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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599961/charcoal-and-charcoal-based-dentifrices-a-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
John K Brooks, Nasir Bashirelahi, Mark A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. METHODS: The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549407/incorporating-zataria-multiflora-boiss-essential-oil-and-sodium-bentonite-nano-clay-open-a-new-perspective-to-use-zein-films-as-bioactive-packaging-materials
#2
Mahboobeh Kashiri, Yahya Maghsoudlo, Morteza Khomeiri
Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511044/bentonite-modified-with-zinc-enhances-aflatoxin-b1-adsorption-and-increase-survival-of-fibroblasts-3t3-and-epithelial-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-caco-2
#3
Janaína Nones, Anita Solhaug, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Domingos Lusitâneo Pier Macuvele, Anicleto Poli, Cíntia Soares, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Humberto Gracher Riella, Jader Nones
Bentonites are commonly used as feed additives to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of aflatoxins by adsorbing the toxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Aflatoxins are particular harmful mycotoxins mainly found in areas with hot and humid climates. They occur in food and feedstuff as a result of fungal contamination before and after harvest. The aim of this study was to modify Brazilian bentonite clay by incorporation of zinc (Zn) ions in order to increase the adsorption capacity and consequently reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488150/lanthanum-modified-bentonite-potential-for-efficient-removal-of-phosphates-from-fishpond-effluents
#4
Eyal Kurzbaum, Yasmin Raizner, Oded Cohen, Guy Rubinstein, Oded Bar Shalom
Adsorption has been suggested as an effective method for removing phosphates from agricultural wastewater effluents that contain relatively high phosphate concentrations. The present study focused on the use of a bentonite-lanthanum clay (Phoslock(®)) for reducing the dissolved phosphate concentration in fishpond effluents. Batch experiments with synthetic phosphate-spiked solutions and with fishpond effluents were performed in order to determine adsorption equilibrium isotherms and kinetics as well as to determine the efficiency of Phoslock(®) in removing phosphate from these solutions...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486167/removal-of-cyanobacteria-and-cyanotoxins-from-lake-water-by-composites-of-bentonite-with-micelles-of-the-cation-octadecyltrimethyl-ammonium-odtma
#5
Assaf Sukenik, Yehudit Viner-Mozzini, Mordechay Tavassi, Shlomo Nir
Cyanobacteria and their toxins present potential hazard to consumers of water from lakes, reservoirs and rivers, thus their removal via water treatment is essential. The capacity of nano-composites of Octadecyltrimethyl-ammonium (ODTMA) complexed with clay to remove cyanobacterial and their toxins from laboratory cultures and from lake water, was evaluated. Column filters packed with micelles of ODTMA complexed with bentonite and granulated were shown to significantly reduce the number of cyanobacteria cells or filaments and their corresponding toxins from laboratory cultures...
May 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482527/rubber-elastomeric-nanocomposites-with-antimicrobial-properties
#6
Małgorzata Przybyłek, Mohamed Bakar, Mariola Mendrycka, Urszula Kosikowska, Anna Malm, Marta Worzakowska, Tomasz Szymborski, Karolina Kędra-Królik
In this paper we show an elastomeric nanocomposite that exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activity. It comprises a rubber blend matrix and a nanofiller, which is a modified bentonite clay (Nanobent® ZR2). We have developed innovative technology for the nanofiller incorporation into the rubber matrix. This new approach was successfully implemented in pilot production at the Polish chemical manufacturer Spoiwo (Spoldzielnia Pracy Chemiczno-Wytworczej 'Spoiwo', Radom, Poland). Here we reveal that addition of the functionalised bentonite affects the mechanical and thermal behaviour of elastomers...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341479/a-method-for-independent-modelling-in-support-of-regulatory-review-of-dose-assessments
#7
Björn Dverstorp, Shulan Xu
Several countries consider geological disposal facilities as the preferred option for spent nuclear fuel due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment on very long timescales. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a spent nuclear fuel repository. The disposal method involves disposing spent fuel in copper canisters with a cast iron insert at about 500 m depth in crystalline basement rock, and each canister is surrounded by a buffer of swelling bentonite clay...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303615/rare-earth-elements-and-select-actinoids-in-the-canadian-house-dust-study
#8
Pat E Rasmussen, Christine Levesque, Marc Chénier, H David Gardner
Nationally representative baseline data are presented for rare earth elements (REE), plus thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in house dust sampled from 1025 urban homes, in units of concentrations (μg g(-1) ), loadings (μg m(-2) ) and loading rates (ng m(-2) day(-1) ). Spearman rank correlations indicate that, in addition to outdoor sources, consumer products and building materials can influence indoor dust concentrations of REE, Th and U. Correlations (p <0.01) with numbers of occupants, dogs and cats suggest soil track-in...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303542/sorption-and-desorption-of-silver-ions-by-bentonite-clays
#9
Leonel Vinicius Constantino, Juliana Nunes Quirino, Alessandra Maffei Monteiro, Taufik Abrão, Paulo Sérgio Parreira, Alexandre Urbano, Maria Josefa Santos
Anthropogenic activities have increased the concentration of metal species in the environment. The toxicity of silver ions to aquatic and terrestrial organisms has required monitoring by analytical methods, besides actions to promote its control as pollutant. Sorption and desorption processes are directly related to the mobility and availability of metal ions in the environment. In this context, clay minerals can be used for pre-concentration, removal and recovery of silver ions from aqueous solution. Herein, two bentonite clays (BaVC-1 and SWy-2) were characterised and applied to investigate the sorption and desorption of silver ions...
