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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892922/convergence-and-divergence-of-bitterness-biosynthesis-and-regulation-in-cucurbitaceae
#1
Yuan Zhou, Yongshuo Ma, Jianguo Zeng, Lixin Duan, Xiaofeng Xue, Huaisong Wang, Tao Lin, Zhiqiang Liu, Kewu Zeng, Yang Zhong, Shu Zhang, Qun Hu, Min Liu, Huimin Zhang, James Reed, Tessa Moses, Xinyan Liu, Peng Huang, Zhixing Qing, Xiubin Liu, Pengfei Tu, Hanhui Kuang, Zhonghua Zhang, Anne Osbourn, Dae-Kyun Ro, Yi Shang, Sanwen Huang
Differentiation of secondary metabolite profiles in closely related plant species provides clues for unravelling biosynthetic pathways and regulatory circuits, an area that is still underinvestigated. Cucurbitacins, a group of bitter and highly oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes, are mainly produced by the plant family Cucurbitaceae. These compounds have similar structures, but differ in their antitumour activities and ecophysiological roles. By comparative analyses of the genomes of cucumber, melon and watermelon, we uncovered conserved syntenic loci encoding metabolic genes for distinct cucurbitacins...
November 28, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878888/metabolomics-reveals-that-momordica-charantia-attenuates-metabolic-changes-in-experimental-obesity
#2
Zhi-Gang Gong, Jianbing Zhang, Yong-Jiang Xu
Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M...
November 23, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852126/traditional-chinese-medicine-food-therapy-and-hypertension-control-a-narrative-review-of-chinese-literature
#3
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751827/response-of-gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-status-to-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-l-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#4
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610171/influence-of-total-anthocyanins-from-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-linn-as-antidiabetic-and-radical-scavenging-agents
#5
Aytaç Güdr
The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593811/postlaminectomy-bone-and-scar-formations-in-presence-of-ankaferd-blood-stopper-and-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-an-experimental-study
#6
Enis Kuruoglu, Mehmet Emin Onger, Abdullah Hilmi Marangoz, Suleyman Emre Kocacan, Cengiz Cokluk, Suleyman Kaplan
AIM: In the present study, a quantitative model of post-laminectomy in rats was designed. Concurrently, the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) and Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar albino rats underwent lumbar laminectomy at L2-L3 vertebral levels, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups of six rats each. The treatment group received MC and ABS treatment and the Control group was untreated. Rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment...
February 5, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538854/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolic-study-reveals-the-improvements-of-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-energy-metabolism-in-diet-induced-obese-mouse
#7
Hui-Xi Bian, Ze-Yu Wu, Bin Bao, Jing Cai, Xin Wang, Ying Jiang, Jian Liu, Wei Qu
CONTEXT: Obesity can be ameliorated by some natural products such as polyphenol, flavones and saponin. As a typical medicinal plant, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) (bitter melon, BM) contains these natural chemicals and reduces diet-induced obesity in mice. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the metabolic effects of dietary BM supplement, investigates a global metabolic profile and determines associated perturbations in metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with 5% BM based on 37...
