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Methadone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458047/effects-of-cytochrome-p450-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-methadone-metabolism-and-pharmacodynamics
#1
REVIEW
Taha Ahmad, Monica A Valentovic, Gary O Rankin
Methadone is a synthetic, long-acting opioid with a single chiral center forming two enantiomers, (R)-methadone and (S)-methadone, each having specific pharmacological actions. Concentrations of (R)- and (S)-methadone above therapeutic levels have the ability to cause serious, life-threatening, and fatal side effects. This toxicity can be due in part to the pharmacogenetics of an individual, which influences the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Methadone is primarily metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, predominately by CYP2B6, followed by CYP3A4, 2C19, 2D6, and to a lesser extent, CYP2C18, 3A7, 2C8, 2C9, 3A5, and 1A2...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457668/the-relationships-between-depression-neuroticism-and-attitudes-nda-model-in-heroin-abusers-in-taiwan
#2
Kun-Hua Lee, Cheng-Fang Yen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin use is a severe problem worldwide. To develop more effective treatments for heroin abusers, a comprehensive psychosocial model of heroin use should be established and examined. We created and assessed a neuroticism, depression, attitudes, and heroin addiction (NDA) model. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients undergoing methadone replacement treatment were recruited from psychiatric clinics. We used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to assess all for neuroticism, depression, and a positive outcome expectancy (POE) (attitudes)...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456448/pain-catastrophizing-mediates-the-relationship-between-trait-happiness-and-depressive-symptoms-in-individuals-with-current-pain
#3
Patrick Tran, John A Sturgeon, Aneesha Nilakantan, Alyssa Foote, Sean Mackey, Kevin Johnson
Objective: There is an extensive relationship between chronic pain and depression; however, there is less research examining whether pain-specific factors, such as pain intensity, predict depression, above and beyond the role of normative factors, such as positive emotions. The current study characterized the independent contributions of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and a trait measure of happiness to self-rated depressive symptoms. Methods: We recruited and enrolled 70 volunteers across 3 groups of participants: two groups of patients with current low back pain (one group on opioids and one group opioid-naïve), and individuals in a methadone maintenance treatment program...
December 2017: Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455053/the-becoming-of-methadone-in-kenya-how-an-intervention-s-implementation-constitutes-recovery-potential
#4
Tim Rhodes
This analysis treats the recent introduction of methadone treatment in Kenya as a case of 'evidence-making intervention'. Using 30 qualitative interviews with people in receipt of methadone treatment in Nairobi, Kenya, methadone's becoming is treated as an effect of its narrative and material implementations. The interviews are shown to enact a narrative of methadone recovery potential towards normalcy beyond addiction. Such recovery potential is materialised in practice through social interactions wherein methadone's embodied effects are seen to be believed...
February 10, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453891/an-investigation-of-an-open-access-model-for-scaling-up-methadone-maintenance-treatment
#5
Lynn M Madden, Scott O Farnum, Kathryn F Eggert, Andrew R Quanbeck, Robert Freeman, Samuel A Ball, Richard S Schottenfeld, Julia M Shi, Mary Ellen Savage, Declan T Barry
AIMS: To retrospectively examine patient and programmatic outcomes following the development and implementation of an "open-access" model in which prospective patients were enrolled rapidly in methadone maintenance treatment, irrespective of ability to pay, and provided real-time access to multiple voluntary treatment options. DESIGN: Medical and administrative records were abstracted to compare data for one year before and 9 years after initiating the implementation of an open-access treatment model in May 2007...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450252/alcohol-and-tobacco-use-among-methadone-maintenance-patients-in-vietnamese-rural-mountainside-areas
#6
Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc Hoang Le, Hue Thi Mai, Chau Ngo, Canh Dinh Hoang, Hai Hong Nguyen, Hai Quan Le, Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Nabil Zary, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu, Roger C M Ho, Melvyn W B Zhang
Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450244/characteristics-of-adherence-to-methadone-maintenance-treatment-over-a-15-year-period-among-homeless-adults-experiencing-mental-illness
#7
Milad Parpouchi, Akm Moniruzzaman, Stefanie N Rezansoff, Angela Russolillo, Julian M Somers
Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has important protective effects related to reduced illicit opioid use, infectious disease transmission, and overdose mortality. Adherence to MMT has not been examined among homeless people. We measured MMT adherence and reported relevant characteristics among homeless adults experiencing mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Material and methods: Homeless adults living with mental illness who had received MMT prior to the baseline interview of the Vancouver At Home study ( n = 78) were included in analyses...
