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Yim Tong Szeto, Kam Shing Wong, Andrea Han, Sok Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle
AIM: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Jiaojiao Niu, Zhongwen Rang, Chao Zhang, Wu Chen, Feng Tian, Huaqun Yin, Linjian Dai
BACKGROUND: The interaction mechanism between crop and soil microbial communities is a key issue in both agriculture and soil ecology. However, how soil microbial communities respond to crop planting and ultimately affect crop health still remain unclear. In this research, we explored how soil microbial communities shifted during tobacco cultivation under different rotation systems (control, maize rotation, lily rotation and turnip rotation). RESULTS: Our analyses showed that soil microbial communities had a general response pattern to tobacco planting, as the abundances of Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes increased while Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia decreased during tobacco cultivation, no matter which rotation system was adopted...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Rose R Murray, Mark S M Emblow, Alistair M Hetherington, Gary D Foster
Stomata are important regulators of carbon dioxide uptake and transpirational water loss. They also represent points of vulnerability as bacterial and fungal pathogens utilise this natural opening as an entry portal, and thus have an increasingly complex relationship. Unlike the situation with bacterial and fungal pathogens, we know very little about the role of stomata in viral infection. Here we report findings showing that viral infection influences stomatal development in two susceptible host systems (Nicotiana tabacum with TMV (Tobacco mosaic virus), and Arabidopsis thaliana with TVCV (Turnip vein-clearing virus)), but not in resistant host systems (Nicotiana glutinosa and Chenopodium quinoa with TMV)...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jiaojiao Niu, Jin Chao, Yunhua Xiao, Wu Chen, Chao Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Zhongwen Rang, Huaqun Yin, Linjian Dai
Rotation is an effective strategy to control crop disease and improve plant health. However, the effects of crop rotation on soil bacterial community composition and structure, and crop health remain unclear. In this study, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we explored the soil bacterial communities under four different cropping systems, continuous tobacco cropping (control group), tobacco-maize rotation, tobacco-lily rotation, and tobacco-turnip rotation. Results of detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests showed that soil bacterial community composition and structure changed significantly among the four groups, such that Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the maize rotation group (16...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Ahmed Hadidi, Ricardo Flores, Thierry Candresse, Marina Barba
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Omar Paul Arias Gaguancela, Lizbeth Peña Zúñiga, Alexis Vela Arias, Dennis Halterman, Francisco Javier Flores, Ida Elisabeth Johansen, Aiming Wang, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz
The inositol requiring enzyme (IRE1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor. When activated, it splices the bZIP60 mRNA producing a truncated transcription factor that upregulates genes involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR). Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1) is another ER stress sensor that regulates cell death in response to environmental assaults. The potyvirus 6K2 and potexvirus TGB3 proteins are known to reside in the ER, serving respectively as anchors for the viral replicase and movement protein complex...
August 31, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Mari Kamitani, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Hiroshi Kudoh
As research on plant viruses has focused mainly on crop diseases, little is known about these viruses in natural environments. To understand the ecology of viruses in natural systems, comprehensive information on virus-virus and virus-host interactions is required. We applied RNA-Seq to plants from a natural population of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera to simultaneously determine the presence/absence of all sequence-reported viruses, identify novel viruses and quantify the host transcriptome. By introducing the criteria of read number and genome coverage, we detected infections by Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cucumber mosaic virus and Brassica yellows virus Active TuMV replication was observed by ultramicroscopy...
November 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Henry E Creissen, Tove H Jorgensen, James K M Brown
Experiments were conducted on the role of intra- and inter-genotypic competition in ecological processes operating at the population scale in diseased plant populations.Combinations of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes showing variation for phenotypic traits relating to competitive ability and pathogen compatibility were infected with the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Turnip yellows virus in separate experiments. Plant fitness and competitive ability were estimated from phenotypic measurements.Pathogen-induced reduction in competitive ability for susceptible genotypes increased the competitive ability of resistant genotypes, resulting in maintenance of yield via competitive release...
April 2016: Functional Ecology
Kazusato Ohshima, Savas Korkmaz, Shinichiro Mitoma, Rei Nomiyama, Yuki Honda
The nearly complete genome sequence of a new species of potyvirus was obtained from the symptomless wild onion (Allium sp.) in Turkey. This virus has less than 67% nucleotide sequence identities over the polyprotein to other known potyviruses. We propose the name wild onion symptomless virus for this novel potyvirus.
2016: Genome Announcements
Feng Cheng, Rifei Sun, Xilin Hou, Hongkun Zheng, Fenglan Zhang, Yangyong Zhang, Bo Liu, Jianli Liang, Mu Zhuang, Yunxia Liu, Dongyuan Liu, Xiaobo Wang, Pingxia Li, Yumei Liu, Ke Lin, Johan Bucher, Ningwen Zhang, Yan Wang, Hui Wang, Jie Deng, Yongcui Liao, Keyun Wei, Xueming Zhang, Lixia Fu, Yunyan Hu, Jisheng Liu, Chengcheng Cai, Shujiang Zhang, Shifan Zhang, Fei Li, Hui Zhang, Jifang Zhang, Ning Guo, Zhiyuan Liu, Jin Liu, Chao Sun, Yuan Ma, Haijiao Zhang, Yang Cui, Micheal R Freeling, Theo Borm, Guusje Bonnema, Jian Wu, Xiaowu Wang
Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B...