August 19, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513747/antiglycation-and-antioxidant-properties-of-momordica-charantia
#8
Ali Aljohi, Sabine Matou-Nasri, Nessar Ahmed
The accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In many developing countries, diabetes treatment is unaffordable, and plants such as bitter gourd (or bitter melon; Momordica charantia) are used as traditional remedies because they exhibit hypoglycaemic properties. This study compared the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of M. charantia pulp (MCP), flesh (MCF) and charantin in vitro. Lysozyme was mixed with methylglyoxal and 0-15 mg/ml of M...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498497/variation-in-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-growth-and-some-physiological-parameters-of-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-under-salinity-and-chromium-stress
#9
Mahsa Bahrami, Mostafa Heidari, Hadi Ghorbani
In general, salinity and heavy metals interfere with several physiological processes and reduce plant growth. In order to evaluate of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 ds m(-1)) and three concentration of chromium (0, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) in bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a plot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at university of Shahrood, Iran. The results revealed that chromium treatment had no significant affect on fresh and dry weight, but salinity caused reduction of fresh and dry weight in growth parameter...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452666/promise-of-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-bioactives-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Komal Raina, Dileep Kumar, Rajesh Agarwal
Recently, there is a paradigm shift that the whole food-derived components are not 'idle bystanders' but actively participate in modulating aberrant metabolic and signaling pathways in both healthy and diseased individuals. One such whole food from Cucurbitaceae family is 'bitter melon' (Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd, balsam apple, etc.), which has gained an enormous attention in recent years as an alternative medicine in developed countries. The increased focus on bitter melon consumption could in part be due to several recent pre-clinical efficacy studies demonstrating bitter melon potential to target obesity/type II diabetes-associated metabolic aberrations as well as its pre-clinical anti-cancer efficacy against various malignancies...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418544/influence-of-pomegranate-seed-oil-and-bitter-melon-aqueous-extract-on-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-lipoxygenase-metabolites-concentration-in-serum-of-rats
#11
Agnieszka Białek, Malgorzata Jelińska, Andrzej Tokarz, Aleksandra Pergół, Katarzyna Pinkiewicz
Competition with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and an impact on eicosanoid biosynthesis may be one of mechanisms of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil, containing punicic acid (PA) - one of CLnA isomers, and an aqueous extract of dried bitter melon fruits, administered separately or together, on PUFA and their lipoxygenase metabolites' concentration in serum of rats. Percentage share of fatty acids was diversified in relation to applied supplementation...
July 11, 2016: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352776/effects-of-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-l-on-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-and-low-dose-streptozocin-induced-rats
#12
Ying Zhu, Juan Bai, Yi Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Ying Dong
The effects on gut microbiota of type 2 diabetic rats fed a bitter melon formulation (BLSP, a lyophilized superfine powder) were investigated. BLSP treatment significantly reduced fasting blood glucose levels (p < 0.05) and serum insulin levels (p < 0.05) of the diabetic rats. The gut microbiota of treated and control rats were profiled by PCR amplification and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes (V3-V9 region). BLSP significantly reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in diabetic rats, while the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus were significantly lowered in BLSP-treated rats compared to diabetic rats...
September 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342429/higher-order-conditioning-of-taste-odor-learning-in-rats-evidence-for-the-association-between-emotional-aspects-of-gustatory-information-and-olfactory-information
#13
Takuya Onuma, Nobuyuki Sakai
Previous studies have shown that rats prefer an odor paired with saccharin solution to an odor paired with quinine solution (taste-odor learning). However, it remains unclear whether the odors are associated with the emotional (i.e., positive and/or negative hedonics) or qualitative (i.e., sweetness and/or bitterness) aspects of gustatory information. This study aimed to examine this question using higher-order conditioning paradigms: second-order conditioning (SOC) and sensory preconditioning (SPC). Adult Wistar rats were divided into SOC and SPC groups...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27335129/methanol-extract-of-bitter-melon-alleviates-uvb-induced-mmps-expression-via-map-kinase-and-ap-1-signaling-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-in-vitro
#14
Hyun Ji Lee, Eunson Hwang, Bom Park, Mengyang Zhang, Zheng-Wang Sun, Do-Gyeong Lee, Sang-Yong Park, Tae Hoo Yi
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation leads to photo-damage of the skin, which in turn induces expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reduces type I procollagen. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) has been widely used as a traditional medicine. In this study, we tested the photo-protective effects of methanol extracts of bitter melon pulp (BM) and the mechanism of these effects in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BM were investigated by measuring the levels of MMP-1, -3 and -9, and type I procollagen following UVB irradiation...
