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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720958/aroma-composition-of-shalgam-a-traditional-turkish-lactic-acid-fermented-beverage
#1
Hasan Tanguler, Serkan Selli, Kemal Sen, Turgut Cabaroglu, Huseyin Erten
Shalgam, a traditional red, cloudy and sour soft beverage, is produced by lactic acid fermentation of black carrot, sourdough, salt, bulgur flour, turnip and adequate water. The present study was designed to characterize the volatile compounds of shalgam obtained from different methods. The aroma compounds of shalgams produced by traditional and direct methods, and addition of Lactic acid bateria (LAB) cultures were examined. Volatile components of shalgam samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction technique with pentane/dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702918/assessment-of-potential-health-risk-of-fluoride-consumption-through-rice-pulses-and-vegetables-in-addition-to-consumption-of-fluoride-contaminated-drinking-water-of-west-bengal-india
#2
Piyal Bhattacharya, Alok Chandra Samal, Suman Banerjee, Jagadish Pyne, Subhas Chandra Santra
A study was conducted in fluoride-affected Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal to assess the potential health risk from fluoride exposure among children, teenagers, and adults due to consumption of rice, pulses, and vegetables in addition to drinking water and incidental ingestion of soil by children. Higher mean fluoride contents (13-63 mg/kg dry weight) were observed in radish, carrot, onion bulb, brinjal, potato tuber, cauliflower, cabbage, coriander, and pigeon pea. The combined influence of rice, pulses, and vegetables to cumulative estimated daily intake (EDI) of fluoride for the studied population was found to be 9...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661469/systemic-propagation-of-a-fluorescent-infectious-clone-of-a-polerovirus-following-inoculation-by-agrobacteria-and-aphids
#3
Sylvaine Boissinot, Elodie Pichon, Céline Sorin, Céline Piccini, Danièle Scheidecker, Véronique Ziegler-Graff, Véronique Brault
A fluorescent viral clone of the polerovirus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) was engineered by introducing the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) sequence into the non-structural domain sequence of the readthrough protein, a minor capsid protein. The resulting recombinant virus, referred to as TuYV-RTGFP, was infectious in several plant species when delivered by agroinoculation and invaded efficiently non-inoculated leaves. As expected for poleroviruses, which infect only phloem cells, the fluorescence emitted by TuYV-RTGFP was restricted to the vasculature of infected plants...
June 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656325/over-expression-of-gmsn1-enhances-virus-resistance-in-arabidopsis-and-soybean
#4
Hongli He, Xiangdong Yang, Hongwei Xun, Xue Lou, Shuzhen Li, Zhibin Zhang, Lili Jiang, Yingshan Dong, Shucai Wang, Jinsong Pang, Bao Liu
GmSN1 enhances virus resistance in plants most likely by affecting the expression of signal transduction and immune response genes. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) infection causes severe symptom and leads to massive yield loss in soybean (Glycine max). By comparative analyzing gene expression in the SMV-resistant soybean cultivar Rsmv1 and the susceptible cultivar Ssmv1 at a transcriptome level, we found that a subgroup of Gibberellic Acid Stimulated Transcript (GAST) genes were down-regulated in SMV inoculated Ssmv1 plants, but not Rsmv1 plants...
June 27, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652582/the-timescale-of-emergence-and-spread-of-turnip-mosaic-potyvirus
#5
Ryosuke Yasaka, Hirofumi Fukagawa, Mutsumi Ikematsu, Hiroko Soda, Savas Korkmaz, Alireza Golnaraghi, Nikolaos Katis, Simon Y W Ho, Adrian J Gibbs, Kazusato Ohshima
Plant viruses have important global impacts on crops, and identifying their centre and date of emergence is important for planning control measures. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae and is a major worldwide pathogen of brassica crops. For two decades, we have collected TuMV isolates, mostly from brassicas, in Turkey and neighbouring countries. This region is thought to be the centre of emergence of this virus. We determined the genomic sequences of 179 of these isolates and used these to estimate the timescale of the spread of this virus...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640193/identification-of-light-independent-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-mutants-induced-by-ethyl-methane-sulfonate-in-turnip-tsuda-brassica-rapa
#6
Jian-Fei Yang, Yun-Zhu Chen, Saneyuki Kawabata, Yu-Hua Li, Yu Wang
The epidermis of swollen storage roots in purple cultivars of turnip "Tsuda" (Brassica rapa) accumulates anthocyanin in a light-dependent manner, especially in response to UV-A light, of which the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we mutagenized 15,000 seeds by 0.5% (v/v) ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and obtained 14 mutants with abnormal anthocyanin production in their epidermis of swollen storage roots. These mutants were classified into two groups: the red mutants with constitutive anthocyanin accumulation in their epidermis of storage roots even in underground parts in darkness and the white mutants without anthocyanin accumulation in the epidermis of storage roots in aboveground parts exposed to sunlight...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625680/plant-made-potyvirus-like-particles-used-for-log-increasing-antibody-sensing-capacity
