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bee pollen

José J van den Driessche, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink
Functional foods can be effective in the prevention of metabolic syndrome and subsequently the onset of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. More recently, however, another term was introduced to describe foods with additional health benefits: "superfoods", for which, to date, no generally accepted definition exists. Nonetheless, their consumption might contribute to the prevention of metabolic syndrome, for example due to the presence of potentially bioactive compounds. This review provides an overview of controlled human intervention studies with foods described as "superfoods" and their effects on metabolic syndrome parameters...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Michaela M Hofmann, Andreas Fleischmann, Susanne S Renner
Botanical gardens represent artificial, but stable environments. With this premise, we analyzed the Munich Botanical Garden's bee fauna in 1997/1999 and again in 2015/2017. The garden covers 20 ha, uses no bee-relevant insecticides, has a protected layout, and on three sides abuts protected areas. Outdoors, it cultivates some 10,871 species/subspecies, many suitable as pollen and nectar sources for bees. The first survey found 79 species, the second 106, or 55% of the 192 species recorded for Munich since 1990...
March 14, 2018: Oecologia
A-G E Ausseil, J R Dymond, L Newstrom
Honey bees require nectar and pollen from flowers: nectar for energy and pollen for growth. The demand for nectar and pollen varies during the year, with more pollen needed in spring for colony population growth, and more nectar needed in summer to sustain the maximum colony size and collect surplus nectar stores for winter. Sufficient bee forage is therefore necessary to ensure a healthy bee colony. Land-use changes can reduce the availability of floral resources suitable for bees, thereby increasing the susceptibility of bees to other stressors such as disease and pesticides...
March 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yuki Henselek, Elisabeth J Eilers, Claire Kremen, Stephen D Hendrix, Alexandra-Maria Klein
Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb; Rosales: Rosaceae) is a cash crop with an estimated global value of over seven billion U.S. dollars annually and commercial varieties are highly dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, the understanding of basic pollination requirements of the main varieties including pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, Hymenoptera: Apidae) and wild pollinators is essential for almond production. We first conducted two lab experiments to examine the threshold number of pollen grains needed for successful pollination and to determine if varietal identity or diversity promotes fruit set and weight...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jiangong Jiang, Dicheng Ma, Nan Zou, Xin Yu, Zhengqun Zhang, Feng Liu, Wei Mu
Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) have recently been recognized as co-factors in the decline of honeybee colonies because most neonicotinoids are systemic and can transfer into the pollen and nectar of many pollinated crops. In this study, we collected pollen, nectar and leaves from a cotton crop treated with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam to measure the residue levels of these two NIs at different application doses during the flowering period. Then, the residual data were used to assess the risk posed by the systemic insecticides to honeybees following mandated methods published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and a highly toxic risk to honeybees was highlighted...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Francis A Drummond, Elissa S Ballman, Brian D Eitzer, Brianne Du Clos, James Dill
In 2015, we conducted a statewide assessment of honey bee exposure to pesticides with assistance of volunteer beekeepers. Pollen trapping was conducted at 32 sites in the spring, summer, and early fall. Apiary locations ranged from unmanaged natural landscapes to managed agricultural or urban landscapes. Pollen samples at each site were aggregated over the collection dates and chemical residue analysis was conducted on each pollen sample for 190 pesticides and metabolites using HPLC/MS. Twenty-five different residues were detected for an average of 2...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
M P Bartkowska, Ay-C Wong, S P Sagar, L Zeng, C G Eckert
By reducing genetically effective population size and gene flow, self-fertilization should lead to strong spatial genetic structure (SGS). Although the short-lived plant Aquilegia canadensis produces large, complex, nectar-rich flowers, 75% of seed, on average, are self-fertilized. Previous experimental results are consistent with the fine-scale SGS expected in selfing populations. In contrast, key floral traits show no evidence of SGS, despite a significant genetic basis to phenotypic variation within populations...
March 1, 2018: Heredity
Meagan A Simons, Adam R Smith
Social insect foragers may specialize on certain resource types. Specialization on pollen or nectar among honeybee foragers is hypothesized to result from associations between reproductive physiology and sensory tuning that evolved in ancestral solitary bees (the Reproductive Ground-Plan Hypothesis; RGPH). However, the two non-honeybee species studied showed no association between specialization and ovary activation. Here we investigate the bumblebee B. impatiens because it has the most extensively studied pollen/nectar specialization of any bumblebee...
