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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316079/insectivorous-birds-disrupt-biological-control-of-cereal-aphids
#1
Ingo Grass, Katrin Lehmann, Carsten Thies, Teja Tscharntke
Insect-feeding birds may interfere with trophic interactions in plant-insect food webs, which may be particularly important in agroecosystems. Here, we studied how Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) affect aphids and their predators in cereal fields using bird exclusion experiments. The tree sparrows fed their nestlings with aphid antagonists. Hoverflies and ladybird beetles accounted for 77% of the food for the nestlings during peak aphid density. When birds were excluded, densities of hoverfly larvae, which were the most abundant aphid predator group in the cereals, were 4% higher in wheat and 45% higher in oat, while aphid densities were 24% lower in wheat and 26% lower in oat...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302860/mobile-mute-specifies-subsidiary-cells-to-build-physiologically-improved-grass-stomata
#2
Michael T Raissig, Juliana L Matos, M Ximena Anleu Gil, Ari Kornfeld, Akhila Bettadapur, Emily Abrash, Hannah R Allison, Grayson Badgley, John P Vogel, Joseph A Berry, Dominique C Bergmann
Plants optimize carbon assimilation while limiting water loss by adjusting stomatal aperture. In grasses, a developmental innovation-the addition of subsidiary cells (SCs) flanking two dumbbell-shaped guard cells (GCs)-is linked to improved stomatal physiology. Here, we identify a transcription factor necessary and sufficient for SC formation in the wheat relative Brachypodium distachyon. Unexpectedly, the transcription factor is an ortholog of the stomatal regulator AtMUTE, which defines GC precursor fate in Arabidopsis The novel role of BdMUTE in specifying lateral SCs appears linked to its acquisition of cell-to-cell mobility in Brachypodium Physiological analyses on SC-less plants experimentally support classic hypotheses that SCs permit greater stomatal responsiveness and larger range of pore apertures...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279883/comprehensive-analysis-of-degradation-and-accumulation-of-ametryn-in-soils-and-in-wheat-maize-ryegrass-and-alfalfa-plants
#3
Ying Liu, Li Ya Ma, Yi Chen Lu, Shuang Shuang Jiang, Hong Jin Wu, Hong Yang
Ametryn is a selective herbicide belonging to the triazine family and widely used for killing annual grasses or weeds in China and other parts of the world. However, reports on its environmental risk assessment with regard to soil and crop contamination are limited. In this study, accumulation of ametryn in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa crops along with ametryn residues in the soil planted with the plants were comparatively investigated. Soil enzyme activities and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), as well as antioxidant and degradation enzyme activities in plant tissues were measured...
March 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248976/residual-soil-nitrate-content-and-profitability-of-five-cropping-systems-in-northwest-iowa
#4
Robert L De Haan, Matthew A Schuiteman, Ronald J Vos
Many communities in the Midwestern United States obtain their drinking water from shallow alluvial wells that are vulnerable to contamination by NO3-N from the surrounding agricultural landscape. The objective of this research was to assess cropping systems with the potential to produce a reasonable return for farmers while simultaneously reducing the risk of NO3-N movement into these shallow aquifers. From 2009 to 2013 we conducted a field experiment in northwest Iowa in which we evaluated five cropping systems for residual (late fall) soil NO3-N content and profitability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237600/chromium-concentrations-in-ruminant-feed-ingredients
#5
J W Spears, K E Lloyd, K Krafka
Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231117/compositional-analysis-of-whole-grains-processed-grains-grain-co-products-and-other-carbohydrate-sources-with-applicability-to-pet-animal-nutrition
#6
Alison N Beloshapka, Preston R Buff, George C Fahey, Kelly S Swanson
Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed...
March 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216882/anticancer-potential-of-nutraceutical-formulations-in-mnu-induced-mammary-cancer-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#7
Gummalla Pitchaiah, Annapurna Akula, Vishala Chandi
BACKGROUND: Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and 'nutraceutical formulations' have led to the new era of medicine and health. OBJECTIVE: To develop different nutraceutical formulations and to assess the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different nutraceutical formulations were prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215888/changes-in-rumen-microbiota-composition-and-in-situ-degradation-kinetics-during-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation-as-affected-by-rate-of-increase-of-concentrate-allowance
#8
K Dieho, B van den Bogert, G Henderson, A Bannink, J Ramiro-Garcia, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193584/empirical-calibration-of-uranium-releases-in-the-terrestrial-environment-of-nuclear-fuel-cycle-facilities
#9
Laurent Pourcelot, Olivier Masson, Lionel Saey, Sébastien Conil, Béatrice Boulet, Nicolas Cariou
In the present paper the activity of uranium isotopes measured in plants and aerosols taken downwind of the releases of three nuclear fuel settlements was compared between them and with the activity measured at remote sites. An enhancement of (238)U activity as well as (235)U/(238)U anomalies and (236)U are noticeable in wheat, grass, tree leaves and aerosols taken at the edge of nuclear fuel settlements, which show the influence of uranium chronic releases. Further plants taken at the edge of the studied sites and a few published data acquired in the same experimental conditions show that the (238)U activity in plants is influenced by the intensity of the U atmospheric releases...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178571/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-regulation-of-small-heat-shock-protein-hsp20-family-genes-in-bread-wheat
#10
Senthilkumar K Muthusamy, Monika Dalal, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Kailash C Bansal
Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat...
