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wheat grass

Daniel M P Ardisson-Araújo, Ana Maria Rodrigues da Silva, Fernando L Melo, Ethiane Rozo Dos Santos, Daniel R Sosa-Gómez, Bergmann M Ribeiro
In this report, we described the genome of a novel baculovirus isolated from the monocot insect pest Mocis latipes , the striped grass looper. The genome has 134,272 bp in length with a G + C content of 38.3%. Based on the concatenated sequence of the 38 baculovirus core genes, we found that the virus is a betabaculovirus closely related to the noctuid-infecting betabaculoviruses including Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus (PsunGV), Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV), Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HearGV), and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV)...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Junting Jia, Pincang Zhao, Liqin Cheng, Guangxiao Yuan, Weiguang Yang, Shu Liu, Shuangyan Chen, Dongmei Qi, Gongshe Liu, Xiaoxia Li
BACKGROUND: MADS-box genes are categorized into A, B, C, D and E classes and are involved in floral organ identity and flowering. Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel) is an important perennial forage grass and adapts well to many adverse environments. However, there are few studies on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in sheepgrass, especially studies on MADS-domain proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned 11 MADS-box genes from sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin...
March 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Vittorio Filippo Nicolis, Eduard Venter
Plants respond in a similar manner to aphid feeding as to pathogen attack. Diuraphis noxia is a specialist aphid, feeding only on selected grasses that include wheat, barley, and oats. The wheat-Diuraphis noxia interaction is characterized by very similar responses as seen in wheat-pathogen interactions with none of the underlying resistance pathways and genes characterized yet. From wheat harboring the Dn1 resistance gene, we have identified a nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene containing two integrated domains (IDs)...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
J P T Lambert, H L Hicks, D Z Childs, R P Freckleton
Mapping weed densities within crops has conventionally been achieved either by detailed ecological monitoring or by field walking, both of which are time-consuming and expensive. Recent advances have resulted in increased interest in using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to map fields, aiming to reduce labour costs and increase the spatial extent of coverage. However, adoption of this technology ideally requires that mapping can be undertaken automatically and without the need for extensive ground-truthing. This approach has not been validated at large scale using UAS-derived imagery in combination with extensive ground-truth data...
February 2018: Weed Research
Ravinder K Goyal, Dan Tulpan, Nora Chomistek, Dianevys González-Peña Fundora, Connor West, Brian E Ellis, Michele Frick, André Laroche, Nora A Foroud
BACKGROUND: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is involved in signal transduction networks that underpin many different biological processes in plants, ranging from development to biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date this class of enzymes has received little attention in Triticeae species, which include important cereal crops (wheat, barley, rye and triticale) that represent over 20% of the total protein food-source worldwide. RESULTS: The work presented here focuses on two subfamilies of Triticeae MAPKs, the MAP kinases (MPKs), and the MAPK kinases (MKKs) whose members phosphorylate the MPKs...
March 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Akula Annapurna, Thonangi C Vishala, Veera R Bitra, Deepthi Rapaka, Asmath Shaik
Objective: The prime objective of this study is to evaluate the cerebroprotective actions of Triticum aestivum (wheatgrass) powder and Bauhinia purpurea flower (dev kanchan) powder against the experimentally induced global ischemia reperfusion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: In the first phase of the studies, 1 h before the surgical procedure, the Wistar rats were orally served with varied doses of wheatgrass powder (5, 10, 30, and 100 μg/kg) and Bauhinia flower powder (30, 100, 200, and 300 μg/kg), respectively...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Sophie Comtet-Marre, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Ourdia Bouzid, Pascale Mosoni, Ali R Bayat, Pierre Peyret, Evelyne Forano
Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre Gladieux, Bradford Condon, Sebastien Ravel, Darren Soanes, Joao Leodato Nunes Maciel, Antonio Nhani, Li Chen, Ryohei Terauchi, Marc-Henri Lebrun, Didier Tharreau, Thomas Mitchell, Kerry F Pedley, Barbara Valent, Nicholas J Talbot, Mark Farman, Elisabeth Fournier
Delineating species and epidemic lineages in fungal plant pathogens is critical to our understanding of disease emergence and the structure of fungal biodiversity and also informs international regulatory decisions. Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae ) is a multihost pathogen that infects multiple grasses and cereals, is responsible for the most damaging rice disease (rice blast), and is of growing concern due to the recent introduction of wheat blast to Bangladesh from South America. However, the genetic structure and evolutionary history of M...
February 27, 2018: MBio
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Máximo Lorenzo, Marcela L Pinedo, María A Equiza, Paula V Fernández, Marina Ciancia, Darío G Ganem, Jorge A Tognetti
Temperate grasses, such as wheat, become compact plants with small, thick leaves after exposure to low temperature. These responses are associated with cold hardiness, but their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we analyze the effects of low temperature on leaf morpho-anatomical structure, cell wall composition and the activity of extracellular peroxidases, which play key roles on cell elongation and cell wall thickening, in two wheat cultivars with contrasting cold-hardening abilities. A combined microscopic and biochemical approach was applied to study actively growing leaves of winter (ProINTA-Pincén) and spring (Buck-Patacón) wheat developed under constant warm (25 °C) or low (5 °C) temperature...
