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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907884/factors-determining-human-to-human-transmissibility-of-zoonotic-pathogens-via-contact
#1
REVIEW
Mathilde Richard, Sascha Knauf, Philip Lawrence, Alison E Mather, Vincent J Munster, Marcel A Müller, Derek Smith, Thijs Kuiken
The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#2
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871974/anti-inflammatory-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-onopordum-illyricum-l-asteraceae-an-italian-medicinal-plant
#3
Carmen Formisano, Cinzia Sanna, Mauro Ballero, Giuseppina Chianese, Carmina Sirignano, Daniela Rigano, Estrella Millán, Eduardo Muñoz, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati
Onopordum illyricum L. is a medicinal plant used in the Mediterranean area as antipyretic for the treatment of respiratory and urinary inflammations and to treat skin ulcers. Repeated chromatographic purification of O. illyricum aerial parts led to the isolation of six known sesquiterpenes, which were evaluated for the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and STAT3 and for the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the cellular antioxidant response. Structure-activity relationships were interpreted by the NMR-based cysteamine assay...
November 19, 2016: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865769/discrepancies-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-hypersensitivity-reactions-in-children
#4
Tuğba Arikoglu, Gulen Aslan, Didem Derici Yildirim, Sehra Birgul Batmaz, Semanur Kuyucu
BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently encountered in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the confirmation rates, risk factors of NSAID hypersensitivity in children and to try to classify them with a standardized diagnostic protocol. METHODS: All patients with a suspicion of NSAID-induced hypersensitivity were evaluated with European Network for drug Allergy (ENDA) recommendations...
November 16, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854467/parental-management-of-peers-and-autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-in-predicting-adolescent-peer-relationships
#5
Kelly M Tu, Stephen A Erath, Mona El-Sheikh
The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842634/a-review-of-the-peri-operative-management-of-paediatric-burns-identifying-adverse-events
#6
H Rode, C Brink, K Bester, M P Coleman, T Baisey, R Martinez
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries are common in poverty-stricken countries. The majority of patients with large and complex burns are referred to burn centres. Of the children who qualify for admission, according to burn admission criteria, about half require some kind of surgical procedure to obtain skin cover. These range from massive full-thickness fire burns to skin grafts for small, residual unhealed wounds. Burn anaesthetic procedures are of the most difficult to perform and are known for high complication rates...
November 2, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812777/acromegaly-clinical-features-at-diagnosis
#7
REVIEW
Lucio Vilar, Clarice Freitas Vilar, Ruy Lyra, Raissa Lyra, Luciana A Naves
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare and underdiagnosed disorder caused, in more than 95% of cases, by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The GH hypersecretion leads to overproduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) which results in a multisystem disease characterized by somatic overgrowth, multiple comorbidities, physical disfigurement, and increased mortality. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the clinical features of acromegaly at diagnosis...
November 3, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812634/prevalence-of-latent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-prisoners
#8
Pedro Daibert de Navarro, Isabela Neves de Almeida, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Maria das Graças Ceccato, Mônica Maria Delgado Maciel, Wânia da Silva Carvalho, Silvana Spindola de Miranda
Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study...
September 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788397/the-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-stimulates-bovine-herpesvirus-1-productive-infection
#9
Liqian Zhu, Prasanth Thunuguntla, Yilin Liu, Morgan Hancock, Clinton Jones
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1), an important bovine pathogen, causes conjunctivitis and disorders in the upper respiratory tract. Following acute infection, BoHV1 establishes life-long latency in sensory neurons. Recent studies demonstrated that viral gene products expressed in trigeminal ganglionic neurons during latency stabilize β-catenin levels, an important signaling molecule that interacts with a family of DNA binding proteins (T-cell factors) and subsequently stimulates transcription. In this study, we provide new evidence demonstrating that BoHV-1 transiently increased β-catenin protein levels in bovine kidney (CRIB) cells, but not in rabbit skin cells...
October 24, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756492/repercussions-of-preterm-birth-on-symptoms-of-asthma-allergic-diseases-and-pulmonary-function-6-14-years-later
#10
C Gonçalves, G Wandalsen, F Lanza, A L Goulart, D Solé, A Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of allergic diseases and impaired pulmonary function may be high in children born prematurely. This study aimed to assess pulmonary function and prevalence of asthma, atopic diseases and allergic sensitisation in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 6-14 years who were born prematurely with birth weight <2000g from January 2008 to May 2011. Exclusion criteria were: major malformations, or acute respiratory disorders...
October 15, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742281/cryptococcosis-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#11
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734174/medical-surveillance-and-long-term-prognosis-of-occupational-allergy-due-to-platinum-salts
#12
Rolf Merget, Ngoc Pham, Maike Schmidtke, Swaantje Casjens, Vera van Kampen, Ingrid Sander, Olaf Hagemeyer, Kirsten Sucker, Monika Raulf, Thomas Brüning
PURPOSE: Medical surveillance of workers in precious metals refineries and catalyst production plants is well established in many countries as a measure to prevent occupational asthma due to platinum (Pt) salts. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the impact of medical surveillance and to define prognostic factors with an emphasis on exposure determinants. METHODS: As part of an observational longitudinal study, 96 workers from German precious metals refineries and catalyst production plants with Pt salt allergy underwent a second examination several years (median 67 months) after the initial diagnosis was made...