#7
Ivonne González-Gamboa, Pilar Manrique, Flora Sánchez, Fernando Ponz
Deployment of the elongated flexuous virions of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), a potyvirus, for peptide display on their external surface has been previously reported by us. Nonetheless, both in TuMV and other potyviruses some peptides hinder the ability of the virus to infect host plants. We found that a peptide derived from the human thrombin receptor (TR) inhibited TuMV infectivity. In an effort to get around this problem, TuMV virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced in plants by transient high-level expression of wild-type or recombinant coat protein (CP)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548627/combined-single-molecule-experimental-and-computational-approaches-for-understanding-the-unfolding-pathway-of-a-viral-translation-enhancer-that-participates-in-a-conformational-switch
#8
My-Tra Le, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro, Anne E Simon
How plus-strand [+]RNA virus genomes transition from translation templates to replication templates is a matter of much speculation. We have previously proposed that, for Turnip crinkle virus, binding of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to the 3'UTR of the [+]RNA template promotes a regional wide-spread conformational switch to an alternative structure that disassembles the cap-independent translation element (CITE) in the 3'UTR. The active 3'CITE folds into a tRNA-like T-shaped structure (TSS) that binds to 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site...
May 26, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512207/-organic-and-non-organic-a-tale-of-two-turnips
#9
Jon Stone, Alan Carson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502641/insights-in-luteovirid-structural-biology-guided-by-chemical-cross-linking-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#10
Mariko M Alexander, Jared P Mohr, Stacy L DeBlasio, Juan D Chavez, Veronique Ziegler-Graff, Veronique Brault, James E Bruce, Michelle Cilia
Interactions between plant pathogenic viruses in the family Luteoviridae and their plant hosts and insect vectors are governed by the topology of the viral capsid, which is the sole vehicle for long distance movement of the viral genome. Previous application of a mass spectrometry-compatible cross-linker to preparations of the luteovirid Potato leafroll virus (PLRV; Luteoviridae: Polerovirus) revealed a detailed network of interactions between viral structural proteins and enabled generation of the first cross-linking guided coat protein models...
May 11, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467423/water-deficit-enhances-the-transmission-of-plant-viruses-by-insect-vectors
#11
Manuella van Munster, Michel Yvon, Denis Vile, Beatriz Dader, Alberto Fereres, Stéphane Blanc
Drought is a major threat to crop production worldwide and is accentuated by global warming. Plant responses to this abiotic stress involve physiological changes overlapping, at least partially, the defense pathways elicited both by viruses and their herbivore vectors. Recently, a number of theoretical and empirical studies anticipated the influence of climate changes on vector-borne viruses of plants and animals, mainly addressing the effects on the virus itself or on the vector population dynamics, and inferring possible consequences on virus transmission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464063/the-plant-orthology-browser-an-orthology-and-gene-order-visualizer-for-plant-comparative-genomics
#12
Dan Tulpan, Serge Leger
Worldwide genome sequencing efforts for plants with medium and large genomes require identification and visualization of orthologous genes, while their syntenic conservation becomes the pinnacle of any comparative and functional genomics study. Using gene models for 20 fully sequenced plant genomes, including model organisms and staple crops such as Coss., (L.) Heynh., (L.) Beauv., turnip ( L.), barley ( L.), rice ( L.), sorghum [ (L.) Moench], wheat ( L.), red wild einkorn ( Tumanian ex Gandilyan), and maize ( L...
March 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437137/differential-requirement-of-the-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-for-plant-virus-accumulation-and-interaction-of-s6-kinase-with-potyviral-vpg
#13
Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Dehui Xi, Sidona Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Jari P T Valkonen, Steven A Whitham
Ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is an indispensable plant protein regulated, in part, by ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) which, in turn, is a key regulator of plant responses to stresses and developmental cues. Increased expression of RPS6 was detected in Nicotiana benthamiana during infection by diverse plant viruses. Silencing of the RPS6 and S6K genes in N. benthamiana affected accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), and Potato virus A (PVA) in contrast to Turnip crinkle virus and Tobacco mosaic virus...
