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Xiao-Feng Zhang, Shaoyan Zhang, Qin Guo, Rong Sun, Taiyun Wei, Feng Qu
Plants pre-infected with a mild variant of a virus frequently become protected against more severe variants of the same virus through the cross protection phenomenon first discovered in 1929. Despite its widespread use in managing important plant virus diseases, the mechanism of cross protection remains poorly understood. Recent investigations in our labs, by analyzing the whole-plant dynamics of a turnip crinkle virus (TCV) population, coupled with cell biological interrogation of individual TCV variants, revealed possible novel mechanisms for cross protection and the closely related process of superinfection exclusion (SIE)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lerivia Maharani, Sherly Saragih Turnip
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents who live in rural areas have been found to experience more mental health problems than those who live in urban areas. In Indonesia, adolescents who live in rural areas have limited facilities to access mental health services. On the other hand, there is still a strong belief in the rural communities that mental health problems are the consequence of demonic possession, having committed a sin, lack of faith, etc. Rural communities tend to seek traditional remedies such as advice from traditional healers or witchdoctors...
February 6, 2018: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
Moammadmehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri, Mohammad Hassanpour-Fard, Mohammadreza Doostabadi, Hesam Moodi, Khadijeh Vazifeshenas-Darmiyan, Mehran Hosseini
Background: There is a variety of experimentally proven medicinal plants having antidiabetic properties but data on herb-drug interaction are very limited. Earlier studies indicated that aqueous extract of turnip leaf (AETL) has hypoglycemic potential in diabetic animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate co-administration effects of AETL and metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, in diabetic rats. Methods: Metformin at the two different doses (50,100 mg/kg) and AETL at the dose of 400 mg/kg (separately or concurrent with metformin) were orally given to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks daily...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Wafa Jallouli, Hanen Boukadi, Sameh Sellami, Fakher Frikha, Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Slim Tounsi
The entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 is a promoting bacterium that controls effectively many insect pests. Indeed, it exhibited a mortality rate of 32.36% against the first instar larvae of the turnip moth Agrotis segetum, when it was used at a concentration of 5 × 107 cells/ml but no toxicity against the second instar larvae in the same condition. P. luminescens TT01 oral toxicity is associated to septicaemia since cells fraction exhibited the highest mortality rate of 34%. In order to enhance P...
January 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Rashid Aman, Zahir Ali, Haroon Butt, Ahmed Mahas, Fatimah Aljedaani, Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Shouwei Ding, Magdy Mahfouz
BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas systems confer immunity against invading nucleic acids and phages in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas13a (known previously as C2c2) is a class 2 type VI-A ribonuclease capable of targeting and cleaving single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of the phage genome. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas13a to engineer interference with an RNA virus, Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), in plants. RESULTS: CRISPR/Cas13a produces interference against green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing TuMV in transient assays and stable overexpression lines of Nicotiana benthamiana...
January 4, 2018: Genome Biology
Kazusato Ohshima, Shinichiro Mitoma, Adrian J Gibbs
Narcissus plants (Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis) showing mosaic or striping leaves were collected from around Japan, and tested for virus infections using potyvirus-specific primers. Many were found to be infected with a macluravirus and mixtures of different potyviruses, one third of them narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV)-like viruses. Genomes of nine of the NYSV-like viruses were sequenced and, together with four already published, provided data for phylogenetic and pairwise identity analyses of their place in the turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) phylogenetic group...
2018: PloS One
Viji Vijayan, Silvia López-González, Flora Sánchez, Fernando Ponz, Israel Pagán
Virulence evolution may have far-reaching consequences for virus epidemiology and emergence, and virologists have devoted increasing effort to understand the modulators of this process. However, still little is known on the mechanisms and determinants of virulence evolution in sterilizing viruses that, as they prevent host reproduction, may have devastating effects on host populations. Theory predicts that sterilizing parasites, including viruses, would evolve towards lower virulence and absolute host sterilization to optimize the exploitation of host resources and maximize fitness...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
Xiaoyan Cui, Lu Lu, Ying Wang, Xingxing Yuan, Xin Chen
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the Potyvirus genus, is a prevalent and devastating viral pathogen in soybean-growing regions worldwide. Potyvirus replication occurs in the 6K2-induced viral replication complex at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. Potyvirus-encoded P3 is also associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and is as an essential component of the viral replication complex, playing a key role in viral replication. This study provides evidence that the soybean (Glycine max) reticulon homology domain protein (designated as GmRHP) interacts with SMV P3 by using a two-hybrid yeast system to screen a soybean cDNA library...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Irene Aparicio, Julia Martín, Concepción Abril, Juan Luis Santos, Esteban Alonso
A multiresidue method has been developed for the determination of emerging pollutants in leafy and root vegetables. Selected compounds were 6 perfluoroalkyl compounds (5 perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), 3 non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol and nonylphenolethoxylates), 8 anionic surfactants (4 alkylsulfates and 4 linear alkylbenzene sulfonates), 4 preservatives (parabens), 2 biocides (triclosan and triclocarban), 2 plasticizers (bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 6 UV-filters (benzophenones) and 4 hormones...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
P Gul, O T Harorlı, I B Ocal, Z Ergin, C Barutcigil
