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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#1
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701955/therapeutic-properties-of-bioactive-compounds-from-different-honeybee-products
#2
REVIEW
Laura Cornara, Marco Biagi, Jianbo Xiao, Bruno Burlando
Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized. Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701074/pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-floral-honeys-of-tropical-ghana-and-health-risk-assessment
#3
Emmanuel Letsyo, Gerold Jerz, Peter Winterhalter, Arne Dübecke, Werner von der Ohe, Katharina von der Ohe, Till Beuerle
There is a vast amount of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey as a result of its numerous benefits. However, honeys have been found to be contaminated with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) on account of bees foraging on PA containing plants. This study deals with the analysis of PAs in tropical honeys emanating from different agro-ecological zones of Ghana in order to assess its potential health risk. PAs of 48 honey samples were analysed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS...
July 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698790/sequential-stamen-maturation-and-movement-in-a-protandrous-herb-mechanisms-increasing-pollination-efficiency-and-reducing-sexual-interference
#4
Chang-Long Xiao, Hui Deng, Gan-Ju Xiang, Kadiori Edwin Luguba, You-Hao Guo, Chun-Feng Yang
Successive stamen movement directly controls pollen presentation schedules through sequential stamen maturation and changes the extent of herkogamy by altering the positions of sexual organs. However, the implications of such movements in terms of pollination are not well understood. Pollen presentation theory predicts that staggered pollen presentation should be favoured when plants are subject to diminishing returns on pollen transfer. Herkogamy on the other hand, has been interpreted as an adaptive trait that reduces sexual interference in hermaphrodite flowers...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690934/studying-plant-pollinator-interactions-facing-climate-change-and-changing-environments
#5
Diane L Byers, Shu-Mei Chang
Plant-pollinator interactions are essential for successful plant reproduction in both natural and agricultural systems. These interactions are negatively impacted by recent large-scale alterations of the environments, particularly climate change. The responses of plants and pollinators to changing abiotic conditions that vary seasonally and geographically are often uncoordinated, potentially leading to the breakdown of this interaction. The complexity of the responses of plants and pollinators to our changing climate necessitates creative approaches...
June 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690929/applying-pollen-dna-metabarcoding-to-the-study-of-plant-pollinator-interactions
#6
Karen L Bell, Julie Fowler, Kevin S Burgess, Emily K Dobbs, David Gruenewald, Brice Lawley, Connor Morozumi, Berry J Brosi
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: To study pollination networks in a changing environment, we need accurate, high-throughput methods. Previous studies have shown that more highly resolved networks can be constructed by studying pollen loads taken from bees, relative to field observations. DNA metabarcoding potentially allows for faster and finer-scale taxonomic resolution of pollen compared to traditional approaches (e.g., light microscopy), but has not been applied to pollination networks. METHODS: We sampled pollen from 38 bee species collected in Florida from sites differing in forest management...
June 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688300/herbicide-and-insect-resistant-bt-cotton-pollen-assessment-finds-no-detrimental-effects-on-adult-honey-bees
#7
Lin Niu, Weihua Ma, Chaoliang Lei, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes, Lizhen Chen
One important concern regarding the use of transgenic cotton expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is its potential detrimental effect on non-target organisms. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most important pollinator species worldwide and it is directly exposed to transgenic crops by the consumption of genetically modified (GM) pollen. However, the potential effects of Bt cotton on A. mellifera remain unclear. In the present study, we assessed the effects of two Bt cotton varieties; ZMSJ expressing the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins, and ZMKCKC producing Cry1Ac and EPSPS, on A...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679151/non-target-evaluation-of-contaminants-in-honey-bees-and-pollen-samples-by-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#8
E Hakme, A Lozano, M M Gómez-Ramos, M D Hernando, A R Fernández-Alba
This work presents a non-targeted screening approach for the detection and quantitation of contaminants in bees and pollen, collected from the same hive, by GC-EI-ToF-MS. It consists of a spectral library datasets search using a compound database followed by a manual investigation and analytical standard confirmation together with semi-quantitation purposes. Over 20% of the compounds found automatically by the library search could not be confirmed manually. This number of false positive detections was mainly a consequence of an inadequate ion ratio criterion (±30%), not considered in the automatic searching procedure...
