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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431132/revealing-the-biochemical-and-genetic-basis-of-colour-variation-in-a-polymorphic-lizard
#1
Claire A McLean, Adrian Lutz, Katrina J Rankin, Devi Stuart-Fox, Adnan Moussalli
Determining the mechanistic and genetic basis of animal coloration is essential to understand the costs and constraints on colour production, and the evolution and maintenance of phenotypic variation. However, genes underlying structural colour and widespread pigment classes apart from melanin remain largely uncharacterised, in part due to restricted taxonomic focus. We combined liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and RNA-seq gene expression analyses to characterise the pigments and genes associated with skin colour in the polymorphic lizard, Ctenophorus decresii...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421798/assessment-of-individual-carotenoid-and-vitamin-a-dietary-intake-in-overweight-and-obese-dominican-subjects
#2
Madeline Durán-Cabral, Irene Fernández-Jalao, Rocío Estévez-Santiago, Begoña Olmedilla Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Carotenoids are plant pigment with important biological activities in humans, such as provitamin-A among others. At present, there are no individual carotenoid intake data in the Dominican population, which is at risk of vitamin A deficiency and has an important percentage of overweight and obese individuals . OBJECTIVE: To assess the individual components of vitamin A intake (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and that of other relevant dietary carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene of Dominican daily food intake...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420094/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-new-insights-and-potential-new-treatments
#3
REVIEW
Hironori Kitade, Guanliang Chen, Yinhua Ni, Tsuguhito Ota
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders worldwide. It is associated with clinical states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, and covers a wide range of liver changes, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic disorders, such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, but the underlying mechanisms, including those that drive disease progression, are not fully understood...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386384/association-of-serum-carotenoid-retinol-and-tocopherol-concentrations-with-the-progression-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Ji Hyun Kim, Jinah Hwang, Eugene Shim, Eun-Jung Chung, Sung Hee Jang, Seong-Beom Koh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A pivotal role of oxidative stress has been emphasized in the pathogenesis as well as in the disease progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed at investigating serum levels of antioxidant vitamins and elucidating whether they could be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of PD. MATERIALS/METHODS: Serum levels of retinol, α- and γ-tocopherols, α- and β-carotenes, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin were measured and compared between 104 patients with idiopathic PD and 52 healthy controls matched for age and gender...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371918/functional-lycopene-cyclase-crua-in-cyanobacterium-arthrospira-platensis-nies-39-and-its-role-in-carotenoid-synthesis
#5
Kenjiro Sugiyama, Masashi Ebisawa, Masaharu Yamada, Yoshiki Nagashima, Hideyuki Suzuki, Takashi Maoka, Shinichi Takaichi
The genus Arthrospira is filamentous, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria that is commercially important. We identified the molecular structures of carotenoids in Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. The major carotenoid identified was β-carotene. In addition, the hydroxyl derivatives of β-cryptoxanthin and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin were also found to be present. The carotenoid glycosides were identified as (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-methylpentoside and oscillol 2,2'-dimethylpentoside. The methylpentoside moiety was a mixture of fucoside and chinovoside in an approximate ratio of 1 : 4...
