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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317169/herbicidal-aryldiones-incorporating-a-5-methoxy-1-2-5-triazepane-ring
#1
Tomas Smejkal, Shuji Hachisu, James N Scutt, Nigel J Willetts, Danielle Sayer, Laura Wildsmith, Sophie Oliver, Caroline Thompson, Michel Muehlebach
Novel 2-aryl-cyclic-1,3-diones containing a 5-methoxy-[1,2,5]triazepane unit were explored towards an effective and wheat safe control of grass weeds. Their preparation builds on the ease of synthetic access to 7-membered heterocyclic [1,2,5]triazepane building blocks. Substitution and pattern hopping in the phenyl moiety revealed structure-activity relationships in good agreement with previously disclosed observations amongst the pinoxaden family of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. In light of basic physicochemical, enzyme inhibitory and binding site properties, the N-methoxy functionality effectively acts as a bioisostere of the ether group in the seven-membered hydrazine ring...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274974/nutritional-composition-and-in-vitro-digestibility-of-grass-and-legume-winter-cover-crops
#2
A N Brown, G Ferreira, C L Teets, W E Thomason, C D Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234334/no-vegetative-and-fecundity-fitness-cost-associated-with-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-non-target-site-resistance-in-a-black-grass-alopecurus-myosuroides-huds-population
#3
Eshagh Keshtkar, Solvejg K Mathiassen, Per Kudsk
Attention should be devoted to weeds evolving herbicide resistance with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to their unpredictable resistance patterns. Quantification of fitness cost can be used in NTSR management strategies to determine the long-term fate of resistant plants in weed populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating potential fecundity and vegetative fitness of a NTSR black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds), the most important herbicide resistant weed in Europe, with controlled genetic background...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216443/genetic-classification-of-i-aegilops-columnaris-i-zhuk-2n-4x-28-u-sup-c-sup-u-sup-c-sup-x-sup-c-sup-x-sup-c-sup-chromosomes-based-on-fish-analysis-and-substitution-patterns-in-common-wheat-x-i-ae-columnaris-i-introgressive-lines
#4
Ekaterina D Badaeva, Alevtina S Ruban, Alexandra A Shishkina, Sergei N Sibikeev, Alexander E Druzhin, Sergei A Surzhikov, Alexandra Yu Dragovich
<i>Aegilops columnaris</i> is tetraploid <i>Aegilops</i> species originated from <i>Ae. umbellulata </i>(2n=2x=14, UU) and yet unknown diploid grass species. Although <i>Ae. columnaris </i>possesses some agronomically valuable traits, such as heat and drought tolerance, resistance to pests, it has never been used in wheat breeding due to difficulties of hybrid production and lack of information on the relationships between <i>Ae. columnaris </i>and common wheat chromosomes...
December 7, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184557/combined-genomic-and-genetic-data-integration-of-major-agronomical-traits-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Umar M Quraishi, Caroline Pont, Qurat-Ul Ain, Raphael Flores, Laura Burlot, Michael Alaux, Hadi Quesneville, Jerome Salse
The high resolution integration of bread wheat genetic and genomic resources accumulated during the last decades offers the opportunity to unveil candidate genes driving major agronomical traits to an unprecedented scale. We combined 27 public quantitative genetic studies and four genetic maps to deliver an exhaustive consensus map consisting of 140,315 molecular markers hosting 221, 73, and 82 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for respectively yield, baking quality, and grain protein content (GPC) related traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160900/fusarium-graminearum-pathogen-or-endophyte-of-north-american-grasses
#6
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143815/genome-sequence-of-the-progenitor-of-the-wheat-d-genome-aegilops-tauschii
#7
Ming-Cheng Luo, Yong Q Gu, Daniela Puiu, Hao Wang, Sven O Twardziok, Karin R Deal, Naxin Huo, Tingting Zhu, Le Wang, Yi Wang, Patrick E McGuire, Shuyang Liu, Hai Long, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Juan C Rodriguez, Sonny L Van, Luxia Yuan, Zhenzhong Wang, Zhiqiang Xia, Lichan Xiao, Olin D Anderson, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Aleksey V Zimin, Geo Pertea, Peng Qi, Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Karl Kugler, Lorena Rivarola-Duarte, Manuel Spannagl, Klaus F X Mayer, Fu-Hao Lu, Michael W Bevan, Philippe Leroy, Pingchuan Li, Frank M You, Qixin Sun, Zhiyong Liu, Eric Lyons, Thomas Wicker, Steven L Salzberg, Katrien M Devos, Jan Dvořák
Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and an important genetic resource for wheat. The large size and highly repetitive nature of the Ae. tauschii genome has until now precluded the development of a reference-quality genome sequence. Here we use an array of advanced technologies, including ordered-clone genome sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical genome mapping, to generate a reference-quality genome sequence for Ae...
