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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034954/a-flowering-locus-c-homolog-is-a-vernalization-regulated-repressor-in-brachypodium-and-is-cold-regulated-in-wheat
#1
Neha Sharma, Philip Ruelens, Mariella Dhauw, Thomas Maggen, Niklas Dochy, Sanne Torfs, Kerstin Kaufmann, Antje Rohde, Koen Geuten
Winter cereals require prolonged cold to transition from vegetative to reproductive development. This process, referred to as vernalization, has been extensively studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, a key flowering repressor called FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) quantitatively controls the vernalization requirement. By contrast, in cereals, the vernalization response is mainly regulated by the VERNALIZATION genes, VRN1 and VRN2. Here we characterize ODDSOC2, a recently identified FLC ortholog in monocots, for the first time knowing that it belongs to the FLC lineage...
December 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018390/emerging-technologies-for-the-production-of-renewable-liquid-transport-fuels-from-biomass-sources-enriched-in-plant-cell-walls
#2
REVIEW
Hwei-Ting Tan, Kendall R Corbin, Geoffrey B Fincher
Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986311/lignocellulose-degrading-enzymes-free-radical-transformations-during-composting-of-lignocellulosic-waste-and-biothermal-phases-in-small-scale-reactors
#3
Justyna Bohacz
Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974729/secondary-metabolites-production-and-plant-growth-promotion-by-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-and-p-aurantiaca-strains-isolated-from-cactus-cotton-and-para-grass
#4
Izzah Shahid, Muhammad Rizwan, Deeba Noreen Baig, Rahman Shahzaib Saleem, Kauser Abdullah Malik, Samina Mehnaz
Fluorescent pseudomonads have been isolated from halophytes, mesophytes and xerophytes of Pakistan. Among these, eight isolates, GS-1, GS-3, GS-4, GS-6, GS-7, FS-2 (cactus), ARS-38 (cotton) and RP-4 (para grass) showed antifungal activity and selected for detailed study. Based on biochemical tests and 16SrRNA gene sequences, these were identified as strains of P. chlororaphis subspp. chlororaphis and aurantiaca. Secondary metabolites of these strains were analyzed by LC-MS. PCA, 2-OH-PHZ, cyclic lipopeptide (WLIP) and Lahorenoic acid A were detected in variable amounts in these strains...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966731/arabinoxylan-hydrolyzates-as-immunomodulators-in-caco-2-and-ht-29-colon-cancer-cell-lines
#5
Mihiri Mendis, Estelle Leclerc, Senay Simsek
The use of plant derived polysaccharides as health promoters has gained immense interest in the past few years. Arabinoxylan (AX) is the predominant non-starch polysaccharide in cereals and grasses including wheat. The current research aimed to investigate the structure-function relationship of arabinoxylan hydrolyzates (AXH), obtained by the enzymatic hydrolysis of AX using xylanase and arabinofuranosidase as immunomodulators in two colon cancer cell lines: Caco-2 and HT-29. Fine structural details had a strong correlation with the immunological properties of the wheat AXH...
December 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959958/phylogeography-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-cephus-cinctus-norton-hymenoptera-cephidae-implications-for-pest-management
#6
Vincent Lesieur, Jean-François Martin, David K Weaver, Kim A Hoelmer, David R Smith, Wendell L Morrill, Nassera Kadiri, Frank B Peairs, Darren M Cockrell, Terri L Randolph, Debra K Waters, Marie-Claude Bon
The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935041/avrpm2-encodes-an-rnase-like-avirulence-effector-which-is-conserved-in-the-two-different-specialized-forms-of-wheat-and-rye-powdery-mildew-fungus
#7
Coraline R Praz, Salim Bourras, Fansong Zeng, Javier Sánchez-Martín, Fabrizio Menardo, Minfeng Xue, Lijun Yang, Stefan Roffler, Rainer Böni, Gerard Herren, Kaitlin E McNally, Roi Ben-David, Francis Parlange, Simone Oberhaensli, Simon Flückiger, Luisa K Schäfer, Thomas Wicker, Dazhao Yu, Beat Keller
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#8
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925295/parents-perceptions-are-that-their-child-s-health-related-quality-of-life-is-more-impaired-when-they-have-a-wheat-rather-than-a-grass-allergy
#9
Nora Borres, Nora Nilsson, Isabel Drake, Sigrid Sjölander, Caroline Nilsson, Gunilla Hedlin, Björn Nordlund
AIM: It is unknown whether food allergies have greater impact on quality of life than respiratory allergies. This study compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children allergic to wheat or grass. METHODS: We surveyed 63 children with wheat allergies (median age of five) and 72 with grass allergies (median age 12), with their parents. The Child Health Questionnaires for parents (CHQ-PF28) and children (CHQ-CF87) were applied. RESULTS: The parents of children in the wheat group recorded significantly lower CHQ-PF28 scores for the impact of their child's allergy on general behaviour, general health perceptions, parental impact of emotions and time and family activities, than the parents of children with grass allergies (p values ≤0...
