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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551560/ornamental-plants-on-sale-to-the-public-are-a-significant-source-of-pesticide-residues-with-implications-for-the-health-of-pollinating-insects
#1
A Lentola, A David, A Abdul-Sada, A Tapparo, D Goulson, E M Hill
Garden centres frequently market nectar- and pollen-rich ornamental plants as "pollinator-friendly", however these plants are often treated with pesticides during their production. There is little information on the nature of pesticide residues present at the point of purchase and whether these plants may actually pose a threat to, rather than benefit, the health of pollinating insects. Using mass spectrometry analyses, this study screened leaves from 29 different 'bee-friendly' plants for 8 insecticides and 16 fungicides commonly used in ornamental production...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539687/phylogenetic-analysis-of-monascus-and-new-species-from-honey-pollen-and-nests-of-stingless-bees
#2
R N Barbosa, S L Leong, O Vinnere-Pettersson, A J Chen, C M Souza-Motta, J C Frisvad, R A Samson, N T Oliveira, J Houbraken
The genus Monascus was described by van Tieghem (1884) to accommodate M. ruber and M. mucoroides, two species with non-ostiolate ascomata. Species delimitation in the genus is still mainly based on phenotypic characters, and taxonomic studies that include sequence data are limited. The genus is of economic importance. Species are used in fermented Asian foods as food colourants (e.g. 'red rice' (ang-kak, angka)) and found as spoilage organisms, and recently Monascus was found to be essential in the lifecycle of stingless bees...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532421/glutamate-excitotoxicity-induced-by-orally-administered-propionic-acid-a-short-chain-fatty-acid-can-be-ameliorated-by-bee-pollen
#3
Afaf El-Ansary, Huda S Al-Salem, Alqahtani Asma, Abeer Al-Dbass
BACKGROUND: Rodent models may guide investigations towards identifying either environmental neuro-toxicants or drugs with neuro-therapeutic effects. This work aims to study the therapeutic effects of bee pollen on brain glutamate excitotoxicity and the impaired glutamine-glutamate- gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) circuit induced by propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid, in rat pups. METHODS: Twenty-four young male Western Albino rats 3-4 weeks of age, and 45-60 g body weight were enrolled in the present study...
May 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531293/effect-of-expanded-variation-in-anther-position-on-pollinator-visitation-to-wild-radish-raphanus-raphanistrum
#4
Yuval Sapir, Keith Karoly, Vanessa A Koelling, Heather F Sahli, Frances N Knapczyk, Jeffrey K Conner
Background and Aims: Plant-pollinator interactions shape the evolution of flowers. Floral attraction and reward traits have often been shown to affect pollinator behaviour, but the possible effect of efficiency traits on visitation behaviour has rarely been addressed. Anther position, usually considered a trait that influences efficiency of pollen deposition on pollinators, was tested here for its effect on pollinator visitation rates and visit duration in flowers of wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum ...
May 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505483/the-effects-of-ingested-aqueous-aluminum-on-floral-fidelity-and-foraging-strategy-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#5
Ana M Chicas-Mosier, Bree A Cooper, Alexander M Melendez, Melina Pérez, Devrim Oskay, Charles I Abramson
Pollinator decline is of international concern because of the economic services these organisms provide. Commonly cited sources of decline are toxicants, habitat fragmentation, and parasites. Toxicant exposure can occur through uptake and distribution from plant tissues and resources such as pollen and nectar. Metals such as aluminum can be distributed to pollinators and other herbivores through this route especially in acidified or mined areas. A free-flying artificial flower patch apparatus was used to understand how two concentrations of aluminum (2mg/L and 20mg/L) may affect the learning, orientation, and foraging behaviors of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503378/pollen-extracts-and-constituent-sugars-increase-growth-of-a-trypanosomatid-parasite-of-bumble-bees
#6
Evan C Palmer-Young, Lucy Thursfield
Phytochemicals produced by plants, including at flowers, function in protection against plant diseases, and have a long history of use against trypanosomatid infection. Floral nectar and pollen, the sole food sources for many species of insect pollinators, contain phytochemicals that have been shown to reduce trypanosomatid infection in bumble and honey bees when fed as isolated compounds. Nectar and pollen, however, consist of phytochemical mixtures, which can have greater antimicrobial activity than do single compounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502082/desynchronizations-in-bee-plant-interactions-cause-severe-fitness-losses-in-solitary-bees
#7
Mariela Schenk, Jochen Krauss, Andrea Holzschuh
1.Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. 2.However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. 3.We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492799/reproductive-biology-of-endemic-solanum-melissarum-bohs-solanaceae-and-updating-of-its-current-geographic-distribution-as-the-basis-for-its-conservation-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#8
C P Coelho, D C Gomes, F A G Guilherme, L F Souza
The genus Solanum (family Solanaceae) includes more than 1400 species and has buzz-pollinated flowers with poricidal anthers. The present study aimed to describe the distribution, breeding system and pollination mechanism of Solanum melissarum, a species endemic to Brazil. The study of breeding system was conducted in an urban forest fragment in Jataí, GO. Distribution data were gathered from floristic surveys and digital plant databases. The floral morphology and the pollination mechanism were studied on through field observations and preserved flowers...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485079/acute-toxicity-of-five-pesticides-to-apis-mellifera-larvae-reared-in-vitro
#9
Pingli Dai, Cameron J Jack, Ashley N Mortensen, James D Ellis