November 23, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128769/erosion-induced-losses-of-carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-heavy-metals-from-agricultural-soils-of-contrasting-organic-matter-management
#8
Pu Shi, Rainer Schulin
Water erosion on agricultural land preferentially carries away fine particles. Due to the generally high specific density of sorption sites of these particles, their displacement can be associated with substantial particle-bound transfer also of nutrients and pollutants with low solubility. Organic matter amendments can reduce soil erosion, but to what extent they affect the erosion-induced element losses has not been studied much. Here, we carried out field rainfall experiments on three pairs of soil plots (1...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126242/differential-manipulation-of-leaf-angle-throughout-the-canopy-current-status-and-prospects
#9
Maria Betsabe Mantilla-Perez, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Leaf angle is defined as the inclination between the midrib of the leaf blade and the vertical stem of a plant. This trait has been identified as a key component in the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal species, particularly maize, rice, wheat, and sorghum. The effect of leaf angle on light interception efficiency, photosynthetic rate, and yield has been investigated since the 1960s, yet, significant knowledge gaps remain in understanding the genetic control of this complex trait. Recent advances in physiology and modeling have proposed a plant ideotype with varying leaf angles throughout the canopy...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112957/laccase-sila-from-streptomyces-ipomoeae-cect-3341-a-key-enzyme-for-the-degradation-of-lignin-from-agricultural-residues
#10
Alba Blánquez, Andrew S Ball, José Antonio González-Pérez, Nicasio T Jiménez-Morillo, Francisco González-Vila, M Enriqueta Arias, Manuel Hernández
The role of laccase SilA produced by Streptomyces ipomoeae CECT 3341 in lignocellulose degradation was investigated. A comparison of the properties and activities of a laccase-negative mutant strain (SilA-) with that of the wild-type was studied in terms of their ability to degrade lignin from grass lignocellulose. The yields of solubilized lignin (acid precipitable polymeric lignin, APPL) obtained from wheat straw by both strains in Solid State Fermentation (SSF) conditions demonstrated the importance of SilA laccase in lignin degradation with the wild-type showing 5-fold more APPL produced compared with the mutant strain (SilA-)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110579/effects-of-glyphosate-residues-and-different-concentrate-feed-proportions-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-health-characteristics-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#11
Karina Schnabel, Rolf Schmitz, Dirk von Soosten, Jana Frahm, Susanne Kersten, Ulrich Meyer, Gerhard Breves, Rudolf Hackenberg, Madeleine Spitzke, Sven Dänicke
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glyphosate (GL) residues in feedstuffs on performance, energy balance and health-related characteristics of lactating dairy cows fed diets with different concentrate feed proportions. After an adaption period, 64 German Holstein cows (207 ± 49 d in milk; mean ± SD) were assigned to either groups receiving a GL contaminated total mixed ration (TMR) (GL groups) or an uncontaminated TMR (CON groups) during a 16 weeks trial. Contaminated feedstuffs used were legally GL-treated peas and wheat (straw and grain)...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105256/fusarium-crown-rot-caused-by-fusarium-pseudograminearum-in-cereal-crops-recent-progress-and-future-prospects
#12
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100539/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-cellulose-synthase-like-csl-gene-family-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#13
Simerjeet Kaur, Kanwarpal S Dhugga, Robin Beech, Jaswinder Singh
BACKGROUND: Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. RESULTS: In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl)...
