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bee pollen

Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
Shanshan Li, Guang Yang, Jingmin Yan, Di Wu, Yu Hou, Qiyu Diao, Yifa Zhou
From the bee pollen of Nelumbo nucifera, we used hot water extraction and chromatographic fractionation on DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B to purify polysaccharides (WNPP) to homogeneity. WNPP-2-RG (3.8 × 105 Da) consisted primarily of Rha (11.5%), GalA (12.0%), Gal (41.2%) and Ara (29.7%). Structure analysis showed that this polysaccharide is a RG-I type pectin containing AG-I and AG-II side chains comprised of 1,5-L-Ara (25.6%), t-D-Gal (12.0%), and 1,6-D-Gal (18.3%) as the primary linkage types...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ciro Invernizzi, Enrique Nogueira, Pablo Juri, Estela Santos, Daniela Arredondo, Belén Branchiccela, Yamandú Mendoza, Karina Antúnez
For more than 60 years, sporadic cases of massive summer honey bee larvae mortality in colonies located near freshwater systems with abundant riparian vegetation have been reported in Uruguay. This odd phenomenon, known as "River disease" by beekeepers, can lead to colony death by depopulation. The aim of this study was to detect the causes of larvae death. Different experiments and analyses were performed using affected apiaries located between two important water courses. 1 day old larvae were the most susceptible and substances that killed the larvae were present in the nectar but not in the pollen...
2018: PloS One
Wangting Zhou, Yamei Yan, Jia Mi, Hongcheng Zhang, Lu Lu, Qing Luo, Xiaoying Li, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong Cao
Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS was mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38: 0.09: 0.17: 0.64: 0.22: 0.67: 0.08: 1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Susan W Nicolson, Susana Da Silva Das Neves, Hannelie Human, Christian W W Pirk
Pollen, the main protein source for honey bees, is mixed with regurgitated nectar or honey during collection and then stored as 'bee bread' before its consumption, mainly by young nurse workers. It has been suggested that storage of pollen improves its nutritional value and digestibility, but there is little evidence for such changes. We fed two fresh pollen types of different protein content (aloe and sunflower), and two stored pollen types (sunflower and a mixed pollen), to young caged worker bees. We measured daily consumption of pollen and sucrose solution, and survival after 14 days...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jordan D Phelps, Caroline G Strang, Malgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Tomasz Sniegocki, Andrzej Posyniak, David F Sherry
Bee pollination is economically and ecologically vital and recent declines in bee populations are therefore a concern. One possible cause of bee declines is pesticide use. Bumblebees exposed to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, have been shown to be less efficient foragers and collect less pollen on foraging trips than unexposed bees. We investigated whether bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) chronically exposed to imidacloprid at field-realistic levels of 2.6 and 10 ppb showed learning deficits that could affect foraging...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Anna Rzepecka-Stojko, Jerzy Stojko, Krzysztof Jasik, Ewa Buszman
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of polyphenol-rich ethanol extract of bee pollen (EEP) on atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet in ApoE-knockout mice. EEP was given with feed in two doses of 0.1 and 1 g/kg body mass (BM). The studies have been conducted in a period of 16 weeks. The following factors were estimated: total cholesterol (TC), oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (ANG II) in the 5th, 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th week of the experiment...
December 18, 2017: Nutrients
Andreas Müller, Terry Griswold
Haetosmia is a species-poor genus of osmiine bees (Megachilidae) containing six species, which inhabit deserts and semideserts from the Canary Islands to Central Asia. Formerly considered to be restricted to the southern Palaearctic region, the genus is shown here to occur also in the northern Afrotropical region. The females of all six Haetosmia species collect pollen from the narrow-tubed flowers of Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) with the aid of specialized pollen-harvesting bristles on the proboscis. Current knowledge suggests that Haetosmia species are restricted to sandy habitats, excavate their nests in the ground and use chewed leaves to construct their urn-shaped brood cells, which are placed side by side in an enlarged chamber at the end of the nesting burrow...
November 29, 2017: Zootaxa
Judy Wu-Smart, Marla Spivak
Neonicotinoids are highly toxic to insects and may systemically translocate to nectar and pollen of plants where foraging bees may become exposed. Exposure to neonicotinoids can induce detrimental sublethal effects on individual and colonies of bees and may have long-term impacts, such as impaired foraging, reduced longevity, and reduced brood care or production. Less well-studied are the potential effects on queen bumble bees that may become exposed while foraging in the spring during colony initiation. This study assessed queen survival and nest founding in caged bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)] after chronic (18-d) dietary exposure of imidacloprid in syrup (1, 5, 10, and 25 ppb) and pollen (0...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
Vincent Piou, Jérémy Tabart, Jean-Louis Hemptinne, Angélique Vétillard
As the main source of lipids and proteins in honey bees, pollen is a major nutrient provider involved in development and health and has been studied for tolerance stimulation against pathogens and parasites. In the case of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari, Mesostigmata: Varroidae) parasitization, the lack of a complete laboratory system to rear both the bee larva and the acarian parasite limited the studies concerning larval nutrition effects on the bee tolerance and resistance against varroatosis...