December 7, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898900/effects-of-stocking-rate-forage-management-and-grazing-management-on-performance-and-economics-of-cow-calf-production-in-southwest-arkansas
#10
P A Beck, C B Stewart, M B Sims, M S Gadberry, J A Jennings
The objective this research was to determine the effect of application of multiple grazing management practices at 2 stocking rates (SR) on the productivity and economics of the cow-calf enterprise in the Southeastern United States over a 4-yr period. Pasture management systems included: continuous grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow; CG) without additional forage management, rotational grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow (MR) with addition of stockpiled bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] and complementary cool season annuals, and rotational grazing management similar to MR but with a high SR (0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#11
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896860/preference-of-goats-capra-hircus-l-for-tanniniferous-browse-species-available-in-semi-arid-areas-in-ethiopia
#12
G Mengistu, M Bezabih, W H Hendriks, W F Pellikaan
The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888547/towards-a-whole-genome-sequence-for-rye-secale-cereale-l
#13
Eva Bauer, Thomas Schmutzer, Ivan Barilar, Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Mihaela M Martis, Sven O Twardziok, Bernd Hackauf, Andres Gordillo, Peer Wilde, Malthe Schmidt, Viktor Korzun, Klaus F X Mayer, Karl Schmid, Chris-Carolin Schön, Uwe Scholz
We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe. Through whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of the 7.9 Gbp genome of the winter rye inbred line Lo7 we obtained a de novo assembly represented by 1.29 million scaffolds covering a total length of 2.8 Gbp. Our reference sequence represents nearly the entire low-copy portion of the rye genome. This genome assembly was used to predict 27,784 rye gene models based on homology to sequenced grass genomes...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876567/improvement-in-ch4-co2-ratio-and-ch4-yield-as-related-to-biomass-mix-composition-during-anaerobic-co-digestion
#14
Tjalfe G Poulsen, Laetitia Adelard, Mona Wells
Sixteen data sets (two of which were measured in this study) with a combined total of 145 measurements of ultimate methane yield (UMY) during mono- and co-digestion of ternary biomass mixtures were used to assess impact of co-digestion on the relative change in UMY (ΔUMY) as a function of biomass mix composition. The data involved 9 biomass materials (brewery spent grains, chicken manure, cow manure, fresh grass clippings, pig manure, primary sewage sludge, vegetable food waste, wheat straw, and rice straw)...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865512/the-effect-of-supplemental-concentrate-fed-during-the-dry-period-on-morphological-and-functional-aspects-of-rumen-adaptation-in-dairy-cattle-during-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#15
K Dieho, J Dijkstra, G Klop, J T Schonewille, A Bannink
Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of supplemental concentrate [3.0kg of dry matter (DM)/d] from 28d antepartum (ap) until the day of calving, whereas control did not receive supplemental concentrate. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to the dry period ration (27% grass silage, 28% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a DM basis) and, from calving onward, to a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 42% corn silage, and 16% soybean meal on a DM basis)...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863773/simulating-the-environmental-performance-of-post-harvest-management-measures-to-comply-with-the-eu-nitrates-directive
#16
J De Waele, K D'Haene, J Salomez, G Hofman, S De Neve
Nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO3(-) concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l(-1). Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775498/virulence-and-molecular-characterization-of-experimental-isolates-of-the-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-indicate-somatic-recombination
#17
Yu Lei, Meinan Wang, Anmin Wan, Chongjing Xia, Deven R See, Min Zhang, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in P. striiformis variation. To determine whether somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixed urediniospores of paired isolates of P. striiformis. Progeny isolates were selected by passing through a series of inoculations of wheat or barley genotypes. Potential recombinant isolates were compared with the parental isolates on the set of 18 wheat or 12 barley genotypes that are used to differentiate races of P...
December 30, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771583/the-characterization-of-the-adaptive-responses-of-durum-wheat-to-different-fe-availability-highlights-an-optimum-fe-requirement-threshold
#18
Silvia Celletti, Youry Pii, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Plant mechanisms responding to iron (Fe) deficiency have been widely described; it is well known that Strategy II plants, as durum wheat, cope with this stress by increasing both the synthesis and secretion of phytosiderophores (PS). The important contribution of the sulfate assimilatory pathway has been also demonstrated to improve Fe use efficiency in several grasses, such as maize, barley and wheat, most likely because PS are produced from nicotianamine, whose precursor is methionine. Here, the physiological response of durum wheat (T...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765484/sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-aegilops-tauschii-chromosome-arm-3ds-reveal-rapid-evolution-of-triticeae-genomes
#19
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742753/genetic-architecture-of-flowering-time-variation-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#20
Daniel P Woods, Ryland Bednarek, Frédéric Bouché, Sean P Gordon, John P Vogel, David F Garvin, Richard M Amasino
The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a nondomesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time...
January 2017: Plant Physiology
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