April 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333357/dietary-patterns-foods-and-nutrients-in-male-fertility-parameters-and-fecundability-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#6
Albert Salas-Huetos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a global public health issue, affecting 15% of all couples of reproductive age. Male factors, including decreased semen quality, are responsible for ~25% of these cases. The dietary pattern, the components of the diet and nutrients have been studied as possible determinants of sperm function and/or fertility. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Previous systematic reviews have been made of the few heterogeneous low-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in small samples of participants and investigating the effect of specific nutrients and nutritional supplements on male infertility...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330161/in-vitro-propagation-carotenoid-fatty-acid-and-tocopherol-content-of-ajuga-multiflora-bunge
#7
Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Ramesh Kumar Saini, Rafi Noorzai, Ahmad Jawid Zamany, Doo Hwan Kim
The effect of plant growth regulators on shoot proliferation from shoot tip explants of Ajuga multiflora was studied. The highest number of shoots (17.1) was observed when shoot tip explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with 8.0 µM 6-Benzyladenine (BA) and 2.7 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The mean number of shoots per explant was increased 1.6-fold in liquid medium as compared with semi-solid medium. Maximum rooting (100 %) with an average of 7.2 roots per shoot was obtained on MS basal medium...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293540/inverse-association-between-dietary-intake-of-selected-carotenoids-and-vitamin-c-and-risk-of-lung-cancer
#8
Martine Shareck, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Anita Koushik, Jack Siemiatycki, Marie-Elise Parent
While diets rich in fruit and vegetables appear to reduce lung cancer risk, the evidence for individual carotenoid and vitamin intakes has been judged too limited to reach firm conclusions. Data from a case-control study of lung cancer (Montreal, QC, Canada, 1996-2002) were used to investigate the role of dietary intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C in lung cancer risk. In-person interviews elicited dietary information from 1,105 incident cases and 1,449 population controls...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275103/serum-folate-vitamin-b-12-vitamin-a-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-tocopherol-and-carotenoids-do-not-modify-associations-between-cadmium-exposure-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-the-general-us-adult-population
#9
Sarah Jo Nomura, Kim Robien, Ami R Zota
Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of the aging process and is associated with the risk of chronic disease. Higher exposure to cadmium may be associated with shorter LTL, and adequate nutrient concentrations may be associated with longer LTL; however, the potential interaction between metals and nutrients on LTL has yet to be examined.Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of vitamins and carotenoids were associated with LTL, and whether they modified the association between blood cadmium and LTL in the US NHANES (1999-2002)...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266352/preparation-of-carotenoid-extracts-and-nanoemulsions-from-lycium-barbarum-l-and-their-effects-on-growth-of-ht-29-colon-cancer-cells
#10
H J Hsu, R F Huang, T H Kao, B S Inbaraj, B H Chen
Lycium barbarum L., a traditional Chinese herb widely used in Asian countries, has been demonstrated to be protective against chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the carotenoid content in L. barbarum by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, followed by preparation of a carotenoid nanoemulsion to evaluate the mechanism of inhibition on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The highest extraction yield of carotenoids was attained by employing a solvent system of hexane-ethanol-acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v)...
March 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231085/extraction-identification-and-photo-physical-characterization-of-persimmon-diospyros-kaki-l-carotenoids
#11
Khalil Zaghdoudi, Orleans Ngomo, Régis Vanderesse, Philippe Arnoux, Bauyrzhan Myrzakhmetov, Céline Frochot, Yann Guiavarc'h
Carotenoid pigments were extracted and purified from persimmon fruits using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Eleven pigments were isolated and five of them were clearly identified as all-trans-violaxanthine, all-trans-lutein, all-trans-zeaxanthin all-trans-cryptoxanthin and all-trans-β-carotene. Absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded. To evaluate the potential of ¹O₂ quenching of the purified carotenoids, we used a monocarboxylic porphyrin (P1COOH) as the photosensitizer to produce ¹O₂...
January 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194237/the-impact-of-micronutrient-status-on-health-correlation-network-analysis-to-understand-the-role-of-micronutrients-in-metabolic-inflammatory-processes-regulating-homeostasis-and-phenotypic-flexibility
#12
Tim J van den Broek, Bas H A Kremer, Marisa Marcondes Rezende, Femke P M Hoevenaars, Peter Weber, Ulrich Hoeller, Ben van Ommen, Suzan Wopereis
BACKGROUND: Vitamins and carotenoids are key micronutrients facilitating the maintenance of health, as evidenced by the increased risk of disease with low intake. Optimal phenotypic flexibility, i.e., the ability to respond to a physiological challenge, is an essential indicator of health status. Therefore, health can be measured by applying a challenge test and monitoring the response of relevant phenotypic processes. In this study, we assessed the correlation of three fat-soluble vitamins, (i...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165379/in-vitro-lipophilic-antioxidant-capacity-antidiabetic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-citrus-fruits-extracts-from-aceh-indonesia
#13
Ernawita, Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Jana Hesse, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner, Volker Böhm
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161629/gene-expression-analysis-of-enzymes-of-the-carotenoid-biosynthesis-pathway-involved-in-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-accumulation-in-wild-raspberry-rubus-palmatus
#14
Kouichi Mizuno, Tetsuo Tokiwano, Yuko Yoshizawa
β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cry), a xanthophyll, is unlike other abundant carotenoids, such as α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. It is not found in most fruits or vegetables but is found only in specific fruits, such as hot chili pepper, persimmon, and citrus fruits. Because recent reports suggest that β-Cry intake is beneficial to human health, the xanthophyll requires further investigation. Although β-Cry accumulates in the fruit of wild raspberry, Rubus palmatus, it is not present in cultivated raspberry...