October 2016: Nature Genetics
Han Phyo Aung, Akwasi Dwira Mensah, Yi Swe Aye, Salem Djedidi, Yosei Oikawa, Tadashi Yokoyama, Sohzoh Suzuki, Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura
This study was carried out to assess the effect of Bacillus pumilus on the roots of four cruciferous vegetables with different root structures in regard to enhancement of (137)Cs bioavailability in contaminated rhizosphere soil. Results revealed that B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance the plant biomass of vegetables, although it increased root volume and root surface areas of all vegetables except turnip. The pH changes due to rhizosphere acidification by B. pumilus inoculation and root exudation did not affect the bioavailability of (137)Cs...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ruimin Gao, Peng Liu, Nadia Irwanto, De Rong Loh, Sek-Man Wong
A long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC - AP2 is upregulated and negatively correlated with AP2 gene expression with Turnip crinkle virus infection in Arabidopsis. Plant vegetative growth and floral reproductive structure were severely retarded and distorted in Turnip crinkle virus (TCV)-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to mock-inoculated plants, the stamen filaments were shorter in flowers of TCV-infected plants. However, TCV-infected plants can still produce normal seeds through artificial pollination, indicating both its pollen and stigma were biologically functional...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Yinzi Li, Ruyi Xiong, Mark Bernards, Aiming Wang
Positive-sense RNA viruses have a small genome with very limited coding capacity and are highly dependent on host components to fulfill their life cycle. Recent studies have suggested that DEAD-box RNA helicases play vital roles in many aspects of RNA metabolism. To explore the possible role of the RNA helicases in viral infection, we used the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-Arabidopsis pathosystem. The Arabidopsis genome encodes more than 100 putative RNA helicases (AtRH). Over 41 Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants carrying genetic lesions in the corresponding 26 AtRH genes were screened for their requirement in TuMV infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Eric Brenya, Yuri Trusov, Ralf Georg Dietzgen, José Ramón Botella
Heterotrimeric G-proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits, are important signal transducers in eukaryotes. In plants, G-protein-mediated signaling contributes to defense against a range of fungal and bacterial pathogens. Here we studied response of G-protein-deficient mutants to ssRNA viruses representing 2 different families: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) (Bromoviridae) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) (Potyviridae). We found that development of spreading necrosis on infected plants was suppressed in the Gβ-deficient mutant (agb1-2) compared to wild type and Gα-deficient mutant (gpa1-4)...
August 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Micki M Kuhlmann, Maitreyi Chattopadhyay, Vera A Stupina, Feng Gao, Anne E Simon
UNLABELLED: Ribosome recoding is used by RNA viruses for translational readthrough or frameshifting past termination codons for the synthesis of extension products. Recoding sites, along with downstream recoding stimulatory elements (RSEs), have long been studied in reporter constructs, because these fragments alone mediate customary levels of recoding and are thus assumed to contain complete instructions for establishment of the proper ratio of termination to recoding. RSEs from the Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae are thought to be exceptions, since they contain a long-distance RNA-RNA connection with the 3' end...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
T Ocampo Ocampo, S M Gabriel Peralta, N Bacheller, S Uiterwaal, A Knapp, A Hennen, D L Ochoa-Martinez, H Garcia-Ruiz
In addition to regulating gene expression, RNA silencing is an essential antiviral defense system in plants. Triggered by double-stranded RNA, silencing results in degradation or translational repression of target transcripts. Viruses are inducers and targets of RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressors that interfere with this process, such as the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) NSs protein. The mechanism by which NSs suppresses RNA silencing and its role in viral infection and movement remain to be determined...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Fuxiang Zhu, Ying Sun, Yan Wang, Hongyu Pan, Fengting Wang, Xianghui Zhang, Yanhua Zhang, Jinliang Liu
Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infects crops of plant species in the family Brassicaceae worldwide. TuMV isolates were clustered to five lineages corresponding to basal-B, basal-BR, Asian-BR, world-B and OMs. Here, we determined the complete genome sequences of three TuMV basal-BR isolates infecting radish from Shandong and Jilin Provinces in China. Their genomes were all composed of 9833 nucleotides, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail. They contained two open reading frames (ORFs), with the large one encoding a polyprotein of 3164 amino acids and the small overlapping ORF encoding a PIPO protein of 61 amino acids, which contained the typically conserved motifs found in members of the genus Potyvirus...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayaka Fujiwara, Satoko Togawa, Takahiro Hikawa, Hideyuki Matsuura, Chikara Masuta, Tsuyoshi Inukai
We initially observed that Brassica rapa cultivars containing the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance gene, Rnt1-1, accumulated a high level of endogenous ascorbic acid (AS) and dehydroascobic acid (DHA) when infected with TuMV. We here hypothesized a possible contribution of an elevated level of AS+DHA (TAA) to the Rnt1-1-mediated resistance, and conducted a series of experiments using B. rapa and Arabidopsis plants. The application of l-galactose (the key substrate in AS synthesis) to a susceptible cultivar could increase the TAA level ~2-fold, and simultaneously lead to some degree of enhanced viral resistance...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Murali Krishna Koramutla, Raghavendra Aminedi, Ramcharan Bhattacharya
Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sol Cuenca, Carmen Mansilla, Marta Aguado, Carmen Yuste-Calvo, Flora Sánchez, Jose M Sánchez-Montero, Fernando Ponz
Elongated flexuous plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) represent an interesting platform for developing different applications in nanobiotechnology. In the case of potyviruses, the virion external surface is made up of helically arrayed domains of the viral structural coat protein (CP), repeated over 2000 times, in which the N- and C-terminal domains of each CP are projected toward the exterior of the external virion surface. These characteristics provide a chemical environment rich in functional groups susceptible to chemical conjugations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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