December 11, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Bożena Tyliszczak, Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudłacik-Kramarczyk, Beata Grabowska, Magdalena Kędzierska
Currently, increasing attention is being paid to issues related to environmental protection, waste management, as well as to the development of polymers with useful properties. The research presented here involved preparation of hydrogels based on Beetosan® - a chitosan derived from the multi-stage processing of dead bees. Moreover, hydrogels were additionally modified with natural substances - i.e. bee pollen and extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) that are well known for the presence of many compounds with beneficial properties from a medical point of view...
December 10, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Alexander Chautá, Susan Whitehead, Marisol Amaya-Márquez, Katja Poveda
Plant responses induced by herbivore damage can provide fitness benefits, but can also have important costs due to altered interactions with mutualist pollinators. We examined the effects of plant responses to herbivory in a hummingbird-pollinated distylous shrub, Palicourea angustifolia. Through a series of field experiments we investigated whether damage from foliar herbivores leads to a reduction in fruit set, influences floral visitation, or alters floral traits that may influence pollinator preference or pollinator efficiency...
2017: PloS One
Camille Madec
Is variation in pollen-related floral traits linked to variation in the composition and abundance of pollinators present in an area? Parker et al. (2017) found that, in the wildflower Claytonia virginica, pollen release by anthers was slower and more staggered at northern sites dominated by a pollen-foraging bee than at southern sites where the main pollinator is a nectar-collecting bee fly. Their findings suggest that C. virginica populations may be adapted to their local pollinator environment. This article is protected by copyright...
December 6, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Cheng-Chen Pan, Hao Qu, Qi Feng, Lin-De Liu, Ha-Lin Zhao, Yu-Lin Li, Yu-Qiang Li, Tong-Hui Zhang, Xin-Ping Liu
Evaluations of restoration success usually focus on the structural aspects of ecosystems. Pollination, as an important functional aspect, is often overlooked. Here, the shifts in pollinator assemblage and pollen limitation in the desert shrub Caragana microphylla were examined along a restoration gradient in Horqin Sand Land, northern China. We identified seven species of bees; however, only four bee species were found to be effective pollinators, with Xanthosaurus remota dominating in the fixed dunes, and with no bee species or only a single species, X...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lilia I de Guzman, Amanda M Frake, Michael Simone-Finstrom
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees...
November 29, 2017: Insects
Meryem Bakour, Noori S Al-Waili, Nawal El Menyiy, Hamada Imtara, Anna Cristina Figuira, Thia Al-Waili, Badiaa Lyoussi
Aluminum toxicity might be related to oxidative stress, and the antioxidant activity and protective effect of bee bread, which contains pollen, honey and bees' enzymes, on aluminum induced blood and hepato-renal toxicity was investigated in rats. Chemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of bee bread were conducted. The animal experiment in rats included; group 1: received distilled water (10 ml/kg b.wt), group 2: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b.wt), group 3: received aluminum chloride (662.2 mg/kg b...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Maxime Drossart, Denis Michez, Maryse Vanderplanck
It is now well established that invasive plants may induce drifts in the quantity and/or quality of floral resources. They are then often pointed out as a potential driver of bee decline. However, their impact on bee population remains quite unclear and still controversial, as bee responses are highly variable among species. Here, we compared the amino acid composition of pollen from three native and two invasive plant species included in diets of common pollinators in NW Europe. Moreover, the nutritional intake (i...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Emma N I Weeks, Daniel R Schmehl, Julie Baniszewski, Hudson V V Tomé, James P Cuda, James D Ellis, Bruce R Stevens
Methionine is an essential/indispensible amino acid nutrient required by adult and larval honey bees (Apis mellifera L. [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). Bees are unable to rear broods on pollen deficient in methionine, and reportedly behaviorally avoid collecting pollen or nectar from florets deficient in methioinine. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that methionine is toxic to certain pest insects; thus it has been proposed as an effective biopesticide. As an ecofriendly integrated pest management agent, methionine boasts a novel mode of action differentiating it from conventional pesticides, while providing non-target safety...
November 23, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ling-Hsiu Liao, Wen-Yen Wu, May R Berenbaum
While the natural foods of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) contain diverse phytochemicals, in contemporary agroecosystems honey bees also encounter pesticides as floral tissue contaminants. Whereas some ubiquitous phytochemicals in bee foods up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes, thereby benefiting nestmates, many agrochemical pesticides adversely affect bee health even at sublethal levels. How honey bees assess xenobiotic risk to nestmates as they forage is poorly understood. Accordingly, we tested nine phytochemicals ubiquitous in nectar, pollen, or propolis, as well as five synthetic xenobiotics that frequently contaminate hives-two herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) and three fungicides (boscalid, chlorothalonil, and prochloraz)...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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