June 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665769/lack-of-evidence-for-microplastic-contamination-in-honey
#9
Peter Mühlschlegel, Armin Hauk, Ulrich Walter, Robert Sieber
Honey samples from Switzerland were investigated with regard to their microplastic particle burden. Five representative honey samples of different origin were processed following a standardized protocol to separate plastic-based microparticles from particles of natural origin, such as pollen, propolis, wax, and bee-related debris. The procedure was optimized to minimize post-sampling microplastic cross-contamination in the laboratory. The isolated microplastic particles were characterized and grouped by means of light microscopy as well as chemically characterized by microscopically coupled Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
July 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663709/comparative-study-on-the-dynamics-and-performances-of-apis-mellifera-jemenitica-and-imported-hybrid-honeybee-colonies-in-southwestern-saudi-arabia
#10
Ahmad A Al-Ghamdi, Nuru Adgaba, Yilma Tadesse, Awraris Getachew, Anwer A Al-Maktary
The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663704/food-for-honeybees-pollinators-and-seed-set-of-anthyllis-barba-jovis-l-fabaceae-in-arid-coastal-areas-of-the-mediterranean-basin
#11
Giovanni Benelli, Stefano Benvenuti, Pier Luigi Scaramozzino, Angelo Canale
Abundance and diversity of insect pollinators are declining in many ecosystems worldwide. The abundance and diversity of wild and managed bees are related to the availability of continuous floral resources. In particular, in Mediterranean basin countries, the presence of wildflower spots enhances the establishment of social Apoidea, since coastal regions are usually characterized by pollen and nectar shortage in early spring and late summer. Anthyllis barba-jovis produces both nectar and pollen as important food source for bees helping them to overcome early spring period food shortage...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651381/meta-barcoding-in-combination-with-palynological-inference-is-a-potent-diagnostic-marker-for-honey-floral-composition
#12
Rama Chandra Laha, Surajit De Mandal, Lalhmanghai Ralte, Laldinfeli Ralte, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian, Ramalingam Satishkumar, Raja Mugasimangalam, Nagesh Aswathnarayana Kuravadi
Identification of floral samples present in honey is important in order to determine the medicinal value, enhance the production of honey as well as to conserve the honey bees. Traditional approaches for studying pollen samples are based on microscopic observation which is laborious, time intensive and requires specialized palynological knowledge. Present study compares two composite honey metagenome collected from 20 samples in Mizoram, Northeast India using three gene loci- rbcL, matK and ITS2 that was sequenced using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform (Illumina Miseq)...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649467/larval-exposure-to-field-realistic-concentrations-of-clothianidin-has-no-effect-on-development-rate-over-winter-survival-or-adult-metabolic-rate-in-a-solitary-bee-osmia-bicornis
#13
Elizabeth Nicholls, Robert Fowler, Jeremy E Niven, James D Gilbert, Dave Goulson
There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647753/the-bee-the-flower-and-the-electric-field-electric-ecology-and-aerial-electroreception
#14
REVIEW
Dominic Clarke, Erica Morley, Daniel Robert
Bees and flowering plants have a long-standing and remarkable co-evolutionary history. Flowers and bees evolved traits that enable pollination, a process that is as important to plants as it is for pollinating insects. From the sensory ecological viewpoint, bee-flower interactions rely on senses such as vision, olfaction, humidity sensing, and touch. Recently, another sensory modality has been unveiled; the detection of the weak electrostatic field that arises between a flower and a bee. Here, we present our latest understanding of how these electric interactions arise and how they contribute to pollination and electroreception...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630412/the-challenges-of-predicting-pesticide-exposure-of-honey-bees-at-landscape-level
#15
Noa Simon-Delso, Gilles San Martin, Etienne Bruneau, Christine Delcourt, Louis Hautier
To evaluate the risks of pesticides for pollinators, we must not only evaluate their toxicity but also understand how pollinators are exposed to these xenobiotics in the field. We focused on this last point and modeled honey bee exposure to pesticides at the landscape level. Pollen pellet samples (n = 60) from 40 Belgian apiaries were collected from late July to October 2011 and underwent palynological and pesticide residue analyses. Areas of various crops around each apiary were measured at 4 spatial scales...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630407/colony-adaptive-response-to-simulated-heat-waves-and-consequences-at-the-individual-level-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera
