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bentonite clay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842827/base-triggered-release-of-insecticide-from-bentonite-reinforced-citric-acid-crosslinked-carboxymethyl-cellulose-hydrogel-composites
#1
Dhruba Jyoti Sarkar, Anupama Singh
Biopolymeric clay hydrogels composites, synthesized from crosslinking of carboxymethyl cellulose with citric acid in the presence of bentonite, were used to develop base triggered release formulations (TRFs) of thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,5-oxadiazinan-4-ylidene(nitro)amine) through an ex-situ encapsulation technique. Hydrogels, hydrogel-bentonite composites and their formulations were characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS. Triggered release of thiamethoxam from the developed formulations was studied in water (pH 7-11) with the help of HPLC and subjected to kinetics analysis using different models...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837119/the-efficacy-of-raw-and-concentrated-bentonite-clay-in-reducing-the-toxic-effects-of-aflatoxin-in-broiler-chicks
#2
T A Shannon, D R Ledoux, G E Rottinghaus, D P Shaw, A Daković, M Marković
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1 One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826951/natural-minerals-coated-by-biopolymer-chitosan-synthesis-physicochemical-and-adsorption-properties
#3
T M Budnyak, E S Yanovska, O Yu Kichkiruk, D Sternik, V A Tertykh
Natural minerals are widely used in treatment technologies as mineral fertilizer, food additive in animal husbandry, and cosmetics because they combine valuable ion-exchanging and adsorption properties together with unique physicochemical and medical properties. Saponite (saponite clay) of the Ukrainian Podillya refers to the class of bentonites, a subclass of layered magnesium silicate montmorillonite. Clinoptilolits are aluminosilicates with carcase structure. In our work, we have coated biopolymer chitosan on the surfaces of natural minerals of Ukrainian origin - Podilsky saponite and Sokyrnitsky clinoptilolite...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809675/bentonite-toxicology-and-epidemiology-a-review
#4
L Daniel Maxim, Ron Niebo, Ernest E McConnell
Bentonite, a clay with numerous industrial and consumer applications, is mined and processed in many countries of the world. Its many beneficial uses also create the potential for widespread occupational and consumer exposure. The available studies on toxicity and epidemiology indicate that the principal exposure pathway of concern is inhalation of respirable dust by occupationally exposed cohorts. Bentonite itself is probably not more toxic than any other particulate not otherwise regulated and is not classified as a carcinogen by any regulatory or advisory body, but some bentonite may contain variable amounts of respirable crystalline silica, a recognized human carcinogen...
November 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743792/fate-of-nano-and-microplastic-in-freshwater-systems-a-modeling-study
#5
Ellen Besseling, Joris T K Quik, Muzhi Sun, Albert A Koelmans
Riverine transport to the marine environment is an important pathway for microplastic. However, information on fate and transport of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems is lacking. Here we present scenario studies on the fate and transport of nano-to millimetre sized spherical particles like microbeads (100 nm-10 mm) with a state of the art spatiotemporally resolved hydrological model. The model accounts for advective transport, homo- and heteroaggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation, presence of biofilm and burial...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741456/long-term-diffusion-of-u-vi-in-bentonite-dependence-on-density
#6
Claudia Joseph, Jens Mibus, Paul Trepte, Christa Müller, Vinzenz Brendler, Dan M Park, Yongqin Jiao, Annie B Kersting, Mavrik Zavarin
As a contribution to the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, U(VI) diffusion through the potential buffer material MX-80 bentonite was investigated at three clay dry densities over six years. Synthetic MX-80 model pore water was used as background electrolyte. Speciation calculations showed that Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) was the main U(VI) species. The in- and out-diffusion of U(VI) was investigated separately. U(VI) diffused about 3mm, 1.5mm, and 1mm into the clay plug at ρ=1.3, 1.6, and 1.9g/cm(3), respectively...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737795/mycotoxin-detoxifiers-attenuate-deoxynivalenol-induced-pro-inflammatory-barrier-insult-in-porcine-enterocytes-as-an-in-vitro-evaluation-model-of-feed-mycotoxin-reduction
#7
Seong-Hwan Park, Juil Kim, Dongwook Kim, Yuseok Moon
Deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent mycotoxin worldwide, leads to economic losses for animal food production. Swine is a most sensitive domestic animal to DON due to rapid absorption and low detoxification by gut microbiota. Specifically, DON can severely damage pig intestinal tissue by disrupting the intestinal barrier and inducing inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effects of several mycotoxin detoxifiers including bentonites, yeast cell wall components, and mixture-typed detoxifier composed of mineral, microorganisms, and phytogenic substances on DON-insulted intestinal barrier and pro-inflammatory responses using in vitro porcine enterocyte culture model...
