex%C3%A2-vivo-cartilage-defect-model
#10
Michael Schmutzer
The loss and degradation of articular cartilage tissue matrix play central roles in the process of osteoarthritis (OA). New models for evaluating cartilage repair/regeneration are thus of great value for transferring various culture systems into clinically relevant situations. The repair process can be better monitored in ex vivo systems than in in vitro cell cultures. I have therefore established an ex vivo defect model prepared from bovine femoral condyles for evaluating cartilage repair by the implantation of cells cultured in various ways, e...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867698/mapping-3d-fiber-orientation-in-tissue-using-dual-angle-optical-polarization-tractography
#11
Y Wang, M Ravanfar, K Zhang, D Duan, G Yao
Optical polarization tractography (OPT) has recently been applied to map fiber organization in the heart, skeletal muscle, and arterial vessel wall with high resolution. The fiber orientation measured in OPT represents the 2D projected fiber angle in a plane that is perpendicular to the incident light. We report here a dual-angle extension of the OPT technology to measure the actual 3D fiber orientation in tissue. This method was first verified by imaging the murine extensor digitorum muscle placed at various known orientations in space...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858401/ages-induce-ectopic-endochondral-ossification-in-intervertebral-discs
#12
S Illien-Jünger, O M Torre, W F Kindschuh, X Chen, D M Laudier, J C Iatridis
Ectopic calcifications in intervertebral discs (IVDs) are known characteristics of IVD degeneration that are not commonly reported but may be implicated in structural failure and dysfunctional IVD cell metabolic responses. This study investigated the novel hypothesis that ectopic calcifications in the IVD are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via hypertrophy and osteogenic differentiation. Histological analyses of human IVDs from several degeneration stages revealed areas of ectopic calcification within the nucleus pulposus and at the cartilage endplate...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856937/allylpyrocatechol-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress-secondary-to-modulation-of-the-mapk-jak-stat-and-nrf2-ho-1-pathways
#13
Soumita De, Alak Manna, Sunanda Kundu, Sritama De Sarkar, Uttara Chatterjee, Tuhinadri Sen, Subrata Chattopadhyay, Mitali Chatterjee
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an inflammatory autoimmune disorder, is characterized by synovial hyperplasia and bony destruction. The pathogenesis of RA includes redox dysregulation, concomitant with increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. As the ability of allylpyrocatechol (APC), a phytoconstituent of Piper betle leaves, to alleviate oxidative stress has been demonstrated in patients with RA, its antiarthritic activity was evaluated in an animal model of arthritis, and the underlying mechanism(s) of action clarified...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855926/sulfated-glycosaminoglycan-derived-oligosaccharides-produced-from-chicken-connective-tissue-promote-iron-uptake-in-a-human-intestinal-caco-2-cell-line
#14
Henan Wang, Mirko Betti
Food grade sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides were successfully extracted from chicken cartilage and skin. Their respective oligosaccharides were obtained by bovine testicular hyaluronidase digestion. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed to determine the possible mechanism explaining how GAGs promote iron uptake by the Caco-2 cells. The sulfated GAG oligosaccharides derived from cartilage possessed the greatest DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing activities (p<0.05), but limited ferrous chelating activities...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807861/interplay-between-cytoskeletal-polymerization-and-the-chondrogenic-phenotype-in-chondrocytes-passaged-in-monolayer-culture
#15
Justin Parreno, Mortah Nabavi Niaki, Katarina Andrejevic, Amy Jiang, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Tubulin and actin exist as monomeric units that polymerize to form either microtubules or filamentous actin. As the polymerization status (monomeric/polymeric ratio) of tubulin and/or actin have been shown to be important in regulating gene expression and phenotype in non-chondrocyte cells, the objective of this study was to examine the role of cytoskeletal polymerization on the chondrocyte phenotype. We hypothesized that actin and/or tubulin polymerization status modulates the chondrocyte phenotype during monolayer culture as well as in 3D culture during redifferentiation...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784235/study-in-treatment-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dba-1-mice-model-by-genistein
#16
Peng Zhang, Yiping Hu, Jinchao Li, Ling Qin, Ye Yue, Wenxiang Cheng, Xiaohua Pan
BACKGROUND: This work aimed to evaluate the effects of genistein treatment in Collagen Induced Arthritis (CIA) mouse model. METHODS: CIA was elicited in DBA/1 Mice by an intradermal injection of 100 μL of an emulsion of bovine type II collagen (CII) in isovolumic incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Twenty-one days later, a second injection of CII in IFA was administered at the base of the tail. After the symptoms of arthritis showed in mouse model, we divided animals into two groups according to their clinical symptom scores...
October 25, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770937/evaluation-of-the-potential-of-rhtgf-%C3%AE-3-encapsulated-p-lla-cl-collagen-nanofibers-for-tracheal-cartilage-regeneration-using-mesenchymal-stems-cells-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-of-human-umbilical-cord
#17
Jing Wang, Binbin Sun, Lingling Tian, Xiaomin He, Qiang Gao, Tong Wu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Jinghao Zheng, Xiumei Mo
Tracheal injuries are one of major challenging issues in clinical medicine because of the poor intrinsic ability of tracheal cartilage for repair. Tissue engineering provides an alternative method for the treatment of tracheal defects by generating replacement tracheal structures. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated to encapsulate bovine serum albumin & rhTGF-β3 (recombinant human transforming growth factor-β3) into the core of the nanofibers for tracheal cartilage regeneration. Characterization of the core-shell nanofibrous scaffold was carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and tensile mechanical test...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763638/1-25-dihydroxy-vitamin-d3-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-protects-against-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-promoting-p53-acetylation-mediated-apoptosis-via-sirt1-in-synoviocytes
#18
Xin Gu, Bingjie Gu, Xianhui Lv, Zhenzhen Yu, Rong Wang, Xiaoli Zhou, Wanxin Qiao, Zhiyuan Mao, Guoping Zuo, Qing Li, Dengshun Miao, Jianliang Jin
Impaired apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) causes synovial hyperplasia, facilitating destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a dominant inflammatory mediator in RA pathogenesis, promotes progression of RA symptoms. Prevalence of 1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (hereafter termed VD) deficiency is 30-63% in patients with RA. Whether VD leads to apoptosis or enhances TNF-α-mediated apoptosis in FLSs to ameliorate RA is unclear. To determine this, 10-week-old CYP27B1-deficient (CYP27B1(-/-)) mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were intraperitoneally treated with 1 μg/kg VD every other day for 9 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760253/multi-scale-strain-as-a-predictor-of-impact-induced-fissuring-in-articular-cartilage
#19
Corinne R Henak, Lena R Bartell, Itai Cohen, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746378/sox9-protein-is-stabilized-by-tgf-%C3%AE-and-regulates-papss2-mrna-expression-in-chondrocytes
#20
R D Chavez, G Coricor, J Perez, H-S Seo, R Serra
OBJECTIVE: We previously identified PAPSS2 as a transcriptional target of TGF-β in chondrocytes. PAPSS2 is required for proper sulfation of proteoglycans in cartilage. Defective sulfation in the matrix results in alterations in mechanical properties of the cartilage that would be expected to result in degeneration. The objective of this study was to identify factors that regulate PAPSS2 expression and compare to a known TGF-β responsive gene, PRG4. In this study, TGF-β-mediated regulation of SOX9 was characterized, and the involvement of SOX9 in regulation of PAPSS2 mRNA was investigated...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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