#16
Célia Bordier, Hélène Dechatre, Séverine Suchail, Mathilde Peruzzi, Samuel Soubeyrand, Maryline Pioz, Michel Pélissier, Didier Crauser, Yves Le Conte, Cédric Alaux
Since climate change is expected to bring more severe and frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, assessing the physiological and behavioural sensitivity of organisms to temperature becomes a priority. We therefore investigated the responses of honeybees, an important insect pollinator, to simulated heat waves (SHW). Honeybees are known to maintain strict brood thermoregulation, but the consequences at the colony and individual levels remain poorly understood. For the first time, we quantified and modelled colony real-time activity and found a 70% increase in foraging activity with SHW, which was likely due to the recruitment of previously inactive bees...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629290/functional-foods-how-functional-are-they-a-case-report-of-supplement-induced-psychosis
#17
Priyanka Yadav, Kyle Stigall, Hannah E Johnson, Abner O Rayapati, Nitin Chopra
There is rising evidence of patients' use of alternative and complementary medicine. The percentage of the U.S. population who used at least one dietary supplement increased from 42% in 1988-1994 to 53% in 2003-2006. We present a case of an Asian female in her 40s, with no previous psychiatric illness, who presented to the emergency room following a brief psychotic episode, during which she self-amputated the tips of her fingers, after using multivitamins and herbal supplements including ginseng, gui yuan rou (Chinese herb), astaxanthin, goji (Chinese fruit), selenium, saw palmetto, grape seed extract, citrus bioflavanoid, lutein (zeaxantin), resvexatrol, sun chlorella, spirulina powder, phytoceramides, phytoestrogen, glucosatrin, bromelain plus, and American bee pollen...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609977/-i-camptopoeum-i-i-camptopoeum-i-i-baldocki-i-spec-nov-a-new-panurgine-bee-species-from-portugal-and-a-description-of-the-male-of-i-flavipanurgus-i-i-fuzetus-i-patiny-andrenidae-panurginae
#18
Thomas J Wood, Ian Cross
Camptopoeum (Camptopoeum) baldocki spec. nov., a new European panurgine bee species is described and diagnosed. It is currently known only from saltmarshes along the southern coast of the central and eastern Algarve, Portugal. Observations and analysis of scopal pollen loads suggest narrow oligolecty on the similarly halophilous Frankenia laevis (Frankeniaceae). In addition, the allotype male of the Portuguese endemic Flavipanurgus fuzetus Patiny is described and the pollen preferences of Flavipanurgus are reviewed with the addition of new data from Portugal...
April 12, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605870/foraging-in-maize-field-areas-a-risky-business
#19
Monique Boily, Philippe Aras, Catherine Jumarie
In Quebec, Canada, the cultivation of maize dominates the agricultural territory. This crop requires a sustained supply of fertilizers from different sources: chemical, natural or from residual materials (sludge). These amendments contain metallic trace elements, which may lead to metal-contaminated maize pollen, a possible source of prooxidants for the foraging bees. Our objective was to determine whether maize fields environment influences the oxidation processes and the accumulation of metals in bees. A few days prior to pollen shedding, beehives were installed in maize fields: one organically grown (site A) and three conventionally grown (sites B, C and D)...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603677/combined-effects-of-waggle-dance-communication-and-landscape-heterogeneity-on-nectar-and-pollen-uptake-in-honey-bee-colonies
#20
Fabian Nürnberger, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Stephan Härtel
The instructive component of waggle dance communication has been shown to increase resource uptake of Apis mellifera colonies in highly heterogeneous resource environments, but an assessment of its relevance in temperate landscapes with different levels of resource heterogeneity is currently lacking. We hypothesized that the advertisement of resource locations via dance communication would be most relevant in highly heterogeneous landscapes with large spatial variation of floral resources. To test our hypothesis, we placed 24 Apis mellifera colonies with either disrupted or unimpaired instructive component of dance communication in eight Central European agricultural landscapes that differed in heterogeneity and resource availability...
2017: PeerJ
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