2018: PeerJ
Arlete Prado-Silva, Lorena Andrade Nunes, Jádilla Mendes Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello Affonso, Ana Maria Waldschmidt
Bees are major pollinators of both native flora and cultured crops. Nonetheless, despite their key functional role in ecosystems and agriculture, bee populations have been affected worldwide by deforestation and contamination by insecticides. Conversely, little is known about the effects of pesticides on morphogenetic development of neotropical stingless bees. We compared the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in newly emerged bees and foragers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides exposed to pesticides (experimental greenhouse and cultivated field)...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Annika L Hass, Urs G Kormann, Teja Tscharntke, Yann Clough, Aliette Bosem Baillod, Clélia Sirami, Lenore Fahrig, Jean-Louis Martin, Jacques Baudry, Colette Bertrand, Jordi Bosch, Lluís Brotons, Françoise Burel, Romain Georges, David Giralt, María Á Marcos-García, Antonio Ricarte, Gavin Siriwardena, Péter Batáry
Agricultural intensification is one of the main causes for the current biodiversity crisis. While reversing habitat loss on agricultural land is challenging, increasing the farmland configurational heterogeneity (higher field border density) and farmland compositional heterogeneity (higher crop diversity) has been proposed to counteract some habitat loss. Here, we tested whether increased farmland configurational and compositional heterogeneity promote wild pollinators and plant reproduction in 229 landscapes located in four major western European agricultural regions...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jeroen Everaars, Josef Settele, Carsten F Dormann
Solitary bees are important but declining wild pollinators. During daily foraging in agricultural landscapes, they encounter a mosaic of patches with nest and foraging habitat and unsuitable matrix. It is insufficiently clear how spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources and foraging traits of bees affect their daily foraging performance. We investigated potential brood cell construction (as proxy of fitness), number of visited flowers, foraging habitat visitation and foraging distance (pollination proxies) with the model SOLBEE (simulating pollen transport by solitary bees, tested and validated in an earlier study), for landscapes varying in landscape fragmentation and spatial allocation of nesting and foraging resources...
2018: PloS One
A Amores-Arrocha, A Roldán, A Jiménez-Cantizano, I Caro, V Palacios
This study investigates the impact of bee pollen on volatile compounds, odour activity values and sensory profiles in Palomino fino and Riesling young white wines. Commercial bee pollen was added to grape must using six different doses (0 (control), 0.1, 0.25, 1, 5, 10 and 20g/L) and fermented under controlled conditions. Volatile compounds were determined with GC and GC-MS chromatography and sensorial analysis using a qualified panel of tasters. Bee pollen produces an increase in volatile compounds depending on the grape variety and the dose applied...
March 2018: Food Research International
Jevrosima Stevanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic, Predrag Simeunovic, Nada Lakic, Ivica Radovic, Marina Sokovic, Leo J L D VAN Griensven
This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Adriana F Negrão, Ricardo O Orsi
We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons...
February 1, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Susma Giri, Daniel C Rule, Michael E Dillon
Fatty acid (FA) composition of lipids plays a crucial role in the functioning of lipid-containing structures in organisms and may be affected by the temperature an organism experiences, as well as its diet. We compared FA composition among four bee genera: Andrena, Bombus, Megachile, and Osmia which differ in their thermal ecology and diet. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were prepared by direct transesterification with KOH and analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Sixteen total FAs ranging in chain length from eight to 22 carbon atoms were identified...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Xiao-Yue Wang, Qiu-Mei Quan, Bo Wang, Yun-Xiang Li, Shuang-Quan Huang
Flower color polymorphism is relatively uncommon in natural flowering plants, suggesting that maintenance of different color morphs within populations is difficult. To address the selective mechanisms shaping pollen-color dimorphism, pollinator preferences and reproductive performance were studied over three years in Epimedium pubescens in which some populations had plants with either green or yellow pollen (and anthers). Visitation rate and pollen removal and receipt by the bee pollinator (Andrena emeishanica) did not differ between the two color morphs...
February 5, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Akira A Wong Sato, Makoto Kato
Explosive pollen release is a mechanism by some angiosperms that serves to attach pollen to a pollinator's body. It is usually adopted by species with zygomorphic tubular flowers and pollinated by birds and bees. The tree genus Meliosma (Sabiaceae, Proteales) has unique disc-like flowers that are externally actinomorphic, but internally zygomorphic, and release pollen explosively. To elucidate the adaptive significance of explosive pollen release, we observed flowering behavior, the breeding system, and pollinator visits to flowers of the Japanese species Meliosma tenuis in a temperate forest...
February 2, 2018: Plant Biology
Sophie Cardinal, Stephen L Buchmann, Avery L Russell
Over 22,000 species of biotically pollinated flowering plants, including some major agricultural crops, depend primarily on bees capable of floral sonication for pollination services. The ability to sonicate ("buzz") flowers is widespread in bees but not ubiquitous. Despite the prevalence of this pollinator behavior and its importance to natural and agricultural systems, the evolutionary history of floral sonication in bees has not been previously studied. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of floral sonication in bees by generating a time-calibrated phylogeny and reconstructing ancestral states for this pollen extraction behavior...
February 1, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Joshua W Campbell, Jaret C Daniels, James D Ellis
Pollinators provide essential services for watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). Managed bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson; Hymenoptera: Apidae), have been shown to be a useful watermelon pollinator in some areas. However, the exact contribution bumble bees make to watermelon pollination and how their contribution compares to that of other bees is unclear. We used large cages (5.4 × 2.5 × 2.4 m) to confine bumble bee hives to watermelon plants and compared fruit set in those cages to cages containing watermelons but no pollinators, and to open areas of field next to cages (allows all pollinators)...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Henry E Vacacela Ajila, João A M Ferreira, Felipe Colares, Cleber M Oliveira, Ana Maria G Bernardo, Madelaine Venzon, Angelo Pallini
Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is often found in coffee crops and is known to feed on coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). As the occurrence of coffee leaf rust is limited primarily to the rainy season, the mite may use other food sources to survive during the periods of low pathogen prevalence. It is well known that phytoseiid mites can survive on a variety of food sources, such as herbivorous mites, fungi and pollen. We evaluated the ability of R. loxocheles to survive and reproduce on a diet of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), cattail pollen (Typha spp...
January 30, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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