April 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272993/release-behavior-and-bioefficacy-of-imazethapyr-formulations-based-on-biopolymeric-hydrogels
#10
Vikas Kumar, Anupama Singh, T K Das, Dhruba Jyoti Sarkar, Shashi Bala Singh, Rashmi Dhaka, Anil Kumar
Controlled release formulations of imazethapyr herbicide have been developed employing guar gum-g-cl-polyacrylate/bentonite clay hydrogel composite (GG-HG) and guar gum-g-cl-PNIPAm nano hydrogel (GG-NHG) as carriers, to assess the suitability of biopolymeric hydrogels as controlled herbicide release devices. The kinetics of imazethapyr release from the developed formulations was studied in water and it revealed that the developed formulations of imazethapyr behaved as slow release formulations as compared to commercial formulation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272039/study-of-the-effect-of-an-acid-treatment-of-a-natural-moroccan-bentonite-on-its-physicochemical-and-adsorption-properties
#11
Ikram Daou, Omar Zegaoui, Ali Amachrouq
In this study, a natural bentonite taken from a deposit in the Northeast of Morocco has been purified (PB) and treated with various HCl molarities (xHPB) in order to obtain an HCl/Bentonite weight ratio equal to 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6. The obtained physicochemical characterization results indicated that the PB sample is composed mainly of the montmorillonite phase. The impact of acid treatment was investigated by identifying changes in the chemical composition, cation exchange capacity, infrared absorption bands, crystalline structure, morphology of the particles and specific surface area...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108163/reducement-of-cadmium-adsorption-on-clay-minerals-by-the-presence-of-dissolved-organic-matter-from-animal-manure
#12
Wenjun Zhou, Lingwei Ren, Lizhong Zhu
Clay minerals are the most popular adsorbents/amendments for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated soils, but the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil environment would potentially affect the adsorption/immobilization capacity of clay minerals for heavy metals. In this study, the effects of DOM derived from chicken manure (CM) on the adsorption of cadmium (Cd(2+)) on two clay minerals, bentonite and zeolite, were investigated. The equilibrium data for Cd(2+) sorption in the absence or presence of CM-DOM could be well-fitted to the Langmuir equation (R(2) > 0...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094577/protective-role-of-bentonite-against-aflatoxin-b1-and-ochratoxin-a-induced-immunotoxicity-in-broilers
#13
Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Muhammad Saqib, Ahrar Khan, Zahoor Ul-Hassan
The present study was designed to investigate any ameliorative effects of bentonite (BN) against immuno-pathological alterations induced by dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler chicks. In one experiment, AFB1 (0.1, 0.2 or 0.6 mg/kg feed) was fed alone and par alley with bentonite clay (3.7 or 7.5 g/kg feed) to the broilers. In the second experiment, the broilers were given feed contaminated with OTA (0.15, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg feed) alone and in combination with bentonite clay (3...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069315/long-term-non-isothermal-reactive-transport-model-of-compacted-bentonite-concrete-and-corrosion-products-in-a-hlw-repository-in-clay
#14
Alba Mon, Javier Samper, Luis Montenegro, Acacia Naves, Jesús Fernández
Radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories envisages engineered barriers such as carbon-steel canisters, compacted bentonite and concrete liners. The stability and performance of the bentonite barrier could be affected by the corrosion products at the canister-bentonite interface and the hyper-alkaline conditions caused by the degradation of concrete at the bentonite-concrete interface. Additionally, the host clay formation could also be affected by the hyper-alkaline plume at the concrete-clay interface...