September 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260465/a-conjugated-fatty-acid-present-at-high-levels-in-bitter-melon-seed-favorably-affects-lipid-metabolism-in-hepatocytes-by-increasing-nad-nadh-ratio-and-activating-ppar%C3%AE-ampk-and-sirt1-signaling-pathway
#15
Gou-Chun Chen, Hui-Min Su, Yu-Shun Lin, Po-Yen Tsou, Jong-Ho Chyuan, Pei-Min Chao
α-Eleostearic acid (α-ESA), or the cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid, is a special fatty acid present at high levels in bitter melon seed oil. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of α-ESA on hepatic lipid metabolism. Using H4IIEC3 hepatoma cell line, we showed that α-ESA significantly lowered intracellular triglyceride accumulation compared to α-linolenic acid (LN), used as a fatty acid control, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The effects of α-ESA on enzyme activities and mRNA profiles in H4IIEC3 cells suggested that enhanced fatty acid oxidation and lowered lipogenesis were involved in α-ESA-mediated triglyceride lowering effects...
July 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190792/evaluation-of-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE-activity-in-diabetic-rats-supplemented-with-momordica-charantia
#16
Swetha Chandru, Prashant Vishwanath, Devananda Devegowda, Suresha Nagaraja Ramasamudra, Akila Prashant, Basavanagowdappa Hathur
INTRODUCTION: The present study was taken up to compare and evaluate the effect of Momordica charantia supplementation with pioglitazone on PKC-β and PPAR-γ activity in kidneys of diabetic rats. The hypoglycaemic and lipid lowering effect of Momordica charantia were screened in laboratory animal model and its potency was compared with a Thiazolidinedione (TZD) group antidiabetic drug like pioglitazone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult healthy albino rats of Wistar strain aged 3-4months, weighing between 170-250gm of either sex were divided into 4 groups; Group 1 (normal controls), Group 2 (diabetic controls), Group 3 (diabetic rats treated with pioglitazone) and Group 4 (diabetic rats treated with bitter melon juice)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134467/in-vitro-screening-on-amyloid-beta-modulation-of-aqueous-extracts-from-plant-seeds
#17
Yoshinori Okada, Mizue Okada
INTRODUCTION: Glycation process might contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid-like aggregation of glycated bovine serum albumin induces apoptosis in the neuronal cell. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, vitamins, and polyphenols are beneficial to AD, and consumption of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of AD. We conducted a screening of 14 aqueous extracts from plant seeds (PSAE) for inhibitory activity on amyloid beta (Aβ)...
April 2016: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120805/immunomodulatory-role-of-bitter-melon-extract-in-inhibition-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-growth
#18
Sourav Bhattacharya, Naoshad Muhammad, Robert Steele, Guangyong Peng, Ratna B Ray
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer and leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Despite the advancement in treatment procedures the overall survival rate of patients has not considerably enhanced in the past few decades. Therefore, new strategies to achieve a favorable response for the improvement in the prognosis of HNSCC are urgently needed. In this study, we examined the role of bitter melon extract (BME) in HNSCC tumor microenvironment. Mouse head and neck cancer (SCCVII) cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of syngeneic mice...
May 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076875/novel-nutraceutic-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Esperanza Martínez-Abundis, Miriam Méndez-Del Villar, Karina G Pérez-Rubio, Laura Y Zuñiga, Marisol Cortez-Navarrete, Alejandra Ramírez-Rodriguez, Manuel González-Ortiz
Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight...
April 10, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058519/wild-bitter-melon-leaf-extract-inhibits-porphyromonas-gingivalis-induced-inflammation-identification-of-active-compounds-through-bioassay-guided-isolation
#20
Tzung-Hsun Tsai, Wen-Cheng Huang, How-Ting Ying, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Chien-Chang Shen, Yin-Ku Lin, Po-Jung Tsai
Porphyromonas gingivalis has been identified as one of the major periodontal pathogens. Activity-directed fractionation and purification processes were employed to identify the anti-inflammatory active compounds using heat-killed P. gingivalis-stimulated human monocytic THP-1 cells in vitro. Five major fractions were collected from the ethanol/ethyl acetate extract of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) leaves and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity against P. gingivalis...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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