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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792207/metagenomic-analysis-of-viruses-associated-with-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-kenya
#1
Mwathi Jane Wamaitha, Deepti Nigam, Solomon Maina, Francesca Stomeo, Anne Wangai, Joyce Njoki Njuguna, Timothy A Holton, Bramwel W Wanjala, Mark Wamalwa, Tanui Lucas, Appolinaire Djikeng, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Maize lethal necrosis is caused by a synergistic co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a specific member of the Potyviridae, such as Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) or Johnson grass mosaic virus (JGMV). Typical maize lethal necrosis symptoms include severe yellowing and leaf drying from the edges. In Kenya, we detected plants showing typical and atypical symptoms. Both groups of plants often tested negative for SCMV by ELISA...
May 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#2
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776722/flammulina-velutipes-treatment-of-non-sterile-tall-wheat-grass-for-enhancing-biodegradability-and-methane-production
#3
Agnieszka Kasprzycka, Justyna Lalak-Kańczugowska, Jerzy Tys
In this study fungal pretreatment of non-sterile tall wheat grass via the white rot fungi Flammulina velutipes was studied and the effect on biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass and methane production, was evaluated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in non-sterile tall wheat grass during 28 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum ratio (0%-50%) and moisture content (MC) (45% MC, 65% MC, and 75% MC) were assessed via comparison to untreated biomass. Pretreatment with F...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770515/structural-variation-and-rates-of-genome-evolution-in-the-grass-family-seen-through-comparison-of-sequences-of-genomes-greatly-differing-in-size
#4
Jan Dvorak, Le Wang, Tingting Zhu, Chad M Jorgensen, Karin R Deal, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Hamid Dehghani, Yong Q Gu, Bikram S Gill, Assaf Distelfeld, Katrien M Devos, Peng Qi, Frank M You, Patrick J Gulick, Patrick E McGuire
Homology was searched with genes annotated in the Aegilops tauschii pseudomolecules against genes annotated in the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum, and rice. Similar searches were initiated with genes annotated in the rice pseudomolecules. Matrices of colinear genes and rearrangements in their order were constructed. Optical Bionano genome maps were constructed and used to validate rearrangements unique to the wild emmer and Ae. tauschii genomes. Most common rearrangements were short paracentric inversions and short intrachromosomal translocations...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767143/okara-as-a-protein-supplement-affects-feed-intake-and-milk-composition-of-ewes-and-growth-performance-of-lambs
#5
Laura B Harthan, Debbie J R Cherney
Evaluating the feeding value of wet okara as a protein supplement for lactating ewes with twin lambs was the objective. A 4 × 4 Latin square replicated 2× (4 sheep, 4 treatments, 4 periods per square; 2 squares) was conducted to examine the influence of concentrate mix (okara or not) and type of forage (silage or hay) on ewe milk composition and growth of their lactating lambs. Treatment periods were 14 days (7 days adaptation and 7 days collection). Ewes (55 to 74.8 kg BW) were fed 1 of 4 diets: wheat middling and corn concentrate with mixed grass hay (TSH), okara and corn with mixed grass hay (OSH), soybean and wheat middlings with hay crop silage (TSS), and okara and corn with hay crop silage (OSS)...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755902/efficacy-and-safety-of-wheat-grass-in-thalassemic-children-on-regular-blood-transfusion
#6
Amit S Mutha, Kalpana U Shah, Aarti A Kinikar, Balasaheb B Ghongane
BACKGROUND: In thalassemia, mutations either in alpha or beta chain synthesis results in low hemoglobin (Hb). Wheatgrass has been used for many years for health purposes. Some reports suggest the beneficial effect of wheatgrass on transfusion requirements. Folic acid is also known to play an important role in several biochemical reactions. In some patients with thalassemia, the supplementation of folic acid is useful. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of wheatgrass in children with thalassemia receiving chronic blood transfusions...