February 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934265/cosolvent-effects-on-dechlorination-of-soil-sorbed-polychlorinated-biphenyls-using-bentonite-clay-templated-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron
#15
Kai Yu, G Daniel Sheng, Wesley McCall
Zero-valent iron synthesized using bentonite clay as a template (CZVI) was tested for its reactivity toward polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination in soil slurries. Aqueous-phase decachlorobiphenyl (PCB209) was rapidly dechlorinated by CZVI with a reaction rate 10 times greater than that by conventional nanoscale zerovalent iron. This superior reactivity was due largely to the nanoscale size (∼0.5 nm) of the ZVI particles located in the clay galleries. In soil slurries where PCB209 was strongly soil-bound, adding ethanol as an organic cosolvent led to increased PCB209 desorption into the liquid phase, thereby enhancing the PCB209 dechlorination with CZVI...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842827/base-triggered-release-of-insecticide-from-bentonite-reinforced-citric-acid-crosslinked-carboxymethyl-cellulose-hydrogel-composites
#16
Dhruba Jyoti Sarkar, Anupama Singh
Biopolymeric clay hydrogels composites, synthesized from crosslinking of carboxymethyl cellulose with citric acid in the presence of bentonite, were used to develop base triggered release formulations (TRFs) of thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,5-oxadiazinan-4-ylidene(nitro)amine) through an ex-situ encapsulation technique. Hydrogels, hydrogel-bentonite composites and their formulations were characterized by (1)H NMR, IR spectroscopy, XRD, and SEM-EDS. Triggered release of thiamethoxam from the developed formulations was studied in water (pH 7-11) with the help of HPLC and subjected to kinetics analysis using different models...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837119/the-efficacy-of-raw-and-concentrated-bentonite-clay-in-reducing-the-toxic-effects-of-aflatoxin-in-broiler-chicks
#17
T A Shannon, D R Ledoux, G E Rottinghaus, D P Shaw, A Dakovic, M Markovic
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two adsorbents, a raw bentonite clay (RC) and a concentrated bentonite clay (CC), in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results of the in vitro study (pH 3.0) indicated the CC adsorbed more AFB1 than RC (93.39 mg/g vs. 79.30 mg/g) suggesting that CC may be more effective than RC in reducing the toxic effects of AFB1. One hundred and eighty day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 6 replicate pens of 5 chicks each and assigned to 6 dietary treatments from hatch to day 21...
June 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826951/natural-minerals-coated-by-biopolymer-chitosan-synthesis-physicochemical-and-adsorption-properties
#18
T M Budnyak, E S Yanovska, O Yu Kichkiruk, D Sternik, V A Tertykh
Natural minerals are widely used in treatment technologies as mineral fertilizer, food additive in animal husbandry, and cosmetics because they combine valuable ion-exchanging and adsorption properties together with unique physicochemical and medical properties. Saponite (saponite clay) of the Ukrainian Podillya refers to the class of bentonites, a subclass of layered magnesium silicate montmorillonite. Clinoptilolits are aluminosilicates with carcase structure. In our work, we have coated biopolymer chitosan on the surfaces of natural minerals of Ukrainian origin - Podilsky saponite and Sokyrnitsky clinoptilolite...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809675/bentonite-toxicology-and-epidemiology-a-review
#19
L Daniel Maxim, Ron Niebo, Ernest E McConnell
Bentonite, a clay with numerous industrial and consumer applications, is mined and processed in many countries of the world. Its many beneficial uses also create the potential for widespread occupational and consumer exposure. The available studies on toxicity and epidemiology indicate that the principal exposure pathway of concern is inhalation of respirable dust by occupationally exposed cohorts. Bentonite itself is probably not more toxic than any other particulate not otherwise regulated and is not classified as a carcinogen by any regulatory or advisory body, but some bentonite may contain variable amounts of respirable crystalline silica, a recognized human carcinogen...
November 2016: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743792/fate-of-nano-and-microplastic-in-freshwater-systems-a-modeling-study
#20
Ellen Besseling, Joris T K Quik, Muzhi Sun, Albert A Koelmans
Riverine transport to the marine environment is an important pathway for microplastic. However, information on fate and transport of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems is lacking. Here we present scenario studies on the fate and transport of nano-to millimetre sized spherical particles like microbeads (100 nm-10 mm) with a state of the art spatiotemporally resolved hydrological model. The model accounts for advective transport, homo- and heteroaggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation, presence of biofilm and burial...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
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