November 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090430/hybrid-incompatibilities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-its-wild-diploid-relative-aegilops-umbellulata
#14
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089018/rapid-turnover-of-effectors-in-grass-powdery-mildew-blumeria-graminis
#15
Fabrizio Menardo, Coraline R Praz, Thomas Wicker, Beat Keller
BACKGROUND: Grass powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, Ascomycota) is a major pathogen of cereal crops and has become a model organism for obligate biotrophic fungal pathogens of plants. The sequenced genomes of two formae speciales (ff.spp.), B.g. hordei and B.g. tritici (pathogens of barley and wheat), were found to be enriched in candidate effector genes (CEGs). Similar to other filamentous pathogens, CEGs in B. graminis are under positive selection. Additionally, effectors are more likely to have presence-absence polymorphisms than other genes among different strains...
October 31, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071815/comparison-of-singleplex-specific-ige-detection-immunoassays-immunocap-phadia-250-and-immulite-2000-3gallergy
#16
Kyung Hee Park, Jongsun Lee, Da Woon Sim, Sang Chul Lee
BACKGROUND: The identification of clinically meaningful specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) is important for the diagnosis and management of allergic diseases. Various in vitro sIgE detection methods are available worldwide. Depending on the number of antigens that can be tested simultaneously, there are two representative methods: singleplex and multiplex. Singleplex sIgE detection is mainly provided by Thermo Fisher (ImmunoCAP) and Siemens (Immulite). This study aimed to compare the diagnostic agreement of two singleplex sIgE detection assays...
January 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993054/near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-for-a-real-time-monitoring-of-the-biogas-process
#17
Andrea Stockl, Fabian Lichti
In this research project Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to monitor the content of specific process parameters in anaerobic digestion. A laboratory scaled biogas digester was constantly fed every four hours with maize- and grass silage to keep a base load with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 kg oDM/m(3) ∗ d. Daily impact loads with shredded wheat up to an OLR of 8 kg oDM/m(3) ∗ d were added in order to generate peaks at the parameters tested. The developed calibration models are capable to show changes in process parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA), propionic acid, total inorganic carbon (TIC) and the ratio of the volatile fatty acids to the carbonate buffer (VFA/TIC)...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983310/rna-seq-analysis-provides-the-first-insights-into-the-phylogenetic-relationship-and-interspecific-variation-between-agropyron-cristatum-and-wheat
#18
Shenghui Zhou, Baiqiang Yan, Fei Li, Jinpeng Zhang, Jing Zhang, Huihui Ma, Weihua Liu, Yuqing Lu, Xinming Yang, Xiuquan Li, Xu Liu, Lihui Li
Agropyron cristatum, which is a wild grass of the tribe Triticeae, grows widely in harsh environments and provides many desirable genetic resources for wheat improvement. However, unclear interspecific phylogeny and genome-wide variation has limited the utilization of A. cristatum in the production of superior wheat varieties. In this study, by sequencing the transcriptome of the representative tetraploid A. cristatum Z559 and the common wheat variety Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), which are often used as parents in a wide cross, their phylogenetic relationship and interspecific variation were dissected...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967220/tensile-strength-of-warm-and-cool-season-forage-grasses-in-florida
#19
Zwi G Weinberg, Richard Fethiere, Adegbola Adesogan, Lynn Sollenberger
The tensile strength (TS) of four warm-season and three cool-season forage grasses was measured with an Instron Universal machine, along with cell-wall analysis and determination of in vitro organic matter digestibility. The mean TS of the warm-season grasses was significantly higher than that of the cool season grasses (22 vs. 9 kg, respectively, p < .05). The concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) were significantly greater in the warm- than in the cool-season grasses (p < ...
October 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952890/physically-activated-charcoal-from-waste-and-low-cost-biomass-adsorptive-and-porosity-studies
#20
Miroslav Đ Kukučka, Nikoleta M Kukučka Stojanović
Different plant raw materials (corn stalk, wheat straw, saw dust, corn cobs, broom grass and Sudan grass) were carbonized and secondary activated in the rotating kiln with the action of water vapor as activation agent under different temperatures and lasting times. Optimum carbonization parameters such as temperature and lasting time were found to be 750°C and 45 min, while optimal conditions for powdered activated carbon obtained by water vapor activation at a temperature of 1,000 C and contact time of 120 min were determined...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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