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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743292/targeted-designed-variants-of-alpha-2-macroglobulin-a2m-attenuate-cartilage-degeneration-in-a-rat-model-of-osteoarthritis-induced-by-anterior-cruciate-ligament-transection
#1
Yang Zhang, Xiaochun Wei, Shawn Browning, Gaetano Scuderi, Lewis S Hanna, Lei Wei
BACKGROUND: The study was performed to evaluate whether targeted alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) variants have a similar or enhanced function at wild-type (wt)-A2M to attenuate cartilage degeneration in vivo. METHODS: In and ex-vivo experiment, bovine cartilage explants (BCE) were incubated with TNF-α and IL-1β with or without wt-A2M or A2M variants. Cartilage catabolism was measured in culture supernatant by sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG). In an in-vivo experiment, 2-month-old male Wistar rats (n = 77) were randomly divided into seven groups and treated with different doses of A2M or its variants by intra-articular injection at 24 hours and day 14 after anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), receiving (1) ACLT/PBS; (2) ACLT/wt-A2M (0...
July 25, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703018/comparative-effectiveness-of-structural-versus-regulatory-protein-gene-transfer-on-articular-chondrocyte-matrix-gene-expression
#2
Shuiliang Shi, Congrong Wang, Albert Chan, Kashif Kirmani, George J Eckert, Stephen B Trippel
Objective The production of extracellular matrix is a necessary component of articular cartilage repair. Gene transfer is a promising method to improve matrix biosynthesis by articular chondrocytes. Gene transfer may employ transgenes encoding regulatory factors that stimulate the production of matrix proteins, or may employ transgenes that encode the proteins themselves. The objective of this study was to determine which of these 2 approaches would be the better choice for further development. We compared these 2 approaches using the transgenes encoding the structural matrix proteins, aggrecan or type II collagen, and the transgene encoding the anabolic factor, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)...
July 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688149/proteoglycan-4-and-hyaluronan-as-boundary-lubricants-for-model-contact-lens-hydrogels
#3
Michael Samsom, Yuno Iwabuchi, Heather Sheardown, Tannin A Schmidt
Clinical data show that in vitro contact lens friction is related to in vivo comfort. Solutions of biological lubricants hyaluronan (HA) and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, also known as lubricin) reduce friction at a cornea-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) interface. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine if PRG4 can sorb to and lubricate model contact lens materials and (2) assess the boundary lubricating ability of PRG4 and HA compared to saline on model contact lens materials. PRG4 was obtained from bovine cartilage culture and suspended in saline at 300 µg/mL...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687928/combined-effects-of-oscillating-hydrostatic-pressure-perfusion-and-encapsulation-in-a-novel-bioreactor-for-enhancing-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-by-bovine-chondrocytes
#4
Arshan Nazempour, Chrystal R Quisenberry, Nehal I Abu-Lail, Bernard J Van Wie
The influence of combined shear stress and oscillating hydrostatic pressure (OHP), two forms of physical forces experienced by articular cartilage (AC) in vivo, on chondrogenesis, is investigated in a unique bioreactor system. Our system introduces a single reaction chamber design that does not require transfer of constructs after seeding to a second chamber for applying the mechanical forces, and, as such, biochemical and mechanical stimuli can be applied in combination. The biochemical and mechanical properties of bovine articular chondrocytes encapsulated in agarose scaffolds cultured in our bioreactors for 21 days are compared to cells statically cultured in agarose scaffolds in addition to static micromass and pellet cultures...
July 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682003/impact-insertion-of-osteochondral-grafts-interference-fit-and-central-graft-reduction-affect-biomechanics-and-cartilage-damage
#5
Alvin W Su, Yunchan Chen, Dustin H Wailes, Van W Wong, Shengqiang Cai, Albert C Chen, William D Bugbee, Robert L Sah
An osteochondral graft (OCG) is an effective treatment for articular cartilage and osteochondral defects. Impact of an OCG during insertion into the osteochondral recipient site (OCR) can cause chondrocyte death and matrix damage. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of graft-host interference fit and a modified OCG geometry on OCG insertion biomechanics and cartilage damage. The effects of interference fit (radius of OCG - radius of OCR), loose (0.00mm), moderate (0.05mm), tight (0.10mm), and of a tight fit with OCG geometry modification (central region of decreased radius) were analyzed for OCG cylinders and OCR blocks from adult bovine knee joints with an instrumented drop tower apparatus...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679445/coculture-of-bovine-cartilage-with-synovium-and-fibrous-joint-capsule-increases-aggrecanase-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-activity
#6
Per Swärd, Yang Wang, Maria Hansson, L Stefan Lohmander, Alan J Grodzinsky, André Struglics
BACKGROUND: A hallmark of osteoarthritis is increased proteolytic cleavage of aggrecan. Cross talk between cartilage and the synovium + joint capsule (SJC) can drive cartilage degradation by activating proteases in both tissues. We investigated aggrecan proteolysis patterns in cartilage explants using a physiologically relevant explant model of joint injury combining cartilage mechanical compression and coincubation with SJC. METHODS: Bovine cartilage explants were untreated; coincubated with SJC; or subjected to mechanical injury and coincubated with SJC, mechanical injury alone, or mechanical injury and incubated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
July 5, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658181/a-prospective-randomized-comparison-of-lower-eyelid-retraction-repair-with-autologous-auricular-cartilage-bovine-acellular-dermal-matrix-surgimend-and-porcine-acellular-dermal-matrix-enduragen-spacer-grafts
#7
Anne Barmettler, Moonseoung Heo
PURPOSE: To compare outcomes of lower eyelid retraction repair with 3 types of spacer grafts: autologous auricular cartilage, bovine acellular dermal matrix (Surgimend, Integra, Plainsboro, NJ), porcine acellular dermal matrix (Enduragen, Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI). METHODS: A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing lower eyelid retraction repair with spacer graft. Subjects received autologous auricular cartilage, bovine acellular dermal matrix, or porcine acellular dermal matrix between June 2015 and July 2016...