BACKGROUND: The reported high loss rates of managed honey bee colonies has been attributed to diverse stressors including pesticides. Honey bee larvae can be exposed to pesticides in contaminated nectar, pollen and wax. Due to the difficulties of rearing larvae in vitro, research focusing on adult bee exposure to pesticides is more common than that on larvae exposure to pesticides. Herein, we aimed to assess the acute toxicity of five insecticides to honey bee larvae using an improved in vitro rearing method...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479994/pollinator-preference-and-pollen-viability-mediated-by-flower-color-synergistically-determine-seed-set-in-an-alpine-annual-herb
#10
Junpeng Mu, Yulian Yang, Yanling Luo, Ruijun Su, Karl J Niklas
Gentiana leucomelaena manifests dramatic flower color polymorphism, with both blue- and white-flowered individuals (pollinated by flies and bees) both within a population and on an individual plant. Previous studies of this species have shown that pollinator preference and flower temperature change as a function of flower color throughout the flowering season. However, few if any studies have explored the effects of flower color on both pollen viability (mediated by anther temperature) and pollinator preference on reproductive success (seed set) in a population or on individual plants over the course of the entire flowering season...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455796/effect-of-brood-pheromone-on-survival-and-nutrient-intake-of-african-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-scutellata-under-controlled-conditions
#11
Fabien J Démares, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Susan W Nicolson, Christian W W Pirk
The influence of pheromones on insect physiology and behavior has been thoroughly reported for numerous aspects, such as attraction, gland development, aggregation, mate and kin recognition. Brood pheromone (BP) is released by honey bee larvae to indicate their protein requirements to the colony. Although BP is known to modulate pollen and protein consumption, which in turn can affect physiological and morphological parameters, such as hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) development and ovarian activation, few studies have focused on the effect of BP on nutritional balance...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452943/pectic-bee-pollen-polysaccharide-from-rosa-rugosa-alleviates-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-via-induction-of-ampk-mtor-mediated-autophagy
#12
Xinzhi Li, Haiquan Gong, Siwen Yang, Lulu Yang, Yuying Fan, Yifa Zhou
Despite it is used as a nutraceutical against diabetes and obesity, the mechanism of action of bee pollen is still unclear. Pectic bee pollen polysaccharide (RBPP-P) was isolated from Rosa rugosa, and its structure was characterized by (13)C-NMR and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Using high glucose and fatty acids-treated HepG2 cells and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mice, we detected its effect on insulin function and lipid metabolism based on autophagy. RBPP-P contained arabinogalactan, rhamnogalacturonan I, and homogalacturonan domains...
April 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448467/chemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-mono-and-heterofloral-bee-pollen-of-different-geographical-origins
#13
Jucilene Silva Araújo, Emerson Dechechi Chambó, Maria Angélica Pereira de Carvalho Costa, Samira Maria Peixoto Cavalcante da Silva, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Leticia M Estevinho
Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#14
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444378/how-efficient-is-apis-cerana-hymenoptera-apidae-in-pollinating-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-var-capitata-pollination-behavior-pollinator-effectiveness-pollinator-requirement-and-impact-of-pollination
#15
Johnson Stanley, Khushboo Sah, Avupati Rns Subbanna, G Preetha, JaiPrakash Gupta
Cabbage is a cross-pollinated crop because of sporophytic self-incompatibility, and honey bees play an important role in its pollination. Though Asian honey bees, Apis cerana F., are used in pollination of cabbage, the rate of visitation, behavior, pollinator efficacy, and impact on seed-set are to be determined. Apis cerana occupy a share of 19.18% of all the flower visitors of cabbage in natural habitat of North Western Indian Himalayas. Pollination behavior in terms of peak activity, flowers processed per unit time, time spent per flower, and time spent in search of flowers are studied separately for both pollen and nectar foragers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430801/honey-bees-preferentially-consume-freshly-stored-pollen
#16
Mark J Carroll, Nicholas Brown, Craig Goodall, Alexandra M Downs, Timothy H Sheenan, Kirk E Anderson
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#17
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422139/high-pesticide-risk-to-honey-bees-despite-low-focal-crop-pollen-collection-during-pollination-of-a-mass-blooming-crop
#18
Scott H McArt, Ashley A Fersch, Nelson J Milano, Lauren L Truitt, Katalin Böröczky
Honey bees provide critical pollination services for many agricultural crops. While the contribution of pesticides to current hive loss rates is debated, remarkably little is known regarding the magnitude of risk to bees and mechanisms of exposure during pollination. Here, we show that pesticide risk in recently accumulated beebread was above regulatory agency levels of concern for acute or chronic exposure at 5 and 22 of the 30 apple orchards, respectively, where we placed 120 experimental hives. Landscape context strongly predicted focal crop pollen foraging and total pesticide residues, which were dominated by fungicides...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420790/honeybee-gut-microbiota-promotes-host-weight-gain-via-bacterial-metabolism-and-hormonal-signaling
#19
Hao Zheng, J Elijah Powell, Margaret I Steele, Carsten Dietrich, Nancy A Moran
Social bees harbor a simple and specialized microbiota that is spatially organized into different gut compartments. Recent results on the potential involvement of bee gut communities in pathogen protection and nutritional function have drawn attention to the impact of the microbiota on bee health. However, the contributions of gut microbiota to host physiology have yet to be investigated. Here we show that the gut microbiota promotes weight gain of both whole body and the gut in individual honey bees. This effect is likely mediated by changes in host vitellogenin, insulin signaling, and gustatory response...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404729/wings-as-impellers-honey-bees-co-opt-flight-system-to-induce-nest-ventilation-and-disperse-pheromones
#20
Jacob M Peters, Nick Gravish, Stacey A Combes
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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