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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776336/phylogenomic-analysis-of-apoidea-sheds-new-light-on-the-sister-group-of-bees
#1
Manuela Sann, Oliver Niehuis, Ralph S Peters, Christoph Mayer, Alexey Kozlov, Lars Podsiadlowski, Sarah Bank, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, Christoph Bleidorn, Michael Ohl
BACKGROUND: Apoid wasps and bees (Apoidea) are an ecologically and morphologically diverse group of Hymenoptera, with some species of bees having evolved eusocial societies. Major problems for our understanding of the evolutionary history of Apoidea have been the difficulty to trace the phylogenetic origin and to reliably estimate the geological age of bees. To address these issues, we compiled a comprehensive phylogenomic dataset by simultaneously analyzing target DNA enrichment and transcriptomic sequence data, comprising 195 single-copy protein-coding genes and covering all major lineages of apoid wasps and bee families...
May 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775568/neonicotinoids-decrease-sucrose-responsiveness-of-honey-bees-at-first-contact
#2
Fabien J Démares, Christian W W Pirk, Susan W Nicolson, Hannelie Human
For two decades, neonicotinoid insecticides have been extensively used worldwide. Targeting neuronal receptors, they have deleterious effects on the behaviour and physiology of many of many beneficial as well as harmful insects. Bees are exposed to these insecticides in pollen and nectar while providing pollination services to agricultural crops, and neonicotinoids have been shown to impair navigation by bees and to decrease their foraging activity. We have previously reported the effect of dietary thiamethoxam on sucrose responsiveness of young worker bees...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773615/microbial-diversity-in-commercial-bee-pollen-from-europe-chile-and-mexico-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-amplicon-metagenome-sequencing
#3
Vicente D Moreno Andrade, Carlos Saldaña Gutiérrez, Rosa P Calvillo Medina, Andrés Cruz Hérnandez, Moisés A Vázquez Cruz, Alfonso Torres Ruíz, Sergio Romero Gómez, Miguel A Ramos López, Erika Álvarez-Hidalgo, Silvia B López-Gaytan, Natanahel Salvador Ramírez, George H Jones, Jose Luis Hernandez-Flores, Juan Campos-Guillén
Bee pollen is a highly nutritive natural foodstuff. Because of its use as a comestible, the association of bacteria with bee pollen is commercially and biologically important. We report here the bacterial diversity of seven bee pollen samples (five from Europe, one from Chile, and one from Mexico) based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenome sequencing.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770982/characterisation-of-phenolic-compounds-by-uplc-qtof-ms-ms-of-geopropolis-from-the-stingless-bee-melipona-subnitida-janda%C3%A3-ra
#4
Silvana Alves de Souza, Telma Maria Guedes da Silva, Eva Monica Sarmento da Silva, Celso Amorim Camara, Tania Maria Sarmento Silva
INTRODUCTION: Melipona subnitida Ducke (jandaíra) is a stingless bee native to north-eastern Brazil, which produces geopropolis, a mixture of beeswax, plant resins, pollens and earth that is used for sealing beehives. OBJECTIVE: To extend the knowledge on phenolic compounds in fractions obtained by C18-solid phase extraction (SPE) of nine geopropolis samples from Melipona subnitida collected at different times. METHODOLOGY: Chromatographic profiles of nine samples of geopropolis from jandaíra were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) and combined with the use of data-independent acquisition (MSE) for the profiling and structural characterisation of the phenolic compounds...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768495/pollen-analysis-of-australian-honey
#5
J M Kale Sniderman, Kia A Matley, Simon G Haberle, David J Cantrill
Pollen analysis is widely used to verify the geographic origin of honeys, but has never been employed in Australia. In this study, we analysed the pollen content of 173 unblended honey samples sourced from most of the commercial honey producing regions in southern Australia. Southern Australian vegetation is dominated by Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) forests and, as expected, most Australian honeys are palynologically dominated by Eucalyptus, while other important components include Myrtaceae taxa such as Corymbia/Angophora and the tribe Leptospermeae; plus Brassicaceae, Echium, Macadamia, and Acacia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750554/dispensing-pollen-via-catapult-explosive-pollen-release-in-mountain-laurel-kalmia-latifolia
#6
Callin M Switzer, Stacey A Combes, Robin Hopkins
The astonishing amount of floral diversity has inspired countless assumptions about the function of diverse forms and their adaptive significance, yet many of these hypothesized functions are untested. We investigated an often-repeated adaptive hypothesis about how an extreme floral form functions. In this study, we conducted four investigations to understand the adaptive function of explosive pollination in Kalmia latifolia, the mountain laurel. We first performed a kinematic analysis of anther movement. Second, we constructed a heat map of pollen trajectories in three-dimensional space...