March 11, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753487/replacing-human-edible-feed-ingredients-with-by-products-increases-net-food-production-efficiency-in-dairy-cows
#7
Johanna Karlsson, Rolf Spörndly, Mikaela Lindberg, Kjell Holtenius
Global demand is increasing for food, and use of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs for dairy cows is an important concern. The present study examined whether feeding a by-product-based concentrate combined with high-quality grass silage to high-producing dairy cows affected feed intake and milk production compared with a conventional diet, as well as the effect on efficiency of human food production. In a changeover experiment with four 21-d periods, 24 dairy cows in mid-lactation were offered 9...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752764/analysis-of-gli-d2-locus-identifies-a-genetic-target-for-simultaneously-improving-the-breadmaking-and-health-related-traits-of-common-wheat
#8
Da Li, Huaibing Jin, Kunpu Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Faming Wang, Yue Zhao, Naxin Huo, Xin Liu, Yong Q Gu, Daowen Wang, Lingli Dong
Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) encoding the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Ae...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743678/genome-sequence-of-the-progenitor-of-wheat-a-subgenome-triticum-urartu
#9
Hong-Qing Ling, Bin Ma, Xiaoli Shi, Hui Liu, Lingli Dong, Hua Sun, Yinghao Cao, Qiang Gao, Shusong Zheng, Ye Li, Ying Yu, Huilong Du, Ming Qi, Yan Li, Hongwei Lu, Hua Yu, Yan Cui, Ning Wang, Chunlin Chen, Huilan Wu, Yan Zhao, Juncheng Zhang, Yiwen Li, Wenjuan Zhou, Bairu Zhang, Weijuan Hu, Michiel J T van Eijk, Jifeng Tang, Hanneke M A Witsenboer, Shancen Zhao, Zhensheng Li, Aimin Zhang, Daowen Wang, Chengzhi Liang
Triticum urartu (diploid, AA) is the progenitor of the A subgenome of tetraploid (Triticum turgidum, AABB) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) wheat1,2 . Genomic studies of T. urartu have been useful for investigating the structure, function and evolution of polyploid wheat genomes. Here we report the generation of a high-quality genome sequence of T. urartu by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC sequencing, single molecule real-time whole-genome shotgun sequencing 3 , linked reads and optical mapping4,5 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729062/chromosome-based-survey-sequencing-reveals-the-genome-organization-of-wild-wheat-progenitor-triticum-dicoccoides
#10
Bala Ani Akpinar, Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Burcu Alptekin, Miroslava Havránková, Jan Vrána, Jaroslav Doležel, Assaf Distelfeld, Pilar Hernandez, Hikmet Budak
Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is the progenitor of wheat. We performed chromosome-based survey sequencing of the 14 chromosomes, examining repetitive sequences, protein-coding genes, miRNA/target pairs and tRNA genes, as well as syntenic relationships with related grasses. We found considerable differences in the content and distribution of repetitive sequences between the A and B subgenomes. The gene contents of individual chromosomes varied widely, not necessarily correlating with chromosome size...
May 4, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719664/indigestible-neutral-detergent-fibers-relationship-between-forage-fragility-and-neutral-detergent-fibers-digestibility-in-total-mixed-ration-and-some-feedstuffs-in-dairy-cattle
#11
Mostafa Soufizadeh, Rasoul Pirmohammadi, Yunes Alijoo, Hamed Khalilvandi Behroozyar
Indigestible neutral detergent fibers (iNDF) accurately predict forage digestibility when measured in situ . The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rumen incubation times on the estimated concentrations of iNDF for four forages (alfalfa hay, corn silage, wheat straw and orchard grass), four concentrates (barley grain, soybean meal, beet pulp and wheat bran) and two total mixed ration samples in dairy cows. The iNDF contents of the samples were evaluated in 10 feeds using three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in a completely randomized design...