February 14, 2018: Plant Biology
Zheyong Xue, Xia Xu, Yuan Zhou, Xiaoning Wang, Yingchun Zhang, Dan Liu, Binbin Zhao, Lixin Duan, Xiaoquan Qi
In flowering plants, the pollen coat protects the released male germ cells from desiccation and damage during pollination. However, we know little about the mechanism by which the chemical composition of the pollen coat prevents dehydration of pollen grains. Here we report that deficiency of a grass conserved triterpene synthase, OsOSC12/OsPTS1, in rice leads to failure of pollen coat formation. The mutant plants are male sterile at low relative humidity (RH < 60%), but fully male fertile at high relative humidity (>80%)...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Fan Zhu
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of oligomeric flavonoids found in a variety of plant foods. Intake of PAs in human diet has been associated with a reduced occurrence of various chronic disorders. Cereal and pseudocereal grains are staple food items. Grain genotypes containing PAs can be developed as functional foods to efficiently improve human health. This review summarises the occurrence of PAs in diverse grains, including rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, millets, buckwheat, and some forage grasses. Great diversity in PA structure and composition has been recorded...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Yinjia Li, Sheng Zuo, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Jinlei Han, Zhaoqing Chu, Robert Hasterok, Kai Wang
Brachypodium distachyon is a well-established model monocot plant and its small and compact genome has been used as an accurate reference for the much larger and often polyploid genomes of cereals such as wheat, oats and barley. Centromeres are indispensable functional units of chromosomes and they play a core role in genome polyploidization events during evolution. Since the Brachypodium genus contains about 20 species that differ significantly in terms of their basic chromosome numbers, genome size, ploidy levels and life strategies, studying their centromeres may provide important insight into the structure and evolution of the genome in this interesting and important genus...
January 30, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Awais Rasheed, Francis C Ogbonnaya, Evans Lagudah, Rudi Appels, Zhonghu He
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Plants
Tomas Smejkal, Shuji Hachisu, James N Scutt, Nigel J Willetts, Danielle Sayer, Laura Wildsmith, Sophie Oliver, Caroline Thompson, Michel Muehlebach
Novel 2-aryl-cyclic-1,3-diones containing a 5-methoxy-[1,2,5]triazepane unit were explored towards an effective and wheat safe control of grass weeds. Their preparation builds on the ease of synthetic access to 7-membered heterocyclic [1,2,5]triazepane building blocks. Substitution and pattern hopping in the phenyl moiety revealed structure-activity relationships in good agreement with previously disclosed observations amongst the pinoxaden family of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. In light of basic physicochemical, enzyme inhibitory and binding site properties, the N-methoxy functionality effectively acts as a bioisostere of the ether group in the seven-membered hydrazine ring...
December 20, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
A N Brown, G Ferreira, C L Teets, W E Thomason, C D Teutsch
In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Eshagh Keshtkar, Solvejg K Mathiassen, Per Kudsk
Attention should be devoted to weeds evolving herbicide resistance with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to their unpredictable resistance patterns. Quantification of fitness cost can be used in NTSR management strategies to determine the long-term fate of resistant plants in weed populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating potential fecundity and vegetative fitness of a NTSR black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds), the most important herbicide resistant weed in Europe, with controlled genetic background...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
E D Badaeva, A S Ruban, A A Shishkina, S N Sibikeev, A E Druzhin, S A Surzhikov, A Yu Dragovich
Aegilops columnaris is a tetraploid species originated from Ae. umbellulata (2n=2x=14, UU) and a yet unknown diploid grass species. Although Ae. columnaris possesses some agronomically valuable traits, such as heat and drought tolerance and resistance to pests, it has never been used in wheat breeding because of difficulties in producing hybrids and a lack of information on the relationships between Ae. columnaris and common wheat chromosomes. In this paper, we report the development of 57 wheat - Ae. columnaris introgressive lines covering 8 of the14 chromosomes of Aegilops...
February 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Umar M Quraishi, Caroline Pont, Qurat-Ul Ain, Raphael Flores, Laura Burlot, Michael Alaux, Hadi Quesneville, Jerome Salse
The high resolution integration of bread wheat genetic and genomic resources accumulated during the last decades offers the opportunity to unveil candidate genes driving major agronomical traits to an unprecedented scale. We combined 27 public quantitative genetic studies and four genetic maps to deliver an exhaustive consensus map consisting of 140,315 molecular markers hosting 221, 73, and 82 Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for respectively yield, baking quality, and grain protein content (GPC) related traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
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