October 12, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720566/analyses-of-pressure-ulcer-incidence-in-inpatient-setting-in-a-portuguese-hospital
#13
Pedro Miguel Garcez Sardo, Cláudia Sofia Oliveira Simões, José Joaquim Marques Alvarelhão, João Filipe Fernandes Lindo Simões, Paulo Alexandre Puga Machado, Francisco Manuel Lemos Amado, António José Monteiro Amaro, Elsa Maria Oliveira Pinheiro de Melo
AIM: To gain more insight into the magnitude of the problem of pressure ulcer incidence in general wards of a Portuguese hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of electronic health record database from 7132 adult patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of Aveiro Hospital during 2012. The development of (at least) one pressure ulcer during the length of stay was associated with age, gender, type of admission, specialty units, first Braden Scale score, length of stay, patient discharge outcome and ICD-9 diagnosis...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718250/european-survey-on-adverse-systemic-reactions-in-allergen-immunotherapy-eassi-a-real-life-clinical-assessment
#14
Moisés A Calderón, Carmen Vidal, Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Jocelyne Just, Oliver Pfaar, Ana I Tabar, Inmaculada Sánchez-Machín, Petra Bubel, Jesus Borja, Peter Eberle, Rainer Reiber, Michel Bouvier, Alain Lepelliez, Ludger Klimek, Pascal Demoly
BACKGROUND: Outside clinical trials, data on systemic reactions (SRs) due to allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are scarce. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, web-based survey of "real-life" respiratory allergen immunotherapy (AIT) clinical practice was conducted in France, Germany and Spain. SRs were recorded and coded according to the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and risk factors associated with SRs were identified. RESULTS: A total of 4,316 patients (corresponding to 4,363 ongoing courses of AIT) were included...
October 8, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714048/skin-mountable-stretch-sensor-for-wearable-health-monitoring
#15
Jonathan D Pegan, Jasmine Zhang, Michael Chu, Thao Nguyen, Sun-Jun Park, Akshay Paul, Joshua Kim, Mark Bachman, Michelle Khine
This work presents a wrinkled Platinum (wPt) strain sensor with tunable strain sensitivity for applications in wearable health monitoring. These stretchable sensors show a dynamic range of up to 185% strain and gauge factor (GF) of 42. This is believed to be the highest reported GF of any metal thin film strain sensor over a physiologically relevant dynamic range to date. Importantly, sensitivity and dynamic range are tunable to the application by adjusting wPt film thickness. Performance is reliable over 1000 cycles with low hysteresis after sensor conditioning...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683825/coa7-c1orf163-resa1-mutations-associated-with-mitochondrial-leukoencephalopathy-and-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#16
Anabel Martinez Lyons, Anna Ardissone, Aurelio Reyes, Alan J Robinson, Isabella Moroni, Daniele Ghezzi, Erika Fernandez-Vizarra, Massimo Zeviani
BACKGROUND: Assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV, cIV), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is assisted by several factors, most of which are conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of them, including COA7, are found in humans but not in yeast. COA7 is a 231aa-long mitochondrial protein present in animals, containing five Sel1-like tetratricopeptide repeat sequences, which are likely to interact with partner proteins. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was carried out on a 19 year old woman, affected by early onset, progressive severe ataxia and peripheral neuropathy, mild cognitive impairment and a cavitating leukodystrophy of the brain with spinal cord hypotrophy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666491/quality-improvement-of-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
Chien-Yi Chen, An-Kuo Chou, Yu-Lien Chen, Hung-Chieh Chou, Po-Nien Tsao, Wu-Shiun Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) therapy is widely used in neonates, but the clinical practice varies. However, nursing practice differs among individuals, and an inappropriate application method may delay the respiratory therapy, influence the beneficial effect of NCPAP, and increase complications. We introduced a quality improvement project to expedite the application of NCPAP therapy and decrease the incidence of nasal trauma. METHODS: A new strategy of mobile NCPAP cart with prepacked fixation kits and a written protocol was implemented from April 2006...
July 26, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665385/development-and-initial-validation-of-a-questionnaire-to-measure-health-related-quality-of-life-of-adults-with-common-variable-immune-deficiency-the-cvid_qol-questionnaire
#18
Isabella Quinti, Federica Pulvirenti, Patrizia Giannantoni, Joud Hajjar, Debra L Canter, Cinzia Milito, Damiano Abeni, Jordan S Orange, Stefano Tabolli
BACKGROUND: Generic health status quality of life (QoL) instruments have been used in patients with common variable immune deficiency (CVID). However, by their nature, these tools may over- or underestimate the impact of diseases on an individual's QoL. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to measure specific-health-related QoL for adults with CVID (CVID_QoL). METHODS: The 32-item content of the CVID_QoL questionnaire was developed using focus groups and individual patient interviews...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646192/human-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains-differ-in-prevalence-of-virulence-factors-phylogroups-and-bacteriocin-determinants
#19
Lenka Micenková, Juraj Bosák, Martin Vrba, Alena Ševčíková, David Šmajs
BACKGROUND: The study used a set of 407 human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains (ExPEC) isolated from (1) skin and soft tissue infections, (2) respiratory infections, (3) intra-abdominal infections, and (4) genital smears. The set was tested for bacteriocin production, for prevalence of bacteriocin and virulence determinants, and for phylogenetic typing. Results obtained from the group of ExPEC strains were compared to data from our previously published analyses of 1283 fecal commensal E...
2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637414/the-european-survey-on-adverse-systemic-reactions-in-allergen-immunotherapy-eassi-a-paediatric-assessment
#20
Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Carmen Vidal, Jocelyne Just, Ana I Tabar, Inmaculada Sanchez-Machin, Peter Eberle, Jesus Borja, Petra Bubel, Oliver Pfaar, Pascal Demoly, Moises A Calderón
BACKGROUND: Safety data on "real-life" allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. METHODS: Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. RESULTS: A total of 1,563 patients (mean±SD age: 11...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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