June 19, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638116/laser-ultrasonic-delivery-of-agents-into-articular-cartilage
#8
Heikki J Nieminen, Gonçalo Barreto, Mikko A Finnilä, Alejandro García-Pérez, Ari Salmi, Sanjeev Ranjan, Kari K Eklund, Kenneth P H Pritzker, Simo Saarakkala, Edward Hæggström
Research is ongoing to develop drug therapies to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and articular cartilage (AC) injuries. However, means to deliver drug to localized AC lesions are highly limited and not clinically available. This study investigates the capability of laser ultrasound (laser-induced plasma sound source) to deliver agents (methylene blue, MB, in PBS) into bovine AC. Treatment samples (n = 10) were immersed in MB solution simultaneously with LU exposure, while adjacent control 1 tissue (n = 10) was pre-treated with LU followed by immersion in MB and adjacent control 2 tissue (n = 10) was only immersed in MB...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627226/light-absorptive-properties-of-articular-cartilage-ecm-molecules-synovial-fluid-and-photoinitiators-as-potential-barriers-to-light-initiated-polymer-scaffolding-procedures
#9
Anthony J Finch, Jamie M Benson, Patrick E Donnelly, Peter A Torzilli
Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618866/characterization-of-articular-cartilage-recovery-and-its-correlation-with-optical-response-in-the-near-infrared-spectral-range
#10
Isaac Oluwaseun Afara, Sanjleena Singh, Hayley Moody, Lihai Zhang, Adekunle Oloyede
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. DESIGN: Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading...
July 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612188/direct-quantification-of-solute-diffusivity-in-agarose-and-articular-cartilage-using-correlation-spectroscopy
#11
Janty S Shoga, Brian T Graham, Liyun Wang, Christopher Price
Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue; diffusive transport is critical for its homeostasis. While numerous techniques have been used to quantify diffusivity within porous, hydrated tissues and tissue engineered constructs, these techniques have suffered from issues regarding invasiveness and spatial resolution. In the present study, we implemented and compared two separate correlation spectroscopy techniques, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), for the direct, and minimally-invasive quantification of fluorescent solute diffusion in agarose and articular cartilage...
June 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602577/fabrication-of-porous-scaffolds-with-decellularized-cartilage-matrix-for-tissue-engineering-application
#12
Bita Nasiri, Shohreh Mashayekhan
Due to the avascular nature of articular cartilage, damaged tissue has little capacity for spontaneous healing. Three-dimensional scaffolds have potential for use in tissue engineering approach for cartilage repair. In this study, bovine cartilage tissue was decellularized and chemically crosslinked hybrid chitosan/extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds were fabricated with different ECM weight ratios by simple freeze drying method. Various properties of chitosan/ECM scaffolds such as microstructure, mechanical strength, swelling ratio, and biodegradability rate were investigated to confirm improved structural and biological characteristics of chitosan scaffolds in the presence of ECM...