May 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413433/protoplast-isolation-prior-to-flow-cytometry-reveals-clear-patterns-of-endoreduplication-in-potato-tubers-related-species-and-some-starchy-root-crops
#14
F Parker E Laimbeer, Sarah H Holt, Melissa Makris, Michael Alan Hardigan, C Robin Buell, Richard E Veilleux
BACKGROUND: Endoreduplication, the process of DNA replication in the absence of cell division, is associated with specialized cellular function and increased cell size. Genes controlling endoreduplication in tomato fruit have been shown to affect mature fruit size. An efficient method of estimating endoreduplication is required to study its role in plant organ development. Flow cytometry is often utilized to evaluate endoreduplication, yet some tissues and species, among them the tubers of Solanum tuberosum, remain intractable to routine tissue preparation for flow cytometry...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381573/potato-virus-y-hcpro-suppression-of-antiviral-silencing-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-correlates-with-its-ability-to-bind-in-vivo-to-21-and-22-nucleotide-small-rnas-of-viral-sequence
#15
Francisco J Del Toro, Livia Donaire, Emmanuel Aguilar, Bong-Nam Chung, Francisco Tenllado, Tomás Canto
We have investigated short and small RNAs (sRNAs) that were bound to a biologically active hexahistidine-tagged Potato virus Y (PVY) HCPro suppressor of silencing, expressed from a heterologous virus vector in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and purified under nondenaturing conditions. We found that RNAs in purified preparations were differentially enriched in 21-nucleotide (nt) and, to a much lesser extent, 22-nt sRNAs of viral sequences (viral sRNAs [vsRNAs]) compared to those found in a control plant protein background bound to nickel resin in the absence of HCPro or in a purified HCPro alanine substitution mutant (HCPro mutB) control that lacked suppressor-of-silencing activity...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348571/population-structure-and-phylogenetic-relationships-in-a-diverse-panel-of-brassica-rapa-l
#16
Kevin A Bird, Hong An, Elodie Gazave, Michael A Gore, J Chris Pires, Larry D Robertson, Joanne A Labate
The crop species Brassica rapa L. has significant economic importance around the world. However, the global distribution and complex evolutionary history of the species has made investigating its genetic population structure difficult. Crop domestication and improvement has resulted in extreme phenotypic diversity and subspecies that are used for oilseed, food for human consumption, and fodder for livestock. These subspecies include the oilseed morphotypes. oleifera (turnip rape), ssp. dichotoma (brown sarson/toria), ssp...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346494/the-effects-of-surface-structure-mutations-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-on-the-polarization-of-reflections-from-virus-infected-leaves
#17
D J Maxwell, J C Partridge, N W Roberts, N Boonham, G D Foster
The way in which light is polarized when reflected from leaves can be affected by infection with plant viruses. This has the potential to influence viral transmission by insect vectors due to altered visual attractiveness of infected plants. The optical and topological properties of cuticular waxes and trichomes are important determinants of how light is polarized upon reflection. Changes in expression of genes involved in the formation of surface structures have also been reported following viral infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330247/production-of-glucosinolates-phenolic-compounds-and-associated-gene-expression-profiles-of-hairy-root-cultures-in-turnip-brassica-rapa-ssp-rapa
#18
Ill-Min Chung, Kaliyaperumal Rekha, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323529/altered-expression-of-a-chloroplast-protein-affects-the-outcome-of-virus-and-nematode-infection
#19
Elena E Ganusova, J Hollis Rice, Timothy S Carlew, Akshita Patel, Emmanuel Perrodin-Njoku, Tarek Hewezi, Tessa M Burch-Smith
The chloroplast-resident RNA helicase ISE2 (INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2) can modulate the formation and distribution of plasmodesmata and intercellular trafficking. We have determined that ISE2 expression is induced by viral infection. Therefore, the responses of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with varying levels of ISE2 expression to infection by Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip mosaic virus were examined. Surprisingly, increased or decreased ISE2 expression led to faster viral systemic spread and, in some cases, enhanced systemic necrosis...
June 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267773/a-self-perpetuating-repressive-state-of-a-viral-replication-protein-blocks-superinfection-by-the-same-virus
#20
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Rong Sun, Qin Guo, Shaoyan Zhang, Tea Meulia, Randal Halfmann, Dawei Li, Feng Qu
Diverse animal and plant viruses block the re-infection of host cells by the same or highly similar viruses through superinfection exclusion (SIE), a widely observed, yet poorly understood phenomenon. Here we demonstrate that SIE of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is exclusively determined by p28, one of the two replication proteins encoded by this virus. p28 expressed from a TCV replicon exerts strong SIE to a different TCV replicon. Transiently expressed p28, delivered simultaneously with, or ahead of, a TCV replicon, largely recapitulates this repressive activity...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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