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Alok Kumar, Manas Kumar Bag, Ranbir Singh, A Abdul Kader Jailani, Bikash Mandal, Anirban Roy
Crambe is an important crop grown worldwide for industrial oil and seed meal. Besides the fungal and bacterial diseases, the crop is reported to be infected by tobacco mosaic virus, beet western yellows virus and turnip mosaic virus under experimental condition. Till now, there was no report of natural infection of any begomovirus in this crop. In the present study, a leaf curl disease was observed in germplasm accessions of three species of Crambe (C. abyssinica, C. glabrata and C. hispanica). Based on the symptoms and presence of whitefly population in the field, begomovirus infection was suspected...
October 11, 2017: Virus Research
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Anil Kumar, Himanshu Joshi, Suman Chaudhary, Lucy J Robertson
Fresh produce has been recognized as a vehicle of infection for protozoan parasites, particularly Cryptosporidium, and, to a lesser extent, Giardia. For both parasites, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have been documented. Although documented outbreaks tend to be from industrialized countries, contamination of fresh produce with these parasites is a global issue. In developing countries, infections with these parasites are often endemic in the community, and basic infrastructure and hygiene measures may be inadequate, thus the likelihood of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites may be higher...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Rebecca Klopsch, Katja Witzel, Andreas Börner, Monika Schreiner, Franziska S Hanschen
About 10% of the world's vegetable production is generated from Brassicaceae, wherein Brassica rapa is a dominating species. There is growing evidence that glucosinolates (GLSs), main plant secondary metabolites in Brassicales, play an important role in promoting human health. Natural genetic diversity of B. rapa can be explored for vegetable improvement. We analyzed leaves and tubers of 16 B. rapa turnips for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding hydrolysis products by GC-MS. Thirteen GLSs were identified, 8 aliphatic, 4 indolic and one aromatic...
October 2017: Food Research International
Johann M R Antoine, Leslie A Hoo Fung, Charles N Grant
Thirteen Jamaican-grown food crops - ackee (Blighia sapida), banana (Musa acuminate), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), cassava (Manihot esculenta), coco (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), dasheen (Colocasia esculenta), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) - were analysed for aluminium, arsenic, cadmium and lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis...
2017: Toxicology Reports
Jiancan Du, Simin Hu, Qin Yu, Chongde Wang, Yunqiang Yang, Hang Sun, Yongping Yang, Xudong Sun
The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP) gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa). In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Justyna Boniecka, Justyna Prusińska, Grażyna B Dąbrowska, Anna Goc
Plant RSH proteins are able to synthetize and/or hydrolyze unusual nucleotides called (p)ppGpp or alarmones. These molecules regulate nuclear and chloroplast transcription, chloroplast translation and plant development and stress response. Homologs of bacterial RelA/SpoT proteins, designated RSH, and products of their activity, (p)ppGpp-guanosine tetra-and pentaphosphates, have been found in algae and higher plants. (p)ppGpp were first identified in bacteria as the effectors of the stringent response, a mechanism that orchestrates pleiotropic adaptations to nutritional deprivation and various stress conditions...
September 25, 2017: Planta
Sang-Ho Park, Fangfang Li, Justin Renaud, Wentao Shen, Yinzi Li, Lihua Guo, Hongguang Cui, Mark Sumarah, Aiming Wang
Plasmodesmata (PD), unique to the plant kingdom, are structurally complex microchannels that cross the cell wall to establish symplastic communication between neighboring cells. Viral intercellular movement occurs through PD. To better understand the involvement of PD in viral infection, we conducted a quantitative proteomic study on the PD-enriched fraction from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in response to infection by Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). We report the identification of a total of 1070 PD protein candidates, of which 100 (≥ 2-fold increase) and 48 (≥ 2-fold reduction) are significantly differentially accumulated in the PD-enriched fraction, when compared with protein levels in the corresponding healthy control...
September 23, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Robin, Rohit Arora, Saroj Arora, Adarsh Pal Vig
In the present study reverse-phase UHPLC-PDA technique was developed at 60°C for simultaneous quantification of allyl, 3-butenyl, 4-(methylthio)butyl, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates. The validation parameter showed a very good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 1.00 for all detected standard analytes. Also, high precision and accuracy were observed with lowest obtained values of 1.39% and 99.1%, respectively. Different varieties of three plants, viz. Brassica rapa var. rapa L., Raphanus sativus L...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Xiangdong Li, Tiansheng Zhu, Xiao Yin, Chengling Zhang, Jia Chen, Yanping Tian, Jinliang Liu
BACKGROUND: Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be classified to five phylogenetic lineages, basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and Orchis. RESULTS: To understand the genetic structure of TuMV from radish in China, the 3'-terminal genome of 90 TuMV isolates were determined and analyzed with other available Chinese isolates...
