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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932939/plant-defense-and-herbivore-counter-defense-benzoxazinoids-and-insect-herbivores
#1
REVIEW
Felipe C Wouters, Blair Blanchette, Jonathan Gershenzon, Daniel G Vassão
Benzoxazinoids are a class of indole-derived plant chemical defenses comprising compounds with a 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one skeleton and their derivatives. These phytochemicals are widespread in grasses, including important cereal crops such as maize, wheat and rye, as well as a few dicot species, and display a wide range of antifeedant, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and allelopathic activities. Although their overall effects against insect herbivores are frequently reported, much less is known about how their modes of action specifically influence insect physiology...
2016: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925295/parents-perceptions-are-that-their-child-s-health-related-quality-of-life-is-more-impaired-when-they-have-a-wheat-rather-than-a-grass-allergy
#2
Nora Borres, Nora Nilsson, Isabel Drake, Sigrid Sjölander, Caroline Nilsson, Gunilla Hedlin, Björn Nordlund
AIM: It is unknown whether food allergies have greater impact on quality of life than respiratory allergies. This study compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children allergic to wheat or grass. METHODS: We surveyed 63 children with wheat allergies (median age of five) and 72 with grass allergies (median age 12), with their parents. The Child Health Questionnaires for parents (CHQ-PF28) and children (CHQ-CF87) were applied. RESULTS: The parents of children in the wheat group recorded significantly lower CHQ-PF28 scores for the impact of their child's allergy on general behaviour, general health perceptions, parental impact of emotions and time and family activities, than the parents of children with grass allergies (p values <0...
December 7, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898900/effects-of-stocking-rate-forage-management-and-grazing-management-on-performance-and-economics-of-cow-calf-production-in-southwest-arkansas
#3
P A Beck, C B Stewart, M B Sims, M S Gadberry, J A Jennings
The objective this research was to determine the effect of application of multiple grazing management practices at 2 stocking rates (SR) on the productivity and economics of the cow-calf enterprise in the Southeastern United States over a 4-yr period. Pasture management systems included: continuous grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow; CG) without additional forage management, rotational grazing management at a moderate SR (0.8 ha/cow (MR) with addition of stockpiled bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] and complementary cool season annuals, and rotational grazing management similar to MR but with a high SR (0...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898828/population-structure-in-the-model-grass-is-highly-correlated-with-flowering-differences-across-broad-geographic-areas
#4
Ludmila Tyler, Scott J Lee, Nelson D Young, Gregory A DeIulio, Elena Benavente, Michael Reagon, Jessica Sysopha, Riccardo M Baldini, Angelo Troìa, Samuel P Hazen, Ana L Caicedo
The small, annual grass (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L.) and barley ( L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896860/preference-of-goats-capra-hircus-l-for-tanniniferous-browse-species-available-in-semi-arid-areas-in-ethiopia
#5
G Mengistu, M Bezabih, W H Hendriks, W F Pellikaan
The objectives were to determine browse species preference of goats using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy, to compare preference when offered in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and to establish relationships between browse species intake and chemical compositional data. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days, were conducted using four local mature male goats of 2-2...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888547/towards-a-whole-genome-sequence-for-rye-secale-cereale-l
#6
Eva Bauer, Thomas Schmutzer, Ivan Barilar, Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Mihaela M Martis, Sven O Twardziok, Bernd Hackauf, Andres Gordillo, Peer Wilde, Malthe Schmidt, Viktor Korzun, Klaus F X Mayer, Karl Schmid, Chris-Carolin Schön, Uwe Scholz
We report on a whole-genome draft sequence of rye (Secale cereale L.). Rye is a diploid Triticeae species closely related to wheat and barley and an important crop for food and feed in Central and Eastern Europe. Through whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing of the 7.9 Gbp genome of the winter rye inbred line Lo7 we obtained a de novo assembly represented by 1.29 million scaffolds covering a total length of 2.8 Gbp. Our reference sequence represents nearly the entire low-copy portion of the rye genome. This genome assembly was used to predict 27,784 rye gene models based on homology to sequenced grass genomes...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876567/improvement-in-ch4-co2-ratio-and-ch4-yield-as-related-to-biomass-mix-composition-during-anaerobic-co-digestion
#7
Tjalfe G Poulsen, Laetitia Adelard, Mona Wells
Sixteen data sets (two of which were measured in this study) with a combined total of 145 measurements of ultimate methane yield (UMY) during mono- and co-digestion of ternary biomass mixtures were used to assess impact of co-digestion on the relative change in UMY (ΔUMY) as a function of biomass mix composition. The data involved 9 biomass materials (brewery spent grains, chicken manure, cow manure, fresh grass clippings, pig manure, primary sewage sludge, vegetable food waste, wheat straw, and rice straw)...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865512/the-effect-of-supplemental-concentrate-fed-during-the-dry-period-on-morphological-and-functional-aspects-of-rumen-adaptation-in-dairy-cattle-during-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#8