April 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167022/differences-in-nutritional-quality-between-wild-and-domesticated-forms-of-barley-and-emmer-wheat
#11
REVIEW
Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Grasses such as wheat and barley constitute some of the main crops currently cultivated worldwide. Cultivation of wild cereals such as Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) and Triticum diccocoides (wild emmer) started in southwest Asia. Despite the many studies on the origins of agriculture and plant domestication, surprisingly few studies have discussed the importance of the nutritional quality of barley and emmer wheat in their evolution. A comparison of domesticated forms of these cereals with their wild progenitors suggests an evolution towards bigger grains with higher glycemic loads in the form of higher relative starch content with lower relative protein, fiber and mineral contents...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145403/regulation-of-ft-splicing-by-an-endogenous-cue-in-temperate-grasses
#12
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139063/lignin-depolymerisation-and-lignocellulose-fractionation-by-solvated-electrons-in-liquid-ammonia
#13
Pepijn Prinsen, Anand Narani, Gadi Rothenberg
We explored the depolymerisation of several lignins in liquid ammonia at relatively high temperatures and pressures (120 °C and 88 bar). Five different lignins were tested: Indulin AT kraft, Protobind 1000 soda, wheat straw organosolv, poplar organosolv and elephant grass-milled wood lignin (EG MWL). In pure liquid ammonia, all lignins underwent slow incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, resulting in higher molecular weight and polydispersity index. Subsequently, we show a reductive depolymerisation by solvated electrons at room temperature by adding sodium metal to the liquid ammonia without any external hydrogen donor...
January 31, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115753/chlorophyll-and-total-phenolic-contents-antioxidant-activities-and-consumer-acceptance-test-of-processed-grass-drinks
#14
Wiwat Wangcharoen, Suthaya Phimphilai
The processed drinks produced from grass of three varieties of rice (Jasmine, Sukhothai 1 and Sukhothai 2) and one each from wheat and barley grasses were analyzed for chlorophyll and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities [ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay and ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP) assay]. The consumer acceptance of all the drinks was also evaluated. One serving size (200 mL) of these contained 82-958 μg of chlorophyll, 5.60-26.14 mg Gallic acid equivalent for total phenolic content and their antioxidant activities, ABTS and FRAP values were 17...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034954/a-flowering-locus-c-homolog-is-a-vernalization-regulated-repressor-in-brachypodium-and-is-cold-regulated-in-wheat
#15
Neha Sharma, Philip Ruelens, Mariëlla D'hauw, Thomas Maggen, Niklas Dochy, Sanne Torfs, Kerstin Kaufmann, Antje Rohde, Koen Geuten
Winter cereals require prolonged cold to transition from vegetative to reproductive development. This process, referred to as vernalization, has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In Arabidopsis, a key flowering repressor called FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) quantitatively controls the vernalization requirement. By contrast, in cereals, the vernalization response is mainly regulated by the VERNALIZATION genes, VRN1 and VRN2 Here, we characterize ODDSOC2, a recently identified FLC ortholog in monocots, knowing that it belongs to the FLC lineage...
February 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018390/emerging-technologies-for-the-production-of-renewable-liquid-transport-fuels-from-biomass-sources-enriched-in-plant-cell-walls
#16
REVIEW
Hwei-Ting Tan, Kendall R Corbin, Geoffrey B Fincher
Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986311/lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes-free-radical-transformations-during-composting-of-lignocellulosic-waste-and-biothermal-phases-in-small-scale-reactors
#17
Justyna Bohacz
Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974729/secondary-metabolites-production-and-plant-growth-promotion-by-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-and-p-aurantiaca-strains-isolated-from-cactus-cotton-and-para-grass
#18
Izzah Shahid, Muhammad Rizwan, Deeba Noreen Baig, Rahman Shahzaib Saleem, Kauser Abdullah Malik, Samina Mehnaz
Fluorescent pseudomonads have been isolated from halophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes of Pakistan. Among these, eight isolates, GS-1, GS-3, GS-4, GS-6, GS-7, FS-2 (cactus), ARS-38 (cotton) and RP-4 (para grass) showed antifungal activity and selected for detailed study. Based on biochemical tests and 16SrRNA gene sequences, these were identified as strains of P. chlororaphis subspp. chlororaphis and aurantiaca. Secondary metabolites of these strains were analyzed by LC-MS. PCA, 2-OH-PHZ, cyclic lipopeptide (WLIP) and Lahorenoic acid A were detected in variable amounts in these strains...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966731/arabinoxylan-hydrolyzates-as-immunomodulators-in-caco-2-and-ht-29-colon-cancer-cell-lines
#19
Mihiri Mendis, Estelle Leclerc, Senay Simsek
The use of plant derived polysaccharides as health promoters has gained immense interest in the past few years. Arabinoxylan (AX) is the predominant non-starch polysaccharide in cereals and grasses including wheat. The current research aimed to investigate the structure-function relationship of arabinoxylan hydrolyzates (AXH), obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of AX using xylanase and arabinofuranosidase as immunomodulators in two colon cancer cell lines: Caco-2 and HT-29. Fine structural details had a strong correlation with the immunological properties of the wheat AXH...
December 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#20
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
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