August 29, 2017: Virology Journal
Harri Juhani Saarinen, Chaiyasit Sittiwet, Piia Simonen, Markku J Nissinen, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Helena Gylling, Ari Palomäki
We have earlier reported the reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and oxidized LDL caused by short-term modification of diet with cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil (CPTRO) instead of butter. The aim of this supplementary study was to determine whether the beneficial effects resulted from altered cholesterol metabolism during the intervention.Thirty-seven men with metabolic syndrome (MetS) completed an open, randomized and balanced crossover study. Subjects' usual diet was supplemented with either 37...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Michel Yvon, Denis Vile, Véronique Brault, Stéphane Blanc, Manuella van Munster
Application of a severe water deficit to Arabidopsis thaliana plants infected with a mutant of Turnip yellows virus (TuYV, Family Luteoviridae) triggers a significant alteration of several plant phenology traits and strongly reduces the transmission efficiency of the virus by aphids. Although virus accumulation in water-stressed plants was similar to that in plants grown under well-watered conditions, virus accumulation was reduced in aphids fed on plants under water deficit. These results suggest alteration of the aphid feeding behavior on plants under water deficit...
July 26, 2017: Virus Research
Xiong Li, Xiaoming Zhang, Boqun Li, Yuansheng Wu, Hang Sun, Yongping Yang
Phytoextraction is a phytoremediation technique used for remediating polluted soils and it greatly relies on the plants' capacities to accumulate contaminants. Turnip is a high cadmium (Cd)-accumulating plant. We compared the Cd tolerance, growth, and Cd accumulation characteristics of two turnip landraces with three additional commonly known high Cd-accumulating species to systematically estimate its Cd phytoremediation potential. Results showed that the turnips could tolerate relatively lower Cd concentrations than other plants...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xin Yin, Qiuli Wang, Qian Chen, Nan Xiang, Yunqiang Yang, Yongping Yang
The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL-CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaoyan Cui, Hoda Yaghmaiean, Guanwei Wu, Xiaoyun Wu, Xin Chen, Greg Thorn, Aiming Wang
Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, plant potyviruses assemble viral replication complexes (VRCs) on modified cellular membranes. Potyviruses encode two membrane proteins, 6K2 and P3. The former is known to play pivotal roles in the formation of membrane-associated VRCs. However, P3 remains to be one of the least characterized potyviral proteins. The P3 cistron codes for P3 as well as P3N-PIPO which results from RNA polymerase slippage. In this study, we show that the P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is required for viral cell-to-cell movement but not for viral replication...
October 2017: Virology
Quentin Chesnais, Aude Couty, Maryline Uzest, Véronique Brault, Arnaud Ameline
Insect-vectored plant viruses can induce changes in plant phenotypes, thus influencing plant-vector interactions in a way that may promote their dispersal according to their mode of transmission (i.e. circulative vs. non-circulative). This indirect vector manipulation requires host-virus-vector co-evolution and would thus be effective solely in very specific plant-virus-vector species associations. Some studies suggest this manipulation may depend on multiple factors relative to various intrinsic characteristics of vectors such as transmission efficiency...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
Hasan Tanguler, Serkan Selli, Kemal Sen, Turgut Cabaroglu, Huseyin Erten
Shalgam, a traditional red, cloudy and sour soft beverage, is produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot, sourdough, salt, bulgur flour, turnip and adequate water. The present study was designed to characterize the volatile compounds of shalgam obtained from different methods. The aroma compounds of shalgams produced by traditional and direct methods, and addition of Lactic acid bateria (LAB) cultures were examined. Volatile components of shalgam samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction technique with pentane/dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Piyal Bhattacharya, Alok Chandra Samal, Suman Banerjee, Jagadish Pyne, Subhas Chandra Santra
A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sylvaine Boissinot, Elodie Pichon, Céline Sorin, Céline Piccini, Danièle Scheidecker, Véronique Ziegler-Graff, Véronique Brault
A fluorescent viral clone of the polerovirus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) was engineered by introducing the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) sequence into the non-structural domain sequence of the readthrough protein, a minor capsid protein. The resulting recombinant virus, referred to as TuYV-RTGFP, was infectious in several plant species when delivered by agroinoculation and invaded efficiently non-inoculated leaves. As expected for poleroviruses, which infect only phloem cells, the fluorescence emitted by TuYV-RTGFP was restricted to the vasculature of infected plants...
June 29, 2017: Viruses
Hongli He, Xiangdong Yang, Hongwei Xun, Xue Lou, Shuzhen Li, Zhibin Zhang, Lili Jiang, Yingshan Dong, Shucai Wang, Jinsong Pang, Bao Liu
GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in plants most likely by affecting the expression of signal transduction and immune response genes. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infection causes severe symptom and leads to massive yield loss in soybean (Glycine max). By comparative analyzing gene expression in the SMV-resistant soybean cultivar Rsmv1 and the susceptible cultivar Ssmv1 at a transcriptome level, we found that a subgroup of Gibberellic Acid Stimulated Transcript (GAST) genes were down-regulated in SMV inoculated Ssmv1 plants, but not Rsmv1 plants...
June 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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