October 11, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699284/beyond-waste-new-sustainable-fillers-from-fly-ashes-stabilization-obtained-by-low-cost-raw-materials
#8
N Rodella, M Pasquali, A Zacco, F Bilo, L Borgese, N Bontempi, G Tomasoni, L E Depero, E Bontempi
A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www...
September 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639464/competitive-adsorption-of-toxic-metals-on-bentonite-and-use-of-chitosan-as-flocculent-coagulant-to-speed-up-the-settling-of-generated-clay-suspensions
#9
M Ferhat, S Kadouche, N Drouiche, K Messaoudi, B Messaoudi, H Lounici
Evaluation of modified Algerian clay as mineral adsorbent was done for its adsorbing capacity on copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) cations. The results obtained show a rapid kinetic adsorption for both metals (less than 2 h) following the pseudo-second order model with high elimination rates of 67.2 and 61.8% for Cu and Zn respectively. The adsorption isotherms analyzed with Langmuir model revealed a correlation with the experimental values. While the use of obtained chitosan at room temperature, as flocculent coagulant, accelerates the decantation of the colloidal particles in suspension generated after adsorption process...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573502/application-of-radiation-chemistry-to-some-selected-technological-issues-related-to-the-development-of-nuclear-energy
#10
REVIEW
Krzysztof Bobrowski, Konrad Skotnicki, Tomasz Szreder
The most important contributions of radiation chemistry to some selected technological issues related to water-cooled reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes, and fuel evolution during final radioactive waste disposal are highlighted. Chemical reactions occurring at the operating temperatures and pressures of reactors and involving primary transients and stable products from water radiolysis are presented and discussed in terms of the kinetic parameters and radiation chemical yields...
October 2016: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533861/destabilization-dynamics-of-clay-and-acid-free-polymers-of-ferric-and-magnesium-salts-in-amd-without-ph-adjustment
#11
I O Ntwampe, F B Waanders, J R Bunt
The physicochemical treatment was employed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) in the removal of turbid materials using clay only (exp A) and a combination of clay, FeCl3 and Mg(OH)2 (exp B) to form a polymer. A 5 g sample of clay (bentonite) was added to 1.2 L of AMD and treated in a jar test at 250 rpm for 2 min and reduced to 100 rpm for 10 min. A 200 mL sub-sample from the 1.2 L mother liquor was poured into five 500 mL glass beakers, and 20 mL dosages of a polymer of 0.1 M Fe(3+) in (FeCl3) and 0.1 M Mg(2+) in (Mg(OH)2) was added to the beakers...
2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522022/specific-adsorption-of-cadmium-on-surface-engineered-biocompatible-organoclay-under-metal-phenanthrene-mixed-contamination
#12
Bhabananda Biswas, Binoy Sarkar, Asit Mandal, Ravi Naidu
Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is extremely challenging when they coexist with heavy metals. This constrain has led to adsorption-based techniques that help immobilize the metals and reduce toxicity. However, the adsorbents can also non-selectively bind the organic compounds, which reduces their bioavailability. In this study we developed a surface-engineered organoclay (Arquad(®) 2HT-75-bentonite-palmitic acid) which enhanced bacterial proliferation and adsorbed cadmium, but elevated phenanthrene bioavailability...
November 1, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497351/experimental-study-of-clay-hydrocarbon-interactions-relevant-to-the-biodegradation-of-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-from-the-gulf-of-mexico
#13
Laurence N Warr, André Friese, Florian Schwarz, Frieder Schauer, Ralph J Portier, Laura M Basirico, Gregory M Olson
Adding clay to marine oil pollution represents a promising approach to enhance bacterial hydrocarbon degradation in nutrient poor waters. In this study, three types of regionally available clays (Ca-bentonite, Fuller's Earth and kaolin) were tested to stimulate the biodegradation of source and weathered oil collected from the Deepwater Horizon spill. The weathered oil showed little biodegradation prior to experimentation and was extensively degraded by bacteria in the laboratory in a similar way as the alkane-rich source oil...