2018: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718461/dissecting-the-role-of-mads-box-genes-in-monocot-floral-development-and-diversity
#12
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707435/genome-comparison-implies-the-role-of-wsm2-in-membrane-trafficking-and-protein-degradation
#13
Guorong Zhang, Zhihua Hua
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes streak mosaic disease in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and has been an important constraint limiting wheat production in many regions around the world. Wsm2 is the only resistance gene discovered in wheat genome and has been located in a short genomic region of its chromosome 3B. However, the sequence nature and the biological function of Wsm2 remain unknown due to the difficulty of genetic manipulation in wheat. In this study, we tested WSMV infectivity among wheat and its two closely related grass species, rice ( Oryza sativa ) and Brachypodium distachyon ...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703387/food-drug-interactions-precipitated-by-fruit-juices-other-than-grapefruit-juice-an-update-review
#14
REVIEW
Meng Chen, Shu-Yi Zhou, Erlinda Fabriaga, Pian-Hong Zhang, Quan Zhou
This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681893/comparative-genomics-of-smut-pathogens-insights-from-orphans-and-positively-selected-genes-into-host-specialization
#15
Juliana Benevenuto, Natalia S Teixeira-Silva, Eiko E Kuramae, Daniel Croll, Claudia B Monteiro-Vitorello
Host specialization is a key evolutionary process for the diversification and emergence of new pathogens. However, the molecular determinants of host range are poorly understood. Smut fungi are biotrophic pathogens that have distinct and narrow host ranges based on largely unknown genetic determinants. Hence, we aimed to expand comparative genomics analyses of smut fungi by including more species infecting different hosts and to define orphans and positively selected genes to gain further insights into the genetics basis of host specialization...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650229/allergen-component-analysis-as-a-tool-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-occupational-allergy
#16
Monika Raulf
We are now in the epoch of "molecular allergology" and numerous clinically relevant allergenic molecules are available improving the performance of in vitro allergen tests and allergen detection methods. This review is focusing on characterized occupational allergens and their implementation into the in vitro diagnosis for occupational allergy and in allergen detection methods. More than 400 occupational agents are identified and documented as being 'respiratory sensitizers', but currently only a limited number of them are characterized on the molecular level and available for routine diagnosis as native or recombinant allergens...
April 9, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625552/low-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-levels-in-perennial-ryegrass-is-associated-with-the-absence-of-a-homospermidine-synthase-gene
#17
Geoffrey P Gill, Catherine J Bryant, Mikhail Fokin, Jan Huege, Karl Fraser, Chris Jones, Mingshu Cao, Marty J Faville
BACKGROUND: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites that function as feeding deterrents in a range of different plant species. In perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) the only PAs that have been identified are the thesinine-rhamnoside group, which displays significant genetic variation. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) has evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and catalyses the first step in the PA pathway, making it a key candidate for the investigation of genes influencing observed PA trait variation...
April 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619081/lignin-from-hydrothermally-pretreated-grass-biomass-retards-enzymatic-cellulose-degradation-by-acting-as-a-physical-barrier-rather-than-by-inducing-nonproductive-adsorption-of-enzymes
#18
Demi T Djajadi, Mads M Jensen, Marlene Oliveira, Anders Jensen, Lisbeth G Thygesen, Manuel Pinelo, Marianne Glasius, Henning Jørgensen, Anne S Meyer
Background: Lignin is known to hinder efficient enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose in biorefining processes. In particular, nonproductive adsorption of cellulases onto lignin is considered a key mechanism to explain how lignin retards enzymatic cellulose conversion in extended reactions. Results: Lignin-rich residues (LRRs) were prepared via extensive enzymatic cellulose degradation of corn stover ( Zea mays subsp. mays L.), Miscanthus  ×  giganteus stalks (MS) and wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584429/qualitative-study-on-the-production-of-the-allelochemicals-benzoxazinones-by-inducing-polyploidy-in-gramineae-with-colchicine
#19
Alberto de Jesus Oliveros Bastidas, Nuria Chinchilla, Jose M G Molinillo, Noureddine Elmtili Elmtili, Francisco A Macias
The possibility of inducing polyploidy in grasses by treatment with colchicine and its effect on the production and root exudate content of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) was studied in wheat, corn and rye. Caryopses treated with colchicine at concentrations in the range 0.1-10 mg/mL for 8 and 48 hours, and with inoculation of the growth medium, are markedly affected both in terms of the distribution and concentration levels of allelochemicals in plants...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575495/wheat-streak-mosaic-virus-a-century-old-virus-with-rising-importance-worldwide
#20
REVIEW
Khushwant Singh, Stephen N Wegulo, Anna Skoracka, Jiban Kumar Kundu
Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes wheat streak mosaic, a disease of cereals and grasses that threatens wheat production worldwide. It is a monopartite, positive-sense single stranded RNA virus and the type member of the genus Tritimovirus in the family Potyviridae. The only known vector is the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella), recently identified as a species complex of biotypes differing in virus transmission. Low rates of seed transmission have been reported. Infected plants are stunted and have a yellow mosaic of parallel discontinuous streaks on the leaves...
March 25, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
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