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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807084/linseed-plus-nitrate-in-the-diet-for-fattening-bulls-effects-on-methane-emission-animal-health-and-residues-in-offal
#1
M Doreau, M Arbre, M Popova, Y Rochette, C Martin
The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered...
August 15, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800691/the-landscape-model-a-model-for-exploring-trade-offs-between-agricultural-production-and-the-environment
#2
Kevin Coleman, Shibu E Muhammed, Alice E Milne, Lindsay C Todman, A Gordon Dailey, Margaret J Glendining, Andrew P Whitmore
We describe a model framework that simulates spatial and temporal interactions in agricultural landscapes and that can be used to explore trade-offs between production and environment so helping to determine solutions to the problems of sustainable food production. Here we focus on models of agricultural production, water movement and nutrient flow in a landscape. We validate these models against data from two long-term experiments, (the first a continuous wheat experiment and the other a permanent grass-land experiment) and an experiment where water and nutrient flow are measured from isolated catchments...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776783/major-structural-genomic-alterations-can-be-associated-with-hybrid-speciation-in-aegilops-markgrafii-triticeae
#3
Tatiana V Danilova, Alina R Akhunova, Eduard D Akhunov, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
During evolutionary history, many grasses from the tribe Triticeae underwent interspecific hybridization resulting in allopolyploidy, whereas homoploid hybrid speciation was found only in rye. Homoeologous chromosomes within the Triticeae preserved cross-species macrocolinearity, except for a few species with rearranged genomes. Aegilops markgrafii, a diploid wild relative of wheat (2x=2n=14), has a highly asymmetrical karyotype that is indicative of chromosome rearrangements. Molecular cytogenetics and next-generation sequencing were used to explore the genome organization...
August 4, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766148/biology-and-management-of-avena-fatua-and-avena-ludoviciana-two-noxious-weed-species-of-agro-ecosystems
#4
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Nadeem Iqbal, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Zarka Hanif, Sudheesh Manalil, Saima Hashim, Hafiz Haider Ali, Lynda Kebaso, David Frimpong, Halima Namubiru, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764290/wheatgrass-green-blood-can-help-to-fight-cancer
#5
Rucha Diwakar Gore, Sangeeta Jayant Palaskar, Anirudha Ratnadeep Bartake
INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is one of the leading causes of death especially in developing countries like India. It is usually managed with the help of chemotherapeutic agents that are toxic not only to the tumor cells but also to normal cells in many ways. Whereas the traditional herbal medicines which are used from ancient days in India are generally known to be free of toxic effects and are effective. Wheatgrass is the young grass of the wheat plant 'Tritcumaestivum Linn', family Poaceae (Gramineae)...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744298/poaceae-vs-abiotic-stress-focus-on-drought-and-salt-stress-recent-insights-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Simone Landi, Jean-Francois Hausman, Gea Guerriero, Sergio Esposito
Poaceae represent the most important group of crops susceptible to abiotic stress. This large family of monocotyledonous plants, commonly known as grasses, counts several important cultivated species, namely wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). These crops, notably, show different behaviors under abiotic stress conditions: wheat and rice are considered sensitive, showing serious yield reduction upon water scarcity and soil salinity, while barley presents a natural drought and salt tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734097/first-report-of-ser653-asn-mutation-endowing-high-level-resistance-to-imazamox-in-downy-brome-bromus-tectorum-l
#7
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688260/soil-aggregate-stability-and-size-selective-sediment-transport-with-surface-runoff-as-affected-by-organic-residue-amendment
#8
Pu Shi, Christian Arter, Xingyu Liu, Martin Keller, Rainer Schulin
Aggregate breakdown influences the availability of soil particles for size-selective sediment transport with surface runoff during erosive rainfall events. Organic matter management is known to affect aggregate stability against breakdown, but little is known about how this translates into rainfall-induced aggregate fragmentation and sediment transport under field conditions. In this study, we performed field experiments in which artificial rainfall was applied after pre-wetting on three pairs of arable soil plots (1...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664534/does-triacylglycerol-tag-serve-a-photoprotective-function-in-plant-leaves-an-examination-of-leaf-lipids-under-shading-and-drought
#9
Renée M Marchin, Tarryn L Turnbull, Audrey I Deheinzelin, Mark A Adams
Plant survival in many ecosystems requires tolerance of large radiation loads, unreliable water supply, and suboptimal soil fertility. We hypothesized that increased production of neutral lipids (triacylglycerols, TAGs) in plant leaves is a mechanism for dissipating excess radiation energy. In a greenhouse experiment, we combined drought and shade treatments and examined responses among four species differing in life form, habitat, and drought- and shade-tolerance. We also present a lipid extraction protocol suitable for sclerophyllous leaves of native Australian trees (e...