December 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450210/sofosbuvir-based-direct-acting-antiviral-therapies-for-hcv-in-people-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-an-analysis-of-phase-3-studies
#8
Jason Grebely, Jordan J Feld, David Wyles, Mark Sulkowski, Liyun Ni, Joe Llewellyn, Heshaam M Mir, Nika Sajed, Luisa M Stamm, Robert H Hyland, John McNally, Diana M Brainard, Ira Jacobson, Stefan Zeuzem, Marc Bourlière, Graham Foster, Nezam Afdhal, Gregory J Dore
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapy is effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but studies are limited by small numbers of nongenotype 1 (GT1) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment completion, adherence, SVR12, and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapies in HCV patients receiving and not receiving OST. Methods: Ten phase 3 studies of sofosbuvir-based regimens included ION (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in GT1), ASTRAL (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in GT1-6), and POLARIS (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in GT1-6)...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449263/patterns-of-methadone-maintenance-treatment-provision-in-ontario-policy-success-or-pendulum-excess
#9
Paul Kurdyak, Binu Jacob, Juveria Zaheer, Benedikt Fischer
OBJECTIVE: To describe recent trends and patterns in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) practice regionally and over time in the province of Ontario. DESIGN: Population-based descriptive study using health administrative data between September 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: All active MMT-prescribing physicians and patients receiving MMT in the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of MMT-prescribing physicians, including age, sex, specialty type, practice region, and practice volume; characteristics of patients receiving MMT, including age, sex, neighbourhood income, and region of residence...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447177/physician-prescribing-of-opioid-agonist-treatments-in-provincial-correctional-facilities-in-ontario-canada-a-survey
#10
Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, Alexandra Patel, Matthew J To, Lori Kiefer, Leonora Regenstreif
BACKGROUND: Substance use and substance use disorders are common in people who experience detention or incarceration in Canada, and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) may reduce the harms associated with substance use disorders. We aimed to define current physician practice in provincial correctional facilities in Ontario with respect to prescribing OAT and to identify potential barriers and facilitators to prescribing OAT. METHODS: We invited all physicians practicing in the 26 provincial correctional facilities for adults in Ontario to participate in an online survey...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444687/psychometric-properties-of-the-medical-outcomes-study-social-support-survey-among-methadone-maintenance-patients-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam-a-validation-study
#11
Long Quynh Khuong, Tuong-Vi Thi Vu, Van-Anh Ngoc Huynh, Truc Thanh Thai
BACKGROUND: Social support plays a crucial role in the treatment and recovery process of patients engaging in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, there is a paucity of research about social support among MMT patients, possibly due to a lack of appropriate measuring tools. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vietnamese version of the Medical Outcomes Study: Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) among MMT patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 300 patients was conducted in a methadone clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam...
February 14, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443414/neonatal-outcomes-after-fetal-exposure-to-methadone-and-buprenorphine-national-registry-studies-from-the-czech-republic-and-norway
#12
Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Roman Gabrhelík, Anders Engeland, Marte Handal
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is recommended to opioid dependent females during pregnancy. However, it is not clear which medication should be preferred. We aimed to compare neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to methadone (M) and buprenorphine (B) in two European countries. DESIGN: Nationwide register-based cohort study using personalized IDs assigned to all citizens for data linkage. SETTING: The Czech Republic (2000-2014) and Norway (2004-2013)...
February 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441714/time-dependent-regional-brain-distribution-of-methadone-and-naltrexone-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-addiction
#13
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Hendrik G Kruger, Tricia Naicker, Nirmala D Gopal, Thavendran Govender
Opioid addiction is a serious public health concern with severe health and social implications; therefore, extensive therapeutic efforts are required to keep users drug free. The two main pharmacological interventions, in the treatment of addiction, involve management with methadone an mu (μ)-opioid agonist and treatment with naltrexone, μ-opioid, kappa (κ)-opioid and delta (δ)-opioid antagonist. MET and NAL are believed to help individuals to derive maximum benefit from treatment and undergo a full recovery...
