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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907097/levels-of-selected-persistent-organic-pollutants-pcb-pbde-and-pesticides-in-honey-bee-pollen-sampled-in-poland
#1
Marek Łukasz Roszko, Marta Kamińska, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890965/beescout-a-model-of-bee-scouting-behaviour-and-a-software-tool-for-characterizing-nectar-pollen-landscapes-for-beehave
#2
M A Becher, V Grimm, J Knapp, J Horn, G Twiston-Davies, J L Osborne
Social bees are central place foragers collecting floral resources from the surrounding landscape, but little is known about the probability of a scouting bee finding a particular flower patch. We therefore developed a software tool, BEESCOUT, to theoretically examine how bees might explore a landscape and distribute their scouting activities over time and space. An image file can be imported, which is interpreted by the model as a "forage map" with certain colours representing certain crops or habitat types as specified by the user...
November 24, 2016: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883009/bumble-bee-parasite-strains-vary-in-resistance-to-phytochemicals
#3
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Philip C Stevenson, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Nectar and pollen contain diverse phytochemicals that can reduce disease in pollinators. However, prior studies showed variable effects of nectar chemicals on infection, which could reflect variable phytochemical resistance among parasite strains. Inter-strain variation in resistance could influence evolutionary interactions between plants, pollinators, and pollinator disease, but testing direct effects of phytochemicals on parasites requires elimination of variation between bees. Using cell cultures of the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, we determined (1) growth-inhibiting effects of nine floral phytochemicals and (2) variation in phytochemical resistance among four parasite strains...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867216/investigating-the-impacts-of-field-realistic-exposure-to-a-neonicotinoid-pesticide-on-bumblebee-foraging-homing-ability-and-colony-growth
#4
Dara A Stanley, Avery L Russell, Sarah J Morrison, Catherine Rogers, Nigel E Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services.We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5-43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying bumblebee colonies...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861777/direct-benefits-and-indirect-costs-of-warm-temperatures-for-high-elevation-populations-of-a-solitary-bee
#5
Jessica R K Forrest, Sarah P M Chisholm
Warm temperatures are required for insect flight. Consequently, warming could benefit many high-latitude and high-altitude insects by increasing opportunities for foraging or oviposition. However, warming can also alter species interactions, including interactions with natural enemies, making the net effect of rising temperatures on population growth rate difficult to predict. We investigated the temperature-dependence of nesting activity and lifetime reproductive output over three years in subalpine populations of a pollen-specialist bee, Osmia iridis...
November 14, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860055/comparative-reproductive-biology-and-pollinator-specificity-among-sympatric-gomesa-orchidaceae-oncidiinae
#6
E R Pansarin, I Alves-Dos-Santos, L M Pansarin
The incredible pollination mechanisms displayed by orchid flowers has inspired biologists over the centuries. Based on the intriguing flower structures the relation among orchid species and their pollinators has been frequently regarded as very specialized. Given that visits on flowers pollinated by oil-collecting bees are regularly rare and in Oncidiinae the flowers frequently atract exclusively species that act as effective pollinators, the comparative reproductive biology and pollinator specificity of two sympatric Gomesa (G...
November 11, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852760/the-defensive-response-of-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#7
REVIEW
Morgane Nouvian, Judith Reinhard, Martin Giurfa
Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects living in colonies with a complex social organization. Their nest contains food stores in the form of honey and pollen, as well as the brood, the queen and the bees themselves. These resources have to be defended against a wide range of predators and parasites, a task that is performed by specialized workers, called guard bees. Guards tune their response to both the nature of the threat and the environmental conditions, in order to achieve an efficient trade-off between defence and loss of foraging workforce...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852693/migratory-bee-hive-transportation-contributes-insignificantly-to-transgenic-pollen-movement-between-spatially-isolated-alfalfa-seed-fields
#8
Natalie K Boyle, Sandya R Kesoju, Stephanie L Greene, Ruth C Martin, Douglas B Walsh
Contracted commercial beekeeping operations provide an essential pollination service to many agricultural systems worldwide. Increased use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture has raised concerns over pollinator-mediated gene flow between transgenic and conventional agricultural varieties. This study evaluated whether contracted migratory beekeeping practices influence transgenic pollen flow among spatially isolated alfalfa fields. Twelve honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were permitted to forage on transgenic alfalfa blossoms for 1 wk in Touchet, WA...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832169/honey-bee-viruses-in-wild-bees-viral-prevalence-loads-and-experimental-inoculation
#9
Adam G Dolezal, Stephen D Hendrix, Nicole A Scavo, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Mary A Harris, M Joseph Wheelock, Matthew E O'Neal, Amy L Toth
Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819118/current-knowledge-of-detoxification-mechanisms-of-xenobiotic-in-honey-bees
#10
REVIEW
Youhui Gong, Qingyun Diao
The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments...