June 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748485/organochlorine-pesticides-in-honey-and-pollen-samples-from-managed-colonies-of-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-linnaeus-and-the-stingless-bee-scaptotrigona-mexicana-gu%C3%A3-rin-from-southern-mexico
#7
Jovani Ruiz-Toledo, Rémy Vandame, Ricardo Alberto Castro-Chan, Rosa Patricia Penilla-Navarro, Jaime Gómez, Daniel Sánchez
In this paper, we show the results of investigating the presence of organochlorine pesticides in honey and pollen samples from managed colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. and of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin. Three colonies of each species were moved into each of two sites. Three samples of pollen and three samples of honey were collected from each colony: the first collection occurred at the beginning of the study and the following ones at every six months during a year...
May 10, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746645/pollen-collection-honey-production-and-pollination-services-managing-honey-bees-in-an-agricultural-setting
#8
Shelley E Hoover, Lynae P Ovinge
Hybrid canola seed production is an important pollination market in Canada; typically both honey bees (Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) and Alfalfa Leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata Fab. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)) are concurrently managed to ensure pollination in this high-value crop. Beekeepers are paid to provide pollination services, and the colonies also produce a honey crop from the canola. Pollen availability from male-fertile plants is carefully managed in this crop to provide an abundance of pollen to fertilize male-sterile ('female') plants...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740981/buzz-pollination-in-neotropical-bees-genus-dependent-frequencies-and-lack-of-optimal-frequency-for-pollen-release
#9
Conrado Augusto Rosi-Denadai, Priscila Cássia Souza Araújo, Lucio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Lirio Cosme, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes
Over 50 genera of bees release pollen from flower anthers using thoracic vibrations, a phenomenon known as buzz-pollination. The efficiency of this process is directly affected by the mechanical properties of the buzzes, namely the duration, amplitude and frequency. Nonetheless, although the effects of the former two properties are well described, the role of buzz frequency on pollen release remains unclear. Furthermore, nearly all of the existing studies describing vibrational properties of natural buzz-pollination are limited to bumblebees (Bombus) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa) constraining our current understanding of this behavior and its evolution...
May 8, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739960/time-to-death-approach-to-reveal-chronic-and-cumulative-toxicity-of-a-fungicide-for-honeybees-not-revealed-with-the-standard-ten-day-test
#10
Noa Simon-Delso, Gilles San Martin, Etienne Bruneau, Louis Hautier
Synthetic fungicides are pesticides widely used in agriculture to control phytopathogenic fungi. The systemicity, persistency and intense application of some of these fungicides, such as boscalid, leads to long periods of exposure for honeybees via contaminated water, pollen and nectar. We exposed adult honeybees in the lab to food contaminated with boscalid for 33 days instead of the standard 10-day test. Most of the toxic effects were observed after 10 days. The median time to death (LT50 ) ranged from 24...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725884/a-long-term-field-study-on-the-effects-of-dietary-exposure-of-clothianidin-to-varroosis-weakened-honey-bee-colonies
#11
Reinhold Siede, Marina D Meixner, Maria T Almanza, Ralf Schöning, Christian Maus, Ralph Büchler
Clothianidin is a commonly used systemic insecticide in seed treatments. Residues of clothianidin can occur in nectar and pollen as a result of within-plant-translocation. Foraging bees can collect contaminated nectar or pollen. Concerns have been brought forward that exposure to pesticide residues might affect colonies especially if they are weakened by varroosis. However, there are few scientific studies investigating such multiple-stressor scenarios in the context of the entire colony. To close this gapa field trial with 24 colonies was set up...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653426/evaluation-of-maximum-potential-gene-flow-from-herbicide-resistant-brassica-napus-to-its-male-sterile-relatives-under-open-and-wind-pollination-conditions
#12
Chuan-Jie Zhang, Min-Jung Yook, Hae-Rim Park, Soo-Hyun Lim, Jin-Won Kim, Jong-Seok Song, Gyoungju Nah, Hae-Ryong Song, Beom-Ho Jo, Kyung Hee Roh, Suhyoung Park, Young-Seok Jang, Ill-Sup Noua, Do-Soon Kim
Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from genetically modified (GM) Brassica napus to its wild relatives by wind and insects is a major ecological concern in agricultural ecosystems. This study conducted is to estimate maximum potential gene flow and differentiate between wind- and bee-mediated gene flows from herbicide resistant (HR) B. napus to its closely-related male sterile (MS) relatives, B. napus, B. juncea and Raphanus sativus. Various markers, including pods formation in MS plants, herbicide resistance, and SSR markers, were used to identify the hybrids...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643175/impaired-associative-learning-after-chronic-exposure-to-pesticides-in-young-adult-honey-bees
#13
Carolina Mengoni Goñalons, Walter M Farina
Neonicotinoids are the most widespread insecticides in agriculture, preferred for their low toxicity to mammals and their systemic nature. Nevertheless, there have been increasing concerns regarding their impact on non-target organisms. Glyphosate is also widely used in crops and, therefore, traces of this pesticide are likely to be found together with neonicotinoids. Although glyphosate is considered a herbicide, adverse effects have been found on animal species, including honey bees. Apis mellifera is one of the most important pollinators in agroecosystems and is exposed to both these pesticides...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642950/melliferous-insects-and-the-uses-assigned-to-their-products-in-the-northern-yungas-of-salta-argentina
#14
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642541/influence-of-dietary-supplementation-of-propolis-and-bee-pollen-on-liver-pathology-in-broiler-chickens
#15
Ivana Klaric, Mirela Pavic, Ivan Miskulin, Valerija Blazicevic, Albina Dumic, Maja Miskulin
One of the major problems in intensive breeding of chickens is liver damage. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis and bee pollen on liver pathology in broiler chickens. The study was conducted on 200 Ross 308 chickens equally distributed by sex that were divided into five groups. Throughout the whole study, the control group of chickens was fed with a basal diet, while the experimental groups of chickens were fed with the same diet further supplemented with propolis and bee pollen, each supplement given separately or in combination in a certain proportion...