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Qiuli Wang, Xin Yin, Qian Chen, Nan Xiang, Xudong Sun, Yunqiang Yang, Yongping Yang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) as crucial sensors of calcium concentration changes play important roles in responding to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, 55 BrrCDPK genes, which were phylogenetically clustered into four subfamilies, were identified. Chromosome locations indicated that the CDPK family in turnip expanded by segmental duplication and genome rearrangement. Moreover, gene expression profiles showed that different BrrCDPKs were expressed in specific tissues or stages. Transcript levels of BrrCDPKs indicated that they were involved in abiotic and biotic stresses and that paralogs exhibited functional divergence...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nehanjali Parmar, Ajay Kumar Thakur, Pardeep Kumar, P D Thakur, Sat Vrat Bhardwaj
Nine isolates of Turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV)-infecting radish collected from different regions of Northern India were characterized. All isolates except for New Delhi and Rajasthan isolates resulted positive for TuMV in double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). RNA was isolated from leaves of infected plants and used in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with TuMV coat protein (CP) gene-specific primers. Viral amplicons of expected 1000 bp size were obtained, which were further subjected to cloning and sequencing...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Anders Hafrén, Suayib Üstün, Anton Hochmuth, Steingrim Svenning, Terje Johansen, Daniel Hofius
Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation pathway and has emerged as a key mechanism of antiviral immunity in metazoans, including the selective elimination of viral components. In turn, some animal viruses are able to escape and modulate autophagy for enhanced pathogenicity. Whether host autophagic responses and viral countermeasures play similar roles in plant-virus interactions is not well understood. Here, we have identified selective autophagy as antiviral pathway during plant infection with turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), a positive-stranded RNA potyvirus...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
Isabelle Jupin, Maya Ayach, Lucile Jomat, Sonia Fieulaine, Stéphane Bressanelli
The positive-strand RNA virus Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) encodes an ovarian tumor (OTU)-like protease/deubiquitinase (PRO/DUB) protein domain involved both in proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein through its PRO activity, and in removal of ubiquitin chains from ubiquitylated substrates through its DUB activity. Here, the crystal structures of TYMV PRO/DUB mutants and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that an idiosyncratic mobile loop participates in reversibly constricting its unusual catalytic site by adopting "open", "intermediate" or "closed" conformations...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Sylvain Poque, Hui-Wen Wu, Chung-Hao Huang, Hao-Wen Cheng, Wen-Chi Hu, Jun-Yi Yang, David Wang, Shyi-Dong Yeh
The viral infection process is a battle between host defense response and pathogen antagonizing action. Several studies have established a tight link between the viral RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) and the repression of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense responses, nonetheless host factors directly linking an RSS and the SA pathway remains unidentified. From yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified an interaction between the potyviral RSS helper-component proteinase (HCPro) and SA-binding protein SABP3. Co-localization and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses validated the direct in vivo interaction between Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) HCPro and the Arabidopsis homologue of SABP3, AtCA1...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Nooshin Movahed, Camilo Patarroyo, Jiaqi Sun, Hojatollah Vali, Jean-Francois Laliberte, Huanquan Zheng
Plant viruses move from the initially infected cell to adjacent cells through plasmodesmata (PDs). To do so, viruses encode dedicated protein(s) that facilitate this process. How viral proteins act together to support intercellular movement of viruses is poorly defined. Here, we investigate action of CI (Cytoplasmic Inclusion) and P3N-PIPO (N-terminal half of P3 fused to Pretty Interesting Potyviridae ORF), two PD-localized potyviral proteins encoded by Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in the intercellular movement of the viral replication vesicles, using an infection-free intercellular vesicle movement assay...
October 31, 2017: Plant Physiology
Xiaoxiao Feng, Lixiang Pan, Chen Wang, Hongyan Zhang
A sensitive and selective method was developed and validated for the determination of pyrethrin residues in turnips (turnip leaves, turnip tubers, and the whole of plant) and cultivated soil using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Six major components of pyrethrins (pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II) were separated and identified. The method involving solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup led to satisfactory average recoveries (88.1-104%) with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Endang S Kusmintarsih, Rahma F Hayati, Oktaviani N Turnip, Benediktus Yohan, Suhestri Suryaningsih, Hery Pratiknyo, Dionisius Denis, R Tedjo Sasmono
BACKGROUND: Dengue is hyper-endemic in Indonesia. Purwokerto city in Central Java province is routinely ravaged by the disease. Despite the endemicity of dengue in this city, there is still no data on the virological aspects of dengue in the city. We conducted a molecular surveillance study of the circulating dengue viruses (DENV) in Purwokerto city to gain information on the virus origin, serotype and genotype distribution, and phylogenetic characteristics of DENV. METHODS: A cross-sectional dengue molecular surveillance study was conducted in Purwokerto...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Alok Kumar, Manas Kumar Bag, Ranbir Singh, A Abdul Kader Jailani, Bikash Mandal, Anirban Roy
Crambe is an important crop grown worldwide for industrial oil and seed meal. Besides the fungal and bacterial diseases, the crop is reported to be infected by tobacco mosaic virus, beet western yellows virus and turnip mosaic virus under experimental condition. Till now, there was no report of natural infection of any begomovirus in this crop. In the present study, a leaf curl disease was observed in germplasm accessions of three species of Crambe (C. abyssinica, C. glabrata and C. hispanica). Based on the symptoms and presence of whitefly population in the field, begomovirus infection was suspected...
October 12, 2017: Virus Research
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Anil Kumar, Himanshu Joshi, Suman Chaudhary, Lucy J Robertson
Fresh produce has been recognized as a vehicle of infection for protozoan parasites, particularly Cryptosporidium, and, to a lesser extent, Giardia. For both parasites, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have been documented. Although documented outbreaks tend to be from industrialized countries, contamination of fresh produce with these parasites is a global issue. In developing countries, infections with these parasites are often endemic in the community, and basic infrastructure and hygiene measures may be inadequate, thus the likelihood of contamination of fresh produce with these parasites may be higher...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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