February 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440627/evaluation-of-a-new-simple-collection-device-for-sampling-of-microparticles-in-exhaled-breath
#14
Sabina Seferaj, Shahid Ullah, Åsa Danielsson Tinglev, Sten Carlsson, Jesper Winberg, Peter Stambeck, Olof Beck
The microparticle fraction of exhaled breath is of interest for developing clinical biomarkers. Exhaled particles may contain non-volatile components from all parts of the airway system, formed during normal breathing. This study aimed to evaluate a simple, new sampling device, based on impaction, for collecting microparticles from exhaled breath. Performance of the new device was compared with that of the existing SensAbues membrane filter device. The analytical work used liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry methods...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433040/pharmaceutical-opioid-overdose-deaths-and-the-presence-of-witnesses
#15
Rowan P Ogeil, Jeremy Dwyer, Lyndal Bugeja, Cherie Heilbronn, Dan I Lubman, Belinda Lloyd
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, rates of pharmaceutical opioid use and harms resulting from their use (including death) have risen. The present study identified a series of fatal opioid overdoses where there was evidence that witnesses had noted symptoms consistent with overdose, and examined associated contextual factors. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken utilising the Coroners Court of Victoria's Overdose Deaths Register for pharmaceutical opioid overdose deaths between 2011 and 2013...
February 9, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432974/similarities-and-changes-between-15-and-24-year-survival-and-retention-rates-of-patients-in-a-large-medical-affiliated-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-center
#16
Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND: Environmental and social trends and patients' characteristics may affect predictors for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) outcome. METHODS: We have expanded our previous study of predictors for MMT outcome (from 619 to 890 patients) and the study period (from 15 to 24 years). Survival and retention in MMT since admission to the MMT clinic (6/1993-6/2016) and until death or study closure (6/2017) were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 890 patients ever admitted (10,146...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429442/heroin-detoxification-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-retrospective-study-of-the-management-of-heroin-addiction-in-pregnancy
#17
K V Gilfillan, L Dannatt, D J Stein, B Vythilingum
BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that methadone maintenance is the gold standard in the management of pregnant heroin users. However, in South African state hospitals, methadone withdrawal is the routine procedure offered to these patients, as methadone maintenance programmes are unavailable in the public sector. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on heroin detoxification in pregnancy, and to document pregnancy outcomes in heroin users detoxified with methadone at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), Cape Town, from 2006 to 2010...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426304/rationale-design-and-methodology-of-a-trial-evaluating-three-models-of-care-for-hcv-treatment-among-injection-drug-users-on-opioid-agonist-therapy
#18
Matthew J Akiyama, Linda Agyemang, Julia H Arnsten, Moonseong Heo, Brianna L Norton, Bruce R Schackman, Benjamin P Linas, Alain H Litwin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) constitute 60% of the approximately 5 million people in the U.S. infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment of PWID is complex due to addiction, mental illness, poverty, homelessness, lack of positive social support, poor adherence-related skills, low motivation and knowledge, and poor access to and trust in the health care system. New direct-acting antiviral medications are available for HCV with high cure rates and few side effects. The life expectancy and economic benefits of new HCV treatments will not be realized unless we determine optimal models of care for the majority of HCV-infected patients...
February 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421753/occurrence-of-illicit-drugs-in-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-the-south-of-italy
#19
Alida Cosenza, Carmelo Massimo Maida, Donatella Piscionieri, Serena Fanara, Francesca Di Gaudio, Gaspare Viviani
In this study the occurrence and the behavior of illicit drugs and their metabolites have been investigated for two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island of Italy). Samples were analyzed for methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and Benzoylecgonine (BEG)...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415856/a-qualitative-assessment-of-attitudes-about-and-preferences-for-extended-release-naltrexone-a-new-pharmacotherapy-to-treat-opioid-use-disorders-in-ukraine
#20
Ruthanne Marcus, Martha J Bojko, Alyona Mazhnaya, Iuliia Makarenko, Sergii Filippovych, Sergii Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice, Sandra A Springer
Numerous individual barriers, including negative attitudes toward opioid agonist therapies (OAT), have undermined HIV prevention efforts in Ukraine where the epidemic is concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). The recent availability of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), an opioid antagonist, provides new opportunities for treatment and prevention, but little is known about patient preferences. We conducted qualitative analysis using focus groups (FG) of PWID recruited based on OAT experience: currently, previously, and never on OAT in five Ukrainian cities...
March 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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