June 8, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600846/ectopic-implantation-of-juvenile-osteochondral-tissues-recapitulates-endochondral-ossification
#13
Johnathan Ng, Yiyong Wei, Bin Zhou, Sarindr Bhumiratana, Aonnicha Burapachaisri, Edward Guo, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Subcutaneous implantation in a mouse can be used to investigate tissue maturation in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this simple model can recapitulate endochondral ossification associated with native skeletal development. By histological and μCT analysis, we investigated morphological changes of immature bovine osteochondral tissues over the course of subcutaneous implantation in immunocompromised mice for up to 10 weeks. We observed multiple similarities between the ectopic process and native endochondral ossification: (i) permanent cartilage retention in the upper zones, (ii) progressive loss of transient cartilage accompanied by bone formation at the interface, and (iii) remodeling of nascent endochondral bone into mature cancellous bone...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577187/autofluorescence-imaging-for-improved-visualization-of-joint-structures-during-arthroscopic-surgery
#14
Duy Tan Nguyen, Pepijn van Horssen, Hans Derriks, Martijn van de Giessen, Ton van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study is to develop the arthroscopic autofluorescence imaging (AFI) system to improve the visualization during arthroscopic surgery by real-time enhancing the contrast between joint structures with autofluorescence imaging. Its validity was evaluated around the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, specifically improving the contrast between the femoral insertion site and its background. The feasibility of the AFI system was validated with bovine and human knees...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575984/chitosan-%C3%AE-poly-glutamic-acid-scaffolds-with-surface-modified-albumin-elastin-and-poly-l-lysine-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#15
Yung-Chih Kuo, Hao-Fu Ku, Rajendiran Rajesh
Cartilage has limited ability to self-repair due to the absence of blood vessels and nerves. The application of biomaterial scaffolds using biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM)-related polymers has become an effective approach to production of engineered cartilage. Chitosan/γ-poly(glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) scaffolds with different mass ratios were prepared using genipin as a cross-linker and a freeze-drying method, and their surfaces were modified with elastin, human serum albumin (HSA) and poly-l-lysine (PLL)...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569204/tgf%C3%AE-1-induced-smad2-3-and-smad1-5-phosphorylation-are-both-alk5-kinase-dependent-in-primary-chondrocytes-and-mediated-by-tak1-kinase-activity
#16
Arjan van Caam, Wojciech Madej, Amaya Garcia de Vinuesa, Marie-José Goumans, Peter Ten Dijke, Esmeralda Blaney Davidson, Peter van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is implicated in osteoarthritis development, making normalizing TGFβ signaling a possible therapy. Theoretically, this can be achieved with small molecule inhibitors specifically targeting the various TGFβ receptors and downstream mediators. In this study we explore in primary chondrocytes the use of small molecule inhibitors to target TGFβ-induced pSmad1/5/9-, pSmad2/3- and TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent signaling...
May 31, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567592/transcriptional-profiling-distinguishes-inner-and-outer-annulus-fibrosus-from-nucleus-pulposus-in-the-bovine-intervertebral-disc
#17
Guus G H van den Akker, Marije I Koenders, Fons A J van de Loo, Peter L E M van Lent, Esmeralda Blaney Davidson, Peter M van der Kraan
BACKGROUND: Cells in the intervertebral disc have unique phenotypes and marker genes that separate the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF) and articular cartilage (AC) have been identified. Recently, it was shown that phenotypic marker genes exhibit variable expression in humans. In this study, the bovine tail was used to determine the ability of marker genes to distinguish the outer and inner AF from NP tissue and isolated cells. METHODS: Bovine tail intervertebral discs from 13 donors were dissected and correct isolation of tissue was confirmed...
May 31, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542098/comparison-of-oxygen-consumption-rates-of-nondegenerate-and-degenerate-human-ivd-cells
#18
Sarah E Cisewski, Yongren Wu, Brooke J Damon, Barton L Sachs, Michael J Kern, Hai Yao
STUDY DESIGN: In vitro measurements of the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells. OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the OCR of nondegenerate and degenerate human annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), and cartilage endplate (CEP) cells at different glucose concentrations. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The avascular nature of the IVD creates a delicate balance between rate of nutrient transport through the matrix and rate of disc cell consumption necessary to maintain tissue health...
May 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536017/do-chondroitin-sulfates-with-different-structures-have-different-activities-on-chondrocytes-and-macrophages
#19
André L da Cunha, Jair A K Aguiar, Flavio S Correa da Silva, Yara M Michelacci
The aim of the present study was to investigate the activities of natural chondroitin sulfates (CS) with different structures on cultured chondrocytes and macrophages. CS were isolated from cartilages of bovine trachea (BT), porcine trachea (PT), chicken sternum (Ch) and skate (Sk). The preparations were 90-98% pure, with ∼1% proteins, nucleic acids and keratan sulfate contaminants. Structural analysis of these CS and of commercial chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate (C4S, C6S) have shown that most of their disaccharides are monosulfated, with varying proportions of 4- and 6-sulfation, and 2-7% non-sulfated disaccharides...
May 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508410/lipid-distribution-composition-and-uptake-in-bovine-articular-cartilage-studied-using-raman-micro-spectrometry-and-confocal-microscopy
#20
Jessica Claire Mansfield, C Peter Winlove
The distribution and composition of endogenous lipids in articular cartilage and transport of exogenous fatty acids have been investigated on a microscopic scale in fresh bovine articular cartilage. To investigate the distribution and composition of the endogenous lipids, hyperspectral Raman maps were taken of chondrocytes and their surrounding matrix in both the deep and superficial zones. These revealed differences in both lipid distribution and composition between the two zones. Extracellular lipid was observed surrounding the cells in the superficial zone but not in the deep zone...
July 2017: Journal of Anatomy
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