K Dieho, J Dijkstra, G Klop, J T Schonewille, A Bannink
Ten rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows were used to examine the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the dry period on rumen papillae morphology and fractional absorption rate (ka) of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during the dry period and subsequent lactation. Treatment consisted of supplemental concentrate [3.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] from 28 d antepartum (ap) until the day of calving, whereas control did not receive supplemental concentrate. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake and had free access to the dry period ration (27% grass silage, 28% corn silage, 35% wheat straw, and 11% soybean meal on a DM basis) and, from calving onward, to a basal lactation ration (42% grass silage, 42% corn silage, and 16% soybean meal on a DM basis)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863773/simulating-the-environmental-performance-of-post-harvest-management-measures-to-comply-with-the-eu-nitrates-directive
#9
J De Waele, K D'Haene, J Salomez, G Hofman, S De Neve
Nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO3(-) concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l(-1). Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775498/virulence-and-molecular-characterization-of-experimental-isolates-of-the-stripe-rust-pathogen-puccinia-striiformis-indicate-somatic-recombination
#10
Yu Lei, Meinan Wang, Anmin Wan, Chongjing Xia, Deven R See, Min Zhang, Xianming Chen
Puccinia striiformis causes stripe rust on wheat, barley, and grasses. Natural population studies have indicated that somatic recombination plays a possible role in P. striiformis variation. To determine if somatic recombination can occur, susceptible wheat or barley plants were inoculated with mixed urediniospores of paired isolates of P. striiformis. Progeny isolates were selected by passing through a series of inoculations of wheat or barley genotypes. Potential recombinant isolates were compared with the parental isolates on the set of 18 wheat and/or 12 barley genotypes that are used to differentiate races of P...
October 24, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771583/the-characterization-of-the-adaptive-responses-of-durum-wheat-to-different-fe-availability-highlights-an-optimum-fe-requirement-threshold
#11
Silvia Celletti, Youry Pii, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Plant mechanisms responding to iron (Fe) deficiency have been widely described; it is well known that Strategy II plants, as durum wheat, cope with this stress by increasing both the synthesis and secretion of phytosiderophores (PS). The important contribution of the sulfate assimilatory pathway has been also demonstrated to improve Fe use efficiency in several grasses, such as maize, barley and wheat, most likely because PS are produced from nicotianamine, whose precursor is methionine. Here, the physiological response of durum wheat (T...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765484/sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-aegilops-tauschii-chromosome-arm-3ds-reveal-rapid-evolution-of-triticeae-genomes
#12
Jingzhong Xie, Naxin Huo, Shenghui Zhou, Yi Wang, Guanghao Guo, Karin R Deal, Shuhong Ouyang, Yong Liang, Zhenzhong Wang, Lichan Xiao, Tingting Zhu, Tiezhu Hu, Vijay Tiwari, Jianwei Zhang, Hongxia Li, Zhongfu Ni, Yingyin Yao, Huiru Peng, Shengli Zhang, Olin D Anderson, Patrick E McGuire, Jan Dvorak, Ming-Cheng Luo, Zhiyong Liu, Yong Q Gu, Qixin Sun
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is an allohexaploid species derived from two rounds of interspecific hybridizations. A high-quality genome sequence assembly of diploid Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, will provide a useful platform to study polyploid wheat evolution. A combined approach of BAC pooling and next-generation sequencing technology was employed to sequence the minimum tiling path (MTP) of 3176 BAC clones from the short arm of Ae. tauschii chromosome 3 (At3DS). The final assembly of 135 super-scaffolds with an N50 of 4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742753/genetic-architecture-of-flowering-time-variation-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#13
Daniel Woods, Ryland Bednarek, Frédéric Bouché, Sean Gordon, John P Vogel, David F Garvin, Richard M Amasino
The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a non-domesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat and barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time...
October 14, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729435/recurrence-of-chromosome-rearrangements-and-reuse-of-dna-breakpoints-in-the-evolution-of-the-triticeae-genomes
#14
Wanlong Li, Ghana S Challa, Huilan Zhu, Wenjie Wei
Chromosomal rearrangements (CRs) play important roles in karyotype diversity and speciation. While many CR breakpoints have been characterized at the sequence level in yeast, insects and primates, little is known about the structure of evolutionary CR breakpoints in plant genomes, which are much more dynamic in genome size and sequence organization. Here, we report identification of breakpoints of a translocation between chromosome arms 4L and 5L of Triticeae, which is fixed in several species including diploid wheat and rye, by comparative mapping and comparative analysis of the draft genome and chromosome survey sequences of the Triticeae species...
