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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622761/dated-tribe-wide-whole-chloroplast-genome-phylogeny-indicates-recurrent-hybridizations-within-triticeae
#1
Nadine Bernhardt, Jonathan Brassac, Benjamin Kilian, Frank R Blattner
BACKGROUND: Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing...
June 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606349/genetic-diversity-within-and-among-aecia-of-the-wheat-rust-fungus-puccinia-striiformis-on-the-alternate-host-berberis-vulgaris
#2
Julian Rodriguez-Algaba, Chris K Sørensen, Rodrigo Labouriau, Annemarie F Justesen, Mogens S Hovmøller
An isolate of the fungus Puccinia striiformis, causing yellow (stripe) rust on cereals and grasses, was selfed on the alternate (sexual) host, Berberis vulgaris. This enabled us to investigate genetic variability of progeny isolates within and among aecia. Nine aecial clusters each consisting of an aecium (single aecial cup) and nine clusters containing multiple aecial cups were selected from 18 B. vulgaris leaves. Aeciospores from each cluster were inoculated on susceptible wheat seedlings and 64 progeny isolates were recovered...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605975/evaluation-of-antiproliferative-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-wheat-grass-triticum-aestivum
#3
Anand Rajoria, Archana Mehta, Pradeep Mehta, Laxmi Ahirwal, Shruti Shukla, Vivek K Bajpai
This study was aimed to evaluate the pharmacological potential of various extracts (hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of dried shoots of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) in terms of antiproliferative and hepatoprotective potential of T. aestivum. The total chlorophyll content in dried shoots of T. aestivum was 0.54 ± 0.016 g/L (chlorophyll-a: 0.288 ± 0.05 g/L; and chlorophyll-b; 0.305 ± 0.05 g/L), while total carotene content was 0.42 ± 0.066 g/L. In addition, the chloroform extract of dried shoots of T...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603035/evolution-of-the-mir5200-flowering-locus-t-flowering-time-regulon-in-the-temperate-grass-subfamily-pooideae
#4
Meghan McKeown, Marian Schubert, Jill C Preston, Siri Fjellheim
Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591774/host-plants-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-hymenoptera-cephidae
#5
Darren M Cockrell, Robert J Griffin-Nolan, Tatyana A Rand, Nuha Altilmisani, Paul J Ode, Frank Peairs
Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton) is a pest of economic importance across much of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing areas of the western Great Plains of North America as well as an ecologically important insect owing to its wide range of grass hosts. Little research has been published regarding the noncultivated native and invasive grasses attacked by this insect. Knowledge of the complete host range of C. cinctus can inform future research about potential new sources of genetic resistance, improve understanding of the biology and spread of natural enemies, and better define this insect's role in grassland and agricultural systems...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544337/growth-curves-of-normal-serum-total-ige-levels-throughout-childhood-a-quantile-analysis-in-a-birth-cohort
#6
Chiara Sacco, Serena Perna, Donatella Vicari, Marco Alfò, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffman, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, i.e. with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. OBJECTIVES: To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. METHODS: The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20y...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542446/wheat-root-length-and-not-branching-is-altered-in-the-presence-of-neighbours-including-blackgrass
#7
Jessica A Finch, Gaëtan Guillaume, Stephanie A French, Renato D D R Colaço, Julia M Davies, Stéphanie M Swarbreck
The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2) can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535924/molecular-features-of-grass-allergens-and-development-of-biotechnological-approaches-for-allergy-prevention
#8
REVIEW
Deborah L Devis, Janet M Davies, Dabing Zhang
Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear...
May 20, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531850/in-situ-injection-of-potassium-hydroxide-into-briquetted-wheat-straw-and-meadow-grass-effect-on-biomethane-production
#9
Lu Feng, Veronica Moset, Wanwu Li, Chang Chen, Henrik Bjarne Møller
Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493968/the-dead-hardened-floral-bracts-of-dispersal-units-of-wild-wheat-function-as-storage-for-active-hydrolases-and-in-enhancing-seedling-vigor
#10
Buzi Raviv, Gila Granot, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Gideon Grafi
It is commonly assumed that the dead, hardened floral bracts of the dispersal unit of grasses have been evolved to protect seeds from predation and / or assist in fruit/caryopsis dispersal. While these structures have important agronomical and economical implications, their adaptive value has not been fully explored. We investigated the hypothesis that the maternally derived hardened floral bracts have been evolved not just as a means for caryopsis protection and dispersal, but also as storage for substances that might affect seed germination and seedling vigor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467041/fabrication-of-hybrid-collagen-aerogels-reinforced-with-wheat-grass-bioactives-as-instructive-scaffolds-for-collagen-turnover-and-angiogenesis-for-wound-healing-applications
#11
Dharunya Govindarajan, Natarajan Duraipandy, Kunnavakkam Vinjimur Srivatsan, Rachita Lakra, Purna Sai Korapatti, Ramasamy Jayavel, Manikantan Syamala Kiran
The present study illustrates the progress of the wheat grass bioactive-reinforced collagen-based aerogel system as an instructive scaffold for collagen turnover and angiogenesis for wound healing applications. The reinforcement of wheat grass bioactives in collagen resulted in the design and development of aerogels with enhanced physicochemical and biomechanical properties due to the intermolecular interaction between the active growth factors of wheat grass and collagen fibril. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed an enhanced denaturation temperature when compared to those of native collagen aerogels...