April 9, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618776/chronic-toxicity-of-amitraz-coumaphos-and-fluvalinate-to-apis-mellifera-l-larvae-reared-in-vitro
#16
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, Tomas A Bustamante, James D Ellis
The effects of chronic exposure to common acaricides on Apis mellifera survival, developmental rate and larval weight were tested in the laboratory. Larvae were reared in vitro and fed a diet containing amitraz: 1.5, 11, 25 and 46 mg/L; coumaphos: 1.8, 6, 8 and 25 mg/L; or fluvalinate: 0.1, 1, 2.4 and 6 mg/L. The dependent variables were compared for groups feeding on treated diets and control diets: positive control, 45 mg/L dimethoate; solvent control; and negative control. Bee survival decreased in the 46 mg/L amitraz and 25 mg/L coumaphos treatments but not in any fluvalinate treatment...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614743/protective-effect-of-polyphenol-rich-extract-from-bee-pollen-in-a-high-fat-diet
#17
Anna Rzepecka-Stojko, Agata Kabała-Dzik, Robert Kubina, Krzysztof Jasik, Maciej Kajor, Dorota Wrześniok, Jerzy Stojko
We have studied a preventive effect of polyphenol-rich bee pollen ethanol extract (EEP) against histological changes in the liver and cardiac blood vessels, abnormalities of lipid profile, and the levels of oxidized low density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II (ANG II) caused by a high-fat diet in C57 BL₆ mice. Supplementing the diet with EEP in the doses of 0.1 g/kg body mass (BM) and 1 g/kg BM resulted in a decrease of total cholesterol by 31% and 35%, respectively...
March 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607037/temperature-and-water-stress-affect-plant-pollinator-interactions-in-borago-officinalis-boraginaceae
#18
Charlotte Descamps, Muriel Quinet, Aurélie Baijot, Anne-Laure Jacquemart
Climate change alters the abiotic constraints faced by plants, including increasing temperature and water stress. These changes may affect flower development and production of flower rewards, thus altering plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we investigated the consequences of increased temperature and water stress on plant growth, floral biology, flower-reward production, and insect visitation of a widespread bee-visited species, Borago officinalis . Plants were grown for 5 weeks under three temperature regimes (21, 24, and 27°C) and two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stressed)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607015/an-analysis-of-the-energetic-reward-offered-by-field-bean-vicia-faba-flowers-nectar-pollen-and-operative-force
#19
Emily J Bailes, Jonathan G Pattrick, Beverley J Glover
Global consumption of crops with a yield that is dependent on animal pollinators is growing, with greater areas planted each year. However, the floral traits that influence pollinator visitation are not usually the focus of breeding programmes, and therefore, it is likely that yield improvements may be made by optimizing floral traits to enhance pollinator visitation rates. We investigated the variation present in the floral reward of the bee-pollinated crop Vicia faba (field bean). We examined the genetic potential for breeding flowers with a greater reward into current commercial varieties and used bee behavioral experiments to gain insight into the optimal nectar concentration to maximize bee preference...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603529/functional-anatomy-reveals-secretory-activity-in-papillose-anthers-of-a-buzz-pollinated-solanum-species-cyphomandra-clade-solanaceae
#20
Bruno Fernandes Falcão, João Renato Stehmann
Pollination in Solanum (Solanaceae) species is commonly performed by female bees, which vibrate anthers to extract pollen. Another pollen removal type is made by male Euglossine bees milking the anthers when searching for floral scents produced by secretory tissues (osmophorous) at the swollen connective of the anthers of species belonging to Cyphomandra clade. Some species of this clade, however, are buzz-pollinated and present papillate anthers that should also have secretory activity, a hypothesis here tested...
March 30, 2018: Plant Biology
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