October 11, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696289/optimization-of-substrate-preparation-for-oyster-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus-cultivation-by-studying-different-raw-materials-and-substrate-preparation-conditions-composting-phases-i-and-ii
#15
Fabrício Rocha Vieira, Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade
In recent years, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) has become one of the most cultivated mushrooms in the world, mainly in Brazil. Among many factors involved in a mushroom production, substrate preparation is the most critical step, which can be influenced by composting management techniques. Looking forward to optimizing the substrate preparation process, were tested different composting conditions (7 and 14 days of composting with or without conditioning), potential raw materials (decumbens grass, brizantha grass and sugarcane straw) and nitrogen supplementation (with or without wheat bran) on oyster mushroom yield and biological efficiency (BE)...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677813/climate-change-is-projected-to-outpace-rates-of-niche-change-in-grasses
#16
F Alice Cang, Ashley A Wilson, John J Wiens
Climate change may soon threaten much of global biodiversity, especially if species cannot adapt to changing climatic conditions quickly enough. A critical question is how quickly climatic niches change, and if this speed is sufficient to prevent extinction as climates warm. Here, we address this question in the grass family (Poaceae). Grasses are fundamental to one of Earth's most widespread biomes (grasslands), and provide roughly half of all calories consumed by humans (including wheat, rice, corn and sorghum)...
September 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650474/simple-and-robust-methods-for-remote-sensing-of-canopy-chlorophyll-content-a-comparative-analysis-of-hyperspectral-data-for-different-types-of-vegetation
#17
Yoshio Inoue, Martine Guérif, Frédéric Baret, Andrew Skidmore, Anatoly Gitelson, Martin Schlerf, Roshanak Darvishzadeh, Albert Olioso
Canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) is an essential ecophysiological variable for photosynthetic functioning. Remote sensing of CCC is vital for a wide range of ecological and agricultural applications. The objectives of this study were to explore simple and robust algorithms for spectral assessment of CCC. Hyperspectral datasets for six vegetation types (rice, wheat, corn, soybean, sugar beet and natural grass) acquired in four locations (Japan, France, Italy and USA) were analysed. To explore the best predictive model, spectral index approaches using the entire wavebands and multivariable regression approaches were employed...
September 21, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599761/dna-transposon-activity-is-associated-with-increased-mutation-rates-in-genes-of-rice-and-other-grasses
#18
Thomas Wicker, Yeisoo Yu, Georg Haberer, Klaus F X Mayer, Pradeep Reddy Marri, Steve Rounsley, Mingsheng Chen, Andrea Zuccolo, Olivier Panaud, Rod A Wing, Stefan Roffler
DNA (class 2) transposons are mobile genetic elements which move within their 'host' genome through excising and re-inserting elsewhere. Although the rice genome contains tens of thousands of such elements, their actual role in evolution is still unclear. Analysing over 650 transposon polymorphisms in the rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, we find that DNA repair following transposon excisions is associated with an increased number of mutations in the sequences neighbouring the transposon. Indeed, the 3,000 bp flanking the excised transposons can contain over 10 times more mutations than the genome-wide average...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570542/functional-characterization-of-the-native-swollenin-from-trichoderma-reesei-study-of-its-possible-role-as-c1-factor-of-enzymatic-lignocellulose-conversion
#19
Manuel Eibinger, Karin Sigl, Jürgen Sattelkow, Thomas Ganner, Jonas Ramoni, Bernhard Seiboth, Harald Plank, Bernd Nidetzky
BACKGROUND: Through binding to cellulose, expansin-like proteins are thought to loosen the structural order of crystalline surface material, thus making it more accessible for degradation by hydrolytic enzymes. Swollenin SWO1 is the major expansin-like protein from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a recombinant native form of SWO1 with respect to its possible auxiliary role in the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrates...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511162/c-banding-of-plant-chromosomes
#20
Eric N Jellen
C-banding is used to differentially stain metaphase chromosomes in organisms having appreciable amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. Its primary benefits are that it is an inexpensive and a relatively fast method of identifying individual chromosomes and morphological or karyotypic variation, including large chromosomal rearrangements and aneuploidies. We currently employ this technique with considerable effect in genome analysis of oat (Avena sativa) and related grass species, though it has been most extensively used for chromosome analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its relatives of the Triticeae...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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