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bitter melon

Chinthalapally V Rao
In recent times, bitter melon extract (BME) has gained significant attention for its anticancer efficacy against various malignancies. In this issue, Sur and colleagues show that BME prevents the development of 4-nitronitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in an immunocompetent mouse model. Importantly, gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed an elevated expression of s100a9, IL23a, IL1β, and PDCD1/PD1 of immune system during oral cancer development, which was significantly suppressed by BME...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Do Manh Cuong, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Jin Jeon, Yun Ji Park, Soon-Jae Kwon, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Sang Un Park
Carotenoids, found in the fruit and different organs of bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ), have attracted great attention for their potential health benefits in treating several major chronic diseases. Therefore, study related to the identification and quantification of the medically important carotenoid metabolites is highly important for the treatment of various disorderes. The present study involved in the identification and quantification of the various carotenoids present in the different organs of M...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Muralikrishna Narra, Srinivas Kota, Yashodhara Velivela, Raghu Ellendula, V Rao Allini, Sadanandam Abbagani
Chloroplast transformation vectors require an expression cassette flanked by homologous plastid sequences to drive plastome recombination. The rrn 16- rrn 23 plastome region was selected and using this region, a new species-specific plastid transformation vector CuIA was developed with pKS+ II as a backbone by inserting the rrn 16- trnI and trnA - rrn 23 sequences from Cucumis sativus L. An independent expression cassette with aadA gene encoding aminoglycoside 3'-adenylyltransferase with psbA controlling elements is added into the trnI - trnA intergenic region that confers resistance to spectinomycin...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Do Manh Cuong, Soon-Jae Kwon, Jin Jeon, Yun Ji Park, Jong Seok Park, Sang Un Park
Phenylpropanoids and flavonoids belong to a large group of secondary metabolites, and are considered to have antioxidant activity, which protects the cells against biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the accumulation of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids in bitter melon has rarely been studied. Here, we identify ten putative phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthetic genes in bitter melon. Most genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or flowers. HPLC analysis showed that rutin and epicatechin were the most abundant compounds in bitter melon...
February 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Woo Seok Yang, Eunju Yang, Min-Jeong Kim, Deok Jeong, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Seungihm Lee, Byong Chul Yoo, Seung-Gu Yeo, Jae Youl Cho
Momordica charantia known as bitter melon is a representative medicinal plant reported to exhibit numerous pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antitumor, and hypoglycemic actions. Although this plant has high ethnopharmacological value for treating inflammatory diseases, the molecular mechanisms by which it inhibits the inflammatory response are not fully understood. In this study, we aim to identify the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this plant. To this end, we studied the effects of its methanol extract (Mc-ME) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Donchan Choi, Su Ji Lee, Min Hyuck Lee, Dong Kyu Lee
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.12717/DR.2017.21.2.215.].
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Muralikrishna Narra, Raghu Ellendula, Srinivas Kota, Bharathkumar Kalva, Yashodhara Velivela, Sadanandam Abbagani
Here, we report the optimized conditions for biolistic particle delivery-mediated genetic transformation of bitter melon using petiole segments. In this study, DNA-coated gold particles of 0.6 µm were used for optimizing the parameters of transformation and eventually regeneration of bitter melon putative transgenics. Initially, biolistic parameters namely helium pressure and macrocarrier to target tissue distance, were optimized using binary vector pBI121 carrying both β-glucuronidase gene ( GUS ) and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene ( npt II) as a reporter and as a selectable marker gene, respectively...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Nal Ae Yoon, Juyeong Park, Jiyeon Lee, Joo Yeon Jeong, Hyun-Kyu Kim, Hak Sung Lee, In Guk Hwang, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Dong Hoon Lee, Sang Soo Kang
Present study aimed to determine the effect of 'bitter melon', a popularly used fruit in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, on high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes. To investigate the effect, ethanol extract from bitter melon (BME) as a dietary supplement with mouse chow was used. BME was found to significantly attenuate the high-fat diet (HFD) -induced body weight and total fat mass. BME also effectively reduced the insulin resistance induced by the HFD. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing hepatic fat and obesity...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Subhayan Sur, Robert Steele, Rajeev Aurora, Mark Varvares, Katherine E Schwetye, Ratna B Ray
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and tobacco is one of the most common factors for HNSCC of the oral cavity. We have previously observed that bitter melon ( Momordica charantia ) extract (BME) exerts antiproliferative activity against several cancers including HNSCC. In this study, we investigated the preventive role of BME in 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) carcinogen-induced HNSCC. We observed that BME feeding significantly reduced the incidence of 4-NQO-induced oral cancer in a mouse model...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Naoshad Muhammad, Robert Steele, T Scott Isbell, Nancy Philips, Ratna B Ray
Breast cancer is a major public health problem worldwide in women and current therapeutic strategies are not adequately effective for this deadly disease. We have previously shown the anti-proliferative activity of bitter melon extract (BME) in breast cancer cells. In this study, we observed that BME treatment induces autophagosome-bound Long chain 3 (LC3)-B and accumulates protein p62/SQSTM1 (p62) in breast cancer cells. Additionally, we observed that BME treatment in breast cancer cells increases phospho-AMPK expression and inhibits the mTOR/Akt signaling pathway...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Gou-Chun Chen, Wen-Hung Chen, Kuo-Tang Tseng, Pei-Min Chao
BACKGROUND: Obesity is the leading chronic disease affecting people of all ages. The objective of this study was to optimize composition of a bitter melon seed oil (BMSO) product to maximize its anti-adiposity effect. METHODS: Bleaching oil, saponifiables and non-saponifiables were prepared from BMSO, with α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) content in BMSO maintained in bleaching oil and saponifiables. C57BL/6 J mice were allocated into five groups (n = 10/group) to receive diet C [30% soybean oil (SBO)], BM [25% SBO + 5% BMSO], BMS, BMNS or BMD...
