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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216882/anticancer-potential-of-nutraceutical-formulations-in-mnu-induced-mammary-cancer-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Gummalla Pitchaiah, Annapurna Akula, Vishala Chandi
BACKGROUND: Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and 'nutraceutical formulations' have led to the new era of medicine and health. OBJECTIVE: To develop different nutraceutical formulations and to assess the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different nutraceutical formulations were prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215888/changes-in-rumen-microbiota-composition-and-in-situ-degradation-kinetics-during-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation-as-affected-by-rate-of-increase-of-concentrate-allowance
#2
K Dieho, B van den Bogert, G Henderson, A Bannink, J Ramiro-Garcia, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Changes in rumen microbiota and in situ degradation kinetics were studied in 12 rumen-cannulated Holstein Friesian dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation. The effect of a rapid (RAP) or gradual (GRAD) postpartum (pp) rate of increase of concentrate allowance was also investigated. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to a mixed ration consisting of chopped wheat straw (dry period only), grass silage, corn silage, and soybean meal. Treatment consisted of either a rapid (1.0 kg of dry matter/d; n = 6) or gradual (0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193584/empirical-calibration-of-uranium-releases-in-the-terrestrial-environment-of-nuclear-fuel-cycle-facilities
#3
Laurent Pourcelot, Olivier Masson, Lionel Saey, Sébastien Conil, Béatrice Boulet, Nicolas Cariou
In the present paper the activity of uranium isotopes measured in plants and aerosols taken downwind of the releases of three nuclear fuel settlements was compared between them and with the activity measured at remote sites. An enhancement of (238)U activity as well as (235)U/(238)U anomalies and (236)U are noticeable in wheat, grass, tree leaves and aerosols taken at the edge of nuclear fuel settlements, which show the influence of uranium chronic releases. Further plants taken at the edge of the studied sites and a few published data acquired in the same experimental conditions show that the (238)U activity in plants is influenced by the intensity of the U atmospheric releases...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178571/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-biotic-and-abiotic-stress-regulation-of-small-heat-shock-protein-hsp20-family-genes-in-bread-wheat
#4
Senthilkumar K Muthusamy, Monika Dalal, Viswanathan Chinnusamy, Kailash C Bansal
Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs)/HSP20 are molecular chaperones that protect plants by preventing protein aggregation during abiotic stress conditions, especially heat stress. Due to global climate change, high temperature is emerging as a major threat to wheat productivity. Thus, the identification of HSP20 and analysis of HSP transcriptional regulation under different abiotic stresses in wheat would help in understanding the role of these proteins in abiotic stress tolerance. We used sequences of known rice and Arabidopsis HSP20 HMM profiles as queries against publicly available wheat genome and wheat full length cDNA databases (TriFLDB) to identify the respective orthologues from wheat...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167022/differences-in-nutritional-quality-between-wild-and-domesticated-forms-of-barley-and-emmer-wheat
#5
REVIEW
Kim Henrik Hebelstrup
Grasses such as wheat and barley constitute some of the main crops currently cultivated worldwide. Cultivation of wild cereals such as Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) and Triticum diccocoides (wild emmer) started in southwest Asia. Despite the many studies on the origins of agriculture and plant domestication, surprisingly few studies have discussed the importance of the nutritional quality of barley and emmer wheat in their evolution. A comparison of domesticated forms of these cereals with their wild progenitors suggests an evolution towards bigger grains with higher glycemic loads in the form of higher relative starch content with lower relative protein, fiber and mineral contents...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145403/regulation-of-ft-splicing-by-an-endogenous-cue-in-temperate-grasses
#6
Zhengrui Qin, Jiajie Wu, Shuaifeng Geng, Nan Feng, Fengjuan Chen, Xingchen Kong, Gaoyuan Song, Kai Chen, Aili Li, Long Mao, Liang Wu
Appropriate flowering timing is crucial for plant reproductive success. The florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and the bZIP transcription factor FD, functioning at core nodes in multiple flowering pathways. There are two FT homologues, FT1 and FT2, in Brachypodium distachyon. Here we show that FT2 undergoes age-dependent alternative splicing (AS), resulting in two splice variants (FT2α and FT2β). The FT2β-encoded protein cannot interact with FD or 14-3-3s but is able to form heterodimers with FT2α and FT1, thereby interfering with the florigen-mediated assembly of the flowering initiation complex...
February 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139063/lignin-depolymerisation-and-lignocellulose-fractionation-by-solvated-electrons-in-liquid-ammonia
#7
Pepijn Prinsen, Anand Narani, Gadi Rothenberg
We explored the depolymerisation of several lignins in liquid ammonia at relatively high temperatures and pressures (120 °C and 88 bar). Five different lignins were tested: Indulin AT kraft, Protobind 1000 soda, wheat straw organosolv, poplar organosolv and elephant grass-milled wood lignin (EG MWL). In pure liquid ammonia, all lignins underwent slow incorporation of nitrogen into their structure, resulting in higher molecular weight and polydispersity index. Subsequently, we show a reductive depolymerisation by solvated electrons at room temperature by adding sodium metal to the liquid ammonia without any external hydrogen donor...
January 31, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115753/chlorophyll-and-total-phenolic-contents-antioxidant-activities-and-consumer-acceptance-test-of-processed-grass-drinks
#8
Wiwat Wangcharoen, Suthaya Phimphilai
The processed drinks produced from grass of three varieties of rice (Jasmine, Sukhothai 1 and Sukhothai 2) and one each from wheat and barley grasses were analyzed for chlorophyll and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities [ABTS radical cation decolorisation assay and ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP) assay]. The consumer acceptance of all the drinks was also evaluated. One serving size (200 mL) of these contained 82-958 μg of chlorophyll, 5.60-26.14 mg Gallic acid equivalent for total phenolic content and their antioxidant activities, ABTS and FRAP values were 17...