June 29, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651384/agaricus-bisporus-production-on-substrates-pasteurized-by-self-heating
#10
Stephania Colmenares-Cruz, José E Sánchez, Javier Valle-Mora
The aim of this work was to determine if the self-heating pasteurization procedure is technically applicable to the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. Firstly the substrates alone (corncob, Pangola grass and a mixture of both ingredients with wood shavings) were tested. Two supplementation trials were then undertaken using soybean, wheat bran, sheep manure, sesame seed, black bean and chia. Highest production values (BE = 176.3% and Y = 26.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained using a 9% supplement, with a formula consisting of 25% each of soybean, black bean, wheat bran and chia, added at spawning and at casing...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647905/time-dependent-leaf-proteome-alterations-of-brachypodium-distachyon-in-response-to-drought-stress
#11
Ozge Tatli, Bahar Sogutmaz Ozdemir, Gizem Dinler Doganay
For the first time, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under drought stress. Gradual changes in response to drought stress were monitored. Drought is one of the major stress factors that dramatically affect the agricultural productivity worldwide. Improving the yield under drought is an urgent challenge in agriculture. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for monocot plants such as wheat, barley and several potential biofuel grasses. In the current study, a comprehensive proteome analysis was conducted on Brachypodium leaves under different levels of drought application...
August 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622761/dated-tribe-wide-whole-chloroplast-genome-phylogeny-indicates-recurrent-hybridizations-within-triticeae
#12
Nadine Bernhardt, Jonathan Brassac, Benjamin Kilian, Frank R Blattner
BACKGROUND: Triticeae, the tribe of wheat grasses, harbours the cereals barley, rye and wheat and their wild relatives. Although economically important, relationships within the tribe are still not understood. We analysed the phylogeny of chloroplast lineages among nearly all monogenomic Triticeae taxa and polyploid wheat species aiming at a deeper understanding of the tribe's evolution. We used on- and off-target reads of a target-enrichment experiment followed by Illumina sequencing...
June 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606349/genetic-diversity-within-and-among-aecia-of-the-wheat-rust-fungus-puccinia-striiformis-on-the-alternate-host-berberis-vulgaris
#13
Julian Rodriguez-Algaba, Chris K Sørensen, Rodrigo Labouriau, Annemarie F Justesen, Mogens S Hovmøller
An isolate of the fungus Puccinia striiformis, causing yellow (stripe) rust on cereals and grasses, was selfed on the alternate (sexual) host, Berberis vulgaris. This enabled us to investigate genetic variability of progeny isolates within and among aecia. Nine aecial clusters each consisting of an aecium (single aecial cup) and nine clusters containing multiple aecial cups were selected from 18 B. vulgaris leaves. Aeciospores from each cluster were inoculated on susceptible wheat seedlings and 64 progeny isolates were recovered...
June 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605975/evaluation-of-antiproliferative-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-wheat-grass-triticum-aestivum
#14
Anand Rajoria, Archana Mehta, Pradeep Mehta, Laxmi Ahirwal, Shruti Shukla, Vivek K Bajpai
This study was aimed to evaluate the pharmacological potential of various extracts (hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous) of dried shoots of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) in terms of antiproliferative and hepatoprotective potential of T. aestivum. The total chlorophyll content in dried shoots of T. aestivum was 0.54 ± 0.016 g/L (chlorophyll-a: 0.288 ± 0.05 g/L; and chlorophyll-b; 0.305 ± 0.05 g/L), while total carotene content was 0.42 ± 0.066 g/L. In addition, the chloroform extract of dried shoots of T...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603035/evolution-of-the-mir5200-flowering-locus-t-flowering-time-regulon-in-the-temperate-grass-subfamily-pooideae
#15
Meghan McKeown, Marian Schubert, Jill C Preston, Siri Fjellheim
Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591774/host-plants-of-the-wheat-stem-sawfly-hymenoptera-cephidae
#16
Darren M Cockrell, Robert J Griffin-Nolan, Tatyana A Rand, Nuha Altilmisani, Paul J Ode, Frank Peairs
Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton) is a pest of economic importance across much of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-growing areas of the western Great Plains of North America as well as an ecologically important insect owing to its wide range of grass hosts. Little research has been published regarding the noncultivated native and invasive grasses attacked by this insect. Knowledge of the complete host range of C. cinctus can inform future research about potential new sources of genetic resistance, improve understanding of the biology and spread of natural enemies, and better define this insect's role in grassland and agricultural systems...
June 7, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544337/growth-curves-of-normal-serum-total-ige-levels-throughout-childhood-a-quantile-analysis-in-a-birth-cohort
#17
Chiara Sacco, Serena Perna, Donatella Vicari, Marco Alfò, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffman, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, i.e. with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. OBJECTIVES: To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. METHODS: The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20y...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542446/wheat-root-length-and-not-branching-is-altered-in-the-presence-of-neighbours-including-blackgrass
#18
Jessica A Finch, Gaëtan Guillaume, Stephanie A French, Renato D D R Colaço, Julia M Davies, Stéphanie M Swarbreck
The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2) can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535924/molecular-features-of-grass-allergens-and-development-of-biotechnological-approaches-for-allergy-prevention
#19
REVIEW
Deborah L Devis, Janet M Davies, Dabing Zhang
Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear...
May 20, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531850/in-situ-injection-of-potassium-hydroxide-into-briquetted-wheat-straw-and-meadow-grass-effect-on-biomethane-production
#20
Lu Feng, Veronica Moset, Wanwu Li, Chang Chen, Henrik Bjarne Møller
Alkaline pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has been intensively investigated but heavy water usage and environmental pollution from wastewater limits its industrial application. This study presents a pretreatment technique by in-situ injection of potassium hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.8% to 10% (w/w) into the briquetting process of wheat straw and meadow grass. Results show that the biomethane yield and hydrolysis rate was improved significantly with a higher impact on wheat straw compared to meadow grass...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
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