September 29, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Candace Necyk, Leyanna Zubach-Cassano
The prevalence of natural health product (NHP) use in Canada is extensive. Patients with chronic diseases, including diabetes, use NHPs at a higher rate than the general population. Many NHPs exert hypoglycemic effects, among other effects relevant to diabetes management. To provide a practical, clinical review of NHPs with such effects targeted to pharmacists, a literature search was performed to collect data on the efficacy and safety profiles of 10 commonly used NHPs that exert antidiabetic properties. The following NHPs are included in this clinical review: alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, magnesium, bitter melon, cinnamon, fenugreek, gymnema, milk thistle, Reishi mushroom and white mulberry...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
This study explored how bitter melon powder (BMP) alters the colonic microenvironment during the development of obesity-associated fatty liver in rats. We observed that BMP effectively inhibited the body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver, ameliorated glucose intolerance, and increased the colon weight after an 8-week treatment compared to that in the high-fat diet (HFD) group. BMP significantly decreased fecal water toxicity towards HT-29 cells, as revealed by the cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay results, and the mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in colon mucosa...
August 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Do Manh Cuong, Jin Jeon, Abubaker M A Morgan, Changsoo Kim, Jae Kwang Kim, Sook Young Lee, Sang Un Park
Charantin, a natural cucurbitane type triterpenoid, has been reported to have beneficial pharmacological functions such as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antibacterial activities. However, accumulation of charantin in bitter melon has been little studied. Here, we performed a transcriptome analysis to identify genes involved in the triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway in bitter melon seedlings. A total of 88,703 transcripts with an average length of 898 bp were identified in bitter melon seedlings. On the basis of a functional annotation, we identified 15 candidate genes encoding enzymes related to triterpenoid biosynthesis and analyzed their expression in different organs of mature plants...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ajda Ota, Nataša P Ulrih
Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Junjie Cui, Jiaowen Cheng, Dingguo Nong, Jiazhu Peng, Yafei Hu, Weiming He, Qianjun Zhou, Narinder P S Dhillon, Kailin Hu
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and melon (Cucumis melo) genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pornsiri Pitchakarn, Sonthaya Umsumarng, Sariya Mapoung, Pisamai Ting, Piya Temviriyanukul, Wanisa Punfa, Wilart Pompimon, Pornngarm Limtrakul
We previously reported the multidrug resistance-reversing ability of kuguacin J (KJ) in cervical cancer cells via the inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. This study investigated whether KJ could promote cisplatin- and paclitaxel (PTX)-induced cancer cell death in drug-resistance human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3). Cytotoxicity testing showed that SKOV3 was more resistant to cisplatin and PTX compared to drug-sensitive human ovarian cancer cells (A2780). The cytotoxicity of PTX was significantly increased in SKOV3 cells when co-treated with KJ...
October 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nguyen Quoc Tuan, Do-Hyung Lee, Joonseok Oh, Chung Sub Kim, Kyung-Sun Heo, Chang-Seon Myung, MinKyun Na
The cucurbitaceous plant Momordica charantia L., named "bitter melon", inhabits Asia, Africa, and South America and has been used as a traditional medicine. The atypical proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in triggering the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is regarded as the most powerful growth factor in promoting the intimal accumulation of VSMCs. The current study features the identification of six new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids (1-6) from the fruits of M...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Sutthaya Poolperm, Wannee Jiraungkoorskul
Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
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