February 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158965/largely-different-contents-of-terpenoids-in-beef-red-flesh-tangerine-and-its-wild-type
#15
Wenyun Li, Cuihua Liu, Min He, Jinqiang Li, Yongqiang Cai, Yuhua Ma, Juan Xu
BACKGROUND: Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. RESULTS: Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1...
February 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110620/daily-oral-intake-of-%C3%AE-cryptoxanthin-ameliorates-neuropathic-pain
#16
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Iezaki, Maika Okamoto, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Kanayama, Kakeru Ozaki, Yuki Onishi, Minoru Sugiura, Eiichi Hinoi
β-cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, exerts preventive effects on various lifestyle-related diseases. Here, we found that daily oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin significantly ameliorated the development of tactile allodynia following spinal nerve injury but was ineffective in mechanical allodynia in an inflammatory pain model in mice. Our results suggest that β-cryptoxanthin supplementation would be beneficial for the prophylaxis of neuropathic pain.
May 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102015/circulating-antioxidant-levels-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer-by-tmprss2-erg
#17
Rebecca E Graff, Gregory Judson, Thomas U Ahearn, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Massimo Loda, Edward L Giovannucci, Lorelei A Mucci, Andreas Pettersson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered etiological differences across molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, despite potential to improve opportunities for precision prevention of a disease for which modifiable risk factors have remained elusive. Factors that lead to DNA double-strand breaks, such as oxidative stress, may promote the formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of pre-diagnostic circulating antioxidants, which may reduce oxidative stress, are associated with lower risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG positive prostate cancer...
May 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079511/circulating-carotenoids-and-subsequent-risk-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-women
#18
Yang Hu, Jing Cui, Jeffrey A Sparks, Susan Malspeis, Karen H Costenbader, Elizabeth W Karlson, Bing Lu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between circulating carotenoids and future risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study consisting of 227 incident RA cases and 671 matched controls with prospectively measured plasma carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) levels in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Each incident RA case was matched with 3 healthy controls...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041601/higher-intake-of-cryptoxanthin-is-related-to-low-body-mass-index-and-body-fat-in-japanese-middle-aged-women
#19
Asuka Hirose, Masakazu Terauchi, Miho Hirano, Mihoko Akiyoshi, Yoko Owa, Kiyoko Kato, Toshiro Kubota
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases increases with age, especially in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated the dietary patterns associated with body mass and body fat in Japanese middle-aged women. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study used baseline data collected in a previous study in 88 women aged 40-60 years. Participants were assessed for age, menopausal status, lifestyle factors, body composition, and dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire, which provides information on the amounts of nearly 100 nutritional factors consumed during the previous month...
February 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018400/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-candidate-genes-involved-in-carotenoid-biosynthesis-in-chickpea-seeds
#20
Mohammad K Rezaei, Amit Deokar, Bunyamin Tar'an
Plant carotenoids have a key role in preventing various diseases in human because of their antioxidant and provitamin A properties. Chickpea is a good source of carotenoid among legumes and its diverse germplasm and genome accessibility makes it a good model for carotenogenesis studies. The structure, location, and copy numbers of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were retrieved from the chickpea genome. The majority of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within these genes across five diverse chickpea cultivars was synonymous mutation...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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