November 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812411/specialization-on-pollen-or-nectar-in-bumblebee-foragers-is-not-associated-with-ovary-size-lipid-reserves-or-sensory-tuning
#11
Adam R Smith, Peter Graystock, William O H Hughes
Foraging specialization allows social insects to more efficiently exploit resources in their environment. Recent research on honeybees suggests that specialization on pollen or nectar among foragers is linked to reproductive physiology and sensory tuning (the Reproductive Ground-Plan Hypothesis; RGPH). However, our understanding of the underlying physiological relationships in non-Apis bees is still limited. Here we show that the bumblebee Bombus terrestris has specialist pollen and nectar foragers, and test whether foraging specialization in B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803186/metabolism-of-toxic-sugars-by-strains-of-the-bee-gut-symbiont-gilliamella-apicola
#12
Hao Zheng, Alex Nishida, Waldan K Kwong, Hauke Koch, Philipp Engel, Margaret I Steele, Nancy A Moran
: Social bees collect carbohydrate-rich food to support their colonies, and yet, certain carbohydrates present in their diet or produced through the breakdown of pollen are toxic to bees. The gut microbiota of social bees is dominated by a few core bacterial species, including the Gram-negative species Gilliamella apicola We isolated 42 strains of G. apicola from guts of honey bees and bumble bees and sequenced their genomes. All of the G. apicola strains share high 16S rRNA gene similarity, but they vary extensively in gene repertoires related to carbohydrate metabolism...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803018/possible-complication-of-bee-stings-and-a-review-of-the-cardiac-effects-of-bee-stings
#13
Prabha Nini Gupta, B Krishna Kumar, Praveen Velappan, M D Sudheer
We report the case of a patient who, ∼3 weeks after multiple bee stings, developed a prolonged heart block, syncope and cardiac arrest. This required a temporary pacemaker to be implanted, which was later replaced with a permanent pacemaker. An ECG taken following surgery for a fractured humerus 6 years earlier was reportedly normal. The patient had been a rubber tapper who walked ∼1.5 km/day, but after the bee attack he was no longer able to walk or get up from the bed without experiencing syncope...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803000/land-use-change-has-no-detectable-effect-on-reproduction-of-a-disturbance-adapted-hawkmoth-pollinated-plant-species
#14
Krissa A Skogen, Tania Jogesh, Evan T Hilpman, Sadie L Todd, Matthew K Rhodes, Shannon M Still, Jeremie B Fant
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Land-use change is cited as a primary driver of global biodiversity loss, with myriad consequences for species, populations, and ecosystems. However, few studies have examined its impact on species interactions, particularly pollination. Furthermore, when the effects of land-use change on pollination have been studied, the focus has largely been on species pollinated by diurnal pollinators, namely, bees and butterflies. Here, we focus on Oenothera harringtonii, a night-flowering, disturbance-adapted species that has experienced a range-wide gradient of land-use change...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801831/antioxidant-enzyme-activities-and-lipid-oxidation-in-rape-brassica-campestris-l-bee-pollen-added-to-salami-during-processing
#15
Yawei Zhang, Fengtian Yang, Muneer Ahmed Jamali, Zengqi Peng
The present research investigated the antioxidant effect of rape (Brassica campestris L.) bee pollen (RBP) on salami during processing. Eight flavonoids in RBP ethanol extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis, and quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol were the major bioactive compounds. The RBP ethanol extract exhibited higher total antioxidant capacity than 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tertramethylchromancarboxylic acid (trolox) at the same concentration. The salami with 0...
October 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783434/evolution-of-resistance-to-single-and-combined-floral-phytochemicals-by-a-bumble-bee-parasite
#16
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Lynn S Adler
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defense against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multi-compound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over six weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778338/preliminary-investigation-of-mineral-content-of-pollen-collected-from-different-serbian-maize-hybrids-is-there-any-potential-nutritional-value
#17
Aleksandar Ž Kostić, Lazar M Kaluđerović, Biljana P Dojčinović, Miroljub B Barać, Vojka B Babić, Marina P Mačukanović-Jocić
BACKGROUND: Bee pollen has already proved to be a good supplement rich in content of iron and zinc. Studies about application of flower pollen in food industry and medicine have been started. Bearing in mind prevalence of maize as crop culture its pollen will be easily available. The mineral composition of pollen of seven Serbian maize hybrids was analyzed in order to establish its nutritional value and benefits of its implementation in the human diet using ICP method. RESULTS: Presence of twenty four different macro- (nine) and micronutrients (fifteen) was detected...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770587/pollination-of-campomanesia-phaea-myrtaceae-by-night-active-bees-a-new-nocturnal-pollination-system-mediated-by-floral-scent
#18
G D Cordeiro, M Pinheiro, S Dötterl, I Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit developed, yet little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and breeding system of C. phaea...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769096/mechanistic-modeling-of-pesticide-exposure-the-missing-keystone-of-honey-bee-toxicology
#19
Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755712/season-and-landscape-composition-affect-pollen-foraging-distances-and-habitat-use-of-honey-bees
#20
Nadja Danner, Anna Maria Molitor, Susanne Schiele, Stephan Härtel, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) show a large variation in foraging distances and use a broad range of plant species as pollen resources, even in regions with intensive agriculture. However, it is unknown how increasing areas of mass-flowering crops like oilseed rape (Brassica napus; OSR) or a decrease of seminatural habitats (SNH) change the temporal and spatial availability of pollen resources for honey bee colonies, and thus foraging distances and frequency in different habitat types. We studied pollen foraging of honey bee colonies in 16 agricultural landscapes with independent gradients of OSR and SNH area within 2 km and used waggle dances and digital geographic maps with major land cover types to reveal the distance and visited habitat type on a landscape level...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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