December 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034954/a-flowering-locus-c-homolog-is-a-vernalization-regulated-repressor-in-brachypodium-and-is-cold-regulated-in-wheat
#9
Neha Sharma, Philip Ruelens, Mariella Dhauw, Thomas Maggen, Niklas Dochy, Sanne Torfs, Kerstin Kaufmann, Antje Rohde, Koen Geuten
Winter cereals require prolonged cold to transition from vegetative to reproductive development. This process, referred to as vernalization, has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, a key flowering repressor called FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) quantitatively controls the vernalization requirement. By contrast, in cereals, the vernalization response is mainly regulated by the VERNALIZATION genes, VRN1 and VRN2. Here we characterize ODDSOC2, a recently identified FLC ortholog in monocots, for the first time knowing that it belongs to the FLC lineage...
December 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018390/emerging-technologies-for-the-production-of-renewable-liquid-transport-fuels-from-biomass-sources-enriched-in-plant-cell-walls
#10
REVIEW
Hwei-Ting Tan, Kendall R Corbin, Geoffrey B Fincher
Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986311/lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes-free-radical-transformations-during-composting-of-lignocellulosic-waste-and-biothermal-phases-in-small-scale-reactors
#11
Justyna Bohacz
Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974729/secondary-metabolites-production-and-plant-growth-promotion-by-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-and-p-aurantiaca-strains-isolated-from-cactus-cotton-and-para-grass
#12
Izzah Shahid, Muhammad Rizwan, Deeba Noreen Baig, Rahman Shahzaib Saleem, Kauser Abdullah Malik, Samina Mehnaz
Fluorescent pseudomonads have been isolated from halophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes of Pakistan. Among these, eight isolates, GS-1, GS-3, GS-4, GS-6, GS-7, FS-2 (cactus), ARS-38 (cotton) and RP-4 (para grass) showed antifungal activity and selected for detailed study. Based on biochemical tests and 16SrRNA gene sequences, these were identified as strains of P. chlororaphis subspp. chlororaphis and aurantiaca. Secondary metabolites of these strains were analyzed by LC-MS. PCA, 2-OH-PHZ, cyclic lipopeptide (WLIP) and Lahorenoic acid A were detected in variable amounts in these strains...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966731/arabinoxylan-hydrolyzates-as-immunomodulators-in-caco-2-and-ht-29-colon-cancer-cell-lines
#13
Mihiri Mendis, Estelle Leclerc, Senay Simsek
The use of plant derived polysaccharides as health promoters has gained immense interest in the past few years. Arabinoxylan (AX) is the predominant non-starch polysaccharide in cereals and grasses including wheat. The current research aimed to investigate the structure-function relationship of arabinoxylan hydrolyzates (AXH), obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of AX using xylanase and arabinofuranosidase as immunomodulators in two colon cancer cell lines: Caco-2 and HT-29. Fine structural details had a strong correlation with the immunological properties of the wheat AXH...
December 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#14
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935041/avrpm2-encodes-an-rnase-like-avirulence-effector-which-is-conserved-in-the-two-different-specialized-forms-of-wheat-and-rye-powdery-mildew-fungus
#15
Coraline R Praz, Salim Bourras, Fansong Zeng, Javier Sánchez-Martín, Fabrizio Menardo, Minfeng Xue, Lijun Yang, Stefan Roffler, Rainer Böni, Gerard Herren, Kaitlin E McNally, Roi Ben-David, Francis Parlange, Simone Oberhaensli, Simon Flückiger, Luisa K Schäfer, Thomas Wicker, Dazhao Yu, Beat Keller
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#16
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925295/parents-perceptions-are-that-their-child-s-health-related-quality-of-life-is-more-impaired-when-they-have-a-wheat-rather-than-a-grass-allergy
#17
Nora Borres, Nora Nilsson, Isabel Drake, Sigrid Sjölander, Caroline Nilsson, Gunilla Hedlin, Björn Nordlund
AIM: It is unknown whether food allergies have greater impact on quality of life than respiratory allergies. This study compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children allergic to wheat or grass. METHODS: We surveyed 63 children with wheat allergies (median age of five) and 72 with grass allergies (median age 12), with their parents. The Child Health Questionnaires for parents (CHQ-PF28) and children (CHQ-CF87) were applied. RESULTS: The parents of children in the wheat group recorded significantly lower CHQ-PF28 scores for the impact of their child's allergy on general behaviour, general health perceptions, parental impact of emotions and time and family activities, than the parents of children with grass allergies (p values ≤0...
December 7, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898900/effects-of-stocking-rate-forage-management-and-grazing-management-on-performance-and-economics-of-cow-calf-production-in-southwest-arkansas
#18
P A Beck, C B Stewart, M B Sims, M S Gadberry, J A Jennings
The objective this research was to determine the effect of application of multiple grazing management practices at 2 stocking rates (SR) on the productivity and economics of the cow-calf enterprise in the Southeastern United States over a 4-yr period. Pasture management systems included: continuous grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow; CG) without additional forage management, rotational grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow (MR) with addition of stockpiled bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] and complementary cool season annuals, and rotational grazing management similar to MR but with a high SR (0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#19
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896860/preference-of-goats-capra-hircus-l-for-tanniniferous-browse-species-available-in-semi-arid-areas-in-ethiopia
#20
G Mengistu, M Bezabih, W H Hendriks, W F Pellikaan
The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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