May 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463975/global-gene-expression-profiling-related-to-temperature-sensitive-growth-abnormalities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-aegilops-tauschii
#12
Ryusuke Matsuda, Julio Cesar Masaru Iehisa, Kouhei Sakaguchi, Ryoko Ohno, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457549/effect-of-different-levels-of-rapidly-degradable-carbohydrates-calculated-by-a-simple-rumen-model-on-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows
#13
J Doorenbos, J Martín-Tereso, J Dijkstra, H van Laar
Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452349/wheat-ms2-encodes-for-an-orphan-protein-that-confers-male-sterility-in-grass-species
#14
Fei Ni, Juan Qi, Qunqun Hao, Bo Lyu, Ming-Cheng Luo, Yan Wang, Fengjuan Chen, Shuyun Wang, Chaozhong Zhang, Lynn Epstein, Xiangyu Zhao, Honggang Wang, Xiansheng Zhang, Cuixia Chen, Lanzhen Sun, Daolin Fu
Male sterility is a valuable trait for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. The dominant male-sterile gene Ms2 in common wheat has facilitated the release of hundreds of breeding lines and cultivars in China. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the Ms2 gene and show that Ms2 confers male sterility in wheat, barley and Brachypodium. MS2 appears as an orphan gene within the Triticinae and expression of Ms2 in anthers is associated with insertion of a retroelement into the promoter. The cloning of Ms2 has substantial potential to assemble practical pipelines for recurrent selection and hybrid seed production in wheat...
April 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#15
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431134/floral-transitions-in-wheat-and-barley-interactions-between-photoperiod-abiotic-stresses-and-nutrient-status
#16
Leonard Gol, Filipa Tomé, Maria von Korff
The timing of plant reproduction has a large impact on yield in crop plants. Reproductive development in temperate cereals comprises two major developmental transitions. During spikelet initiation, the identity of the shoot meristem switches from the vegetative to the reproductive stage and spikelet primordia are formed on the apex. Subsequently, floral morphogenesis is initiated, a process strongly affected by environmental variation. Recent studies in cereal grasses have suggested that this later phase of inflorescence development controls floret survival and abortion, and is therefore crucial for yield...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425669/dissolving-lignin-in-water-through-enzymatic-sulfation-with-aryl-sulfotransferase
#17
Pepijn Prinsen, Anand Narani, Aloysius F Hartog, Ron Wever, Gadi Rothenberg
We introduce the concept of using site-specific sulfation of various lignins for increasing their aqueous solubility and thereby their processability. Using p-nitrophenylsulfate as a sulfate source and an aryl sulfotransferase enzyme as catalyst, lignins are easily sulfated at ambient conditions. We demonstrate the specific sulfation of phenolic hydroxyl groups on five different lignins: Indulin AT (Kraft softwood), Protobind 1000 (mixed wheat straw/Sarkanda grass soda) and three organosolv lignins. The reaction proceeds smoothly and the increase in solubility is visible to the naked eye...
May 22, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#18
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366969/impact-of-reduced-tillage-on-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-soil-carbon-stocks-in-an-organic-grass-clover-ley-winter-wheat-cropping-sequence
#19
Maike Krauss, Reiner Ruser, Torsten Müller, Sissel Hansen, Paul Mäder, Andreas Gattinger
Organic reduced tillage aims to combine the environmental benefits of organic farming and conservation tillage to increase sustainability and soil quality. In temperate climates, there is currently no knowledge about its impact on greenhouse gas emissions and only little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in these management systems. We therefore monitored nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes besides SOC stocks for two years in a grass-clover ley - winter wheat - cover crop sequence...
February 15, 2017: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358885/exogenous-lactobacilli-mitigate-microbial-changes-associated-with-grain-fermentation-corn-oats-and-wheat-by-equine-fecal-microflora-ex-vivo
#20
Brittany E Harlow, Laurie M Lawrence, Patricia A Harris, Glen E Aiken, Michael D Flythe
Cereal grains are often included in equine diets. When starch intake exceeds foregut digestion starch will reach the hindgut, impacting microbial ecology. Probiotics (e.g., lactobacilli) are reported to mitigate GI dysbioses in other species. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exogenous lactobacilli on pH and the growth of amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Feces were collected from 3 mature geldings fed grass hay with access to pasture. Fecal microbes were harvested by differential centrifugation, washed, and re-suspended in anaerobic media containing ground corn, wheat, or oats at 1...
2017: PloS One
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