November 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474660/synthesis-of-assorted-metal-ions-anchored-alginate-bentonite-biocomposites-for-cr-vi-sorption
#14
Venkatrajan Gopalakannan, Soodamani Periyasamy, Natrayasamy Viswanathan
Biocomposites were synthesized by dispersing bentonite (Bent) clay in a biopolymer namely alginate (Alg) and cross-linked with bi (Ca(2+)), tri (Ce(3+)) and tetravalent (Zr(4+)) metal ions viz., Ca@AlgBent, Ce@AlgBent and Zr@AlgBent composites respectively. The synthesized biocomposites were characterized by various instrumental techniques like FTIR, SEM and EDAX. Cr(VI) sorption capacities (SCs) of the biocomposites Ca@AlgBent, Ce@AlgBent and Zr@AlgBent were examined by batch process. Various adsorption influencing factors viz...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432730/manure-and-sorbent-fertilisers-increase-on-going-nutrient-availability-relative-to-conventional-fertilisers
#15
M R Redding, R Lewis, T Kearton, O Smith
The key to better nutrient efficiency is to simultaneously improve uptake and decrease losses. This study sought to achieve this balance using sorbent additions and manure nutrients (spent poultry litter; SL) compared with results obtained using conventional sources (Conv; urea nitrogen, N; and phosphate-phosphorus; P). Two experiments were conducted. Firstly, a phosphorus pot trial involving two soils (sandy and clay) based on a factorial design (Digitaria eriantha/Pennisetum clandestinum). Subsequently, a factorial N and P field trial was conducted on the clay soil (D...
November 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343864/a-mechanism-of-basal-spacing-reduction-in-sodium-smectitic-clay-materials-in-contact-with-dnapl-wastes
#16
Derya Ayral-Cinar, Margarita Otero-Diaz, Avery H Demond
There has been concern regarding the possible attack of clays in aquitards, slurry walls and landfill liners by dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) wastes, resulting in cracking. Despite the fact that a reduction in basal spacing in sodium smectitic clay materials has been linked to cracking, no plausible mechanism by which this reduction occurs in contact with waste DNAPLs has been formulated. To elucidate a mechanism, screening studies were conducted that showed that the combination of an anionic surfactant (AOT), a nonionic surfactant (TritonX-100) and a chlorinated solvent, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), could replicate the basal spacing reduction and cracking behavior of water-saturated bentonite caused by two waste DNAPLs obtained from the field...
September 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329110/a-study-on-sorption-of-226-ra-on-different-clay-matrices
#17
E Alhajji, M S Al-Masri, H Khalily, B E Naoum, H S Khalil, A Nashawati
The sorption of radium 226 ((226)Ra) on different clay materials (bentonite, illite and a mixture of bentonite-illite) was studied. Clay materials are used in the construction of disposal pits for technically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes (i.e., contaminated soil and sludge) generated by the oil and gas industry operations. Experimental conditions (pH, clay materials quantity, and activity concentrations of (226)Ra) were changed in order to determine the optimal state for adsorption of (226)Ra...
August 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312332/influence-of-sediment-resuspension-on-the-efficacy-of-geoengineering-materials-in-the-control-of-internal-phosphorous-loading-from-shallow-eutrophic-lakes
#18
Hongbin Yin, Ming Kong, Meixiang Han, Chengxin Fan
Modified clay-based solid-phase phosphorous (P) sorbents are increasingly used as lake geoengineering materials for lake eutrophication control. However, some still dispute the feasibility of using these materials to control internal P loading from shallow eutrophic lakes. The lack of information about P behavior while undergoing frequent sediment resuspension greatly inhibits the modified minerals' use. In this study, a sediment resuspension generating system was used to simulate the effect of both moderate winds (5...
June 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281241/organophilic-treatments-of-bentonite-increase-the-adsorption-of-aflatoxin-b1-and-protect-stem-cells-against-cellular-damage
#19
Janaína Nones, Jader Nones, Anicleto Poli, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Humberto Gracher Riella, Nivaldo Cabral Kuhnen
Bentonite clays exhibit high adsorptive capacity for contaminants, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin responsible for causing severe toxicity in several species including pigs, poultry and man. Organophilic treatments is known to increase the adsorption capacity of bentonites, and the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Brazilian bentonite and two organic salts - benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to adsorb AFB1. For this end, 2(2) factorial designs were used in order to analyze if BAC or CTAB was able to increase AFB1 adsorption when submitted in different temperature and concentration...
September 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265172/effects-of-3-sequestering-agents-on-milk-aflatoxin-m1-concentration-and-the-performance-and-immune-status-of-dairy-cows-fed-diets-artificially-contaminated-with-aflatoxin-b1
#20
I M Ogunade, K G Arriola, Y Jiang, J P Driver, C R Staples, A T Adesogan
This study examined whether adding 3 mycotoxin-sequestering agents to diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) would reduce milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentration, and improve the performance and alter immune status of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating dairy cows were used in an experiment with an incomplete crossover design including four 28-d periods. Treatments included a control diet (C), a toxin diet (T; 1,725µg of AFB1/head per day; 75µg/kg), and diets containing the toxin and 20g/head per day of a proprietary mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product containing a low (SEQ1) or high (SEQ2) dose of a chlorophyll-based additive, or a low dose of the chlorophyll-based additive and sodium bentonite clay (SEQ3)...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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