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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#1
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273659/self-reported-allergic-rhinitis-and-or-allergic-conjunctivitis-associate-with-il13-rs20541-polymorphism-in-finnish-adult-asthma-patients
#2
Kati Ådjers, Annika Luukkainen, Juha Pekkanen, Mikko Hurme, Heini Huhtala, Risto Renkonen, De Yun Wang, Mika J Mäkelä, Jussi Karjalainen, Sanna Toppila-Salmi
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to observe factors associated with IL13 rs20541 polymorphism and other factors with or without allergic comorbidities such as subject-reported allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or allergic conjunctivitis (AC) symptoms in adult asthmatics. METHODS: A population-based sample of Finnish adult asthma patients (n = 1,156) and matched controls (n = 1,792) filled in a questionnaire. Asthma was diagnosed based on a typical history of asthma symptoms and lung function tests...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261938/mast-cell-disorders-in-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Suranjith L Seneviratne, Anne Maitland, Lawrence Afrin
Well known for their role in allergic disorders, mast cells (MCs) play a key role in homeostatic mechanisms and surveillance, recognizing and responding to different pathogens, and tissue injury, with an array of chemical mediators. After being recruited to connective tissues, resident MCs progenitors undergo further differentiation, under the influence of signals from surrounding microenvironment. It is the differential tissue homing and local maturation factors which result in a diverse population of resident MC phenotypes...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216501/-retrospective-analysis-on-337-cases-of-%C3%A2-henoch-sch%C3%A3-nlein-purpura
#4
Lijun Zhao, Yaping Li
To determine differences in incidence, causes, clinical manifestation,prognosis between children and adults in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP).
 Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 337 patients who hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology, Peace Hospital affiliated to Changzhi Medical College from Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2016. All patients were divided into two groups by age: a child group (patients were less than 14 years old) and an adult group (patients were more than or equal to 14 years old)...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209048/waste-exposure-and-skin-diseases
#5
Matteo Megna, Maddalena Napolitano, Claudia Costa, Nicola Balato, Cataldo Patruno
Waste is a composite mixture of different substances including endotoxins, organic dust and bio-aerosol stuffed with micro-organisms, as well as various toxic organic and inorganic chemicals, which may be intrinsically hazardous to human health. Therefore, health risks may derive from direct or indirect contact with garbage. Although few epidemiological and clinical surveys investigated on the adverse effects of garbage exposure on human health, particularly regarding respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and mucous membranes systems, only very limited data are available on the relationship between waste exposure and cutaneous diseases...
February 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162010/genetic-risk-factors-for-serious-infections-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
Saranya Sasidharan, Vijay Yajnik, Hamed Khalili, John Garber, Ramnik Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppression, the cornerstone of management of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (inflammatory bowel diseases; IBD) is associated with an increased risk of serious infections that is inadequately predicted by clinical risk factors. The role of genetics in determining susceptibility to infections is unknown. METHODS: From a prospective-consented patient registry, we identified IBD patients with serious infections requiring hospitalization...
February 5, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154360/health-impact-assessment-of-asian-dust-cross-border-air-pollutant-and-necessary-preventive-measure
#7
REVIEW
Kazunari Onishi
The health effects of Asian dust (mineral dust) originating from dry lands such as the Gobi Desert and Taklamakan Desert have recently been a concern. In addition to Asian dust, transboundary airborne microparticles that reach Japan include various types of aerosol, such as artificial air pollutants and smoke from combustion. They originate from densely populated areas and are transported along the same route as Asian dust. We analyzed environmental factors and subjective symptoms involving the respiratory organ, nose, eyes, and skin using a conventional equation for estimation, and found that symptoms with a significant risk of worsening varied according to the type of pollutants reaching Japan...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153465/-prevention-and-treatment-of-skin-lesions-associated-with-non-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-recommendations-of-experts
#8
M Raurell-Torredà, A Romero-Collado, M Rodríguez-Palma, M Farrés-Tarafa, J D Martí, B Hurtado-Pardos, L Peñarrubia-San Florencio, P Saez-Paredes, A M Esquinas
INTRODUCTION: In the last two decades, non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has been consolidated as an initial strategy for the management of respiratory failure in critical adult and paediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors and preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of skin lesions associated with clinical devices (LESADIC) related to NIV, as well as the most effective treatment for injuries that cannot be avoided. METHODOLOGY: Review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases of studies published in the last 10years to reach consensus through an expert panel...
January 30, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151842/xpert-mtb-rif-on-stool-is-useful-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-severe-pulmonary-disease
#9
Elisabetta Walters, Marieke Magrieta van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Anne-Marie Demers, Heather Draper, Pierre Goussard, Hendrik Simon Schaaf, Sven Olaf Friedrich, Andrew Whitelaw, Robin Warren, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to result in high morbidity and mortality in children from resource-limited settings. Diagnostic challenges, including resource-intense sputum collection methods and insensitive diagnostic tests, contribute to diagnostic delay and poor outcomes in children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of stool Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) compared with bacteriologic confirmation (combination of Xpert and culture of respiratory samples). METHODS: In a hospital-based study in Cape Town, South Africa, we enrolled children younger than 13 years of age with suspected pulmonary TB from April 2012- August 2015...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092390/asthma-comparing-the-impact-of-vitamin-d-versus-uvr-on-clinical-and-immune-parameters
#10
Kylie A Morgan, Elizabeth H Mann, Antony R Young, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
The incidence of asthma has increased markedly since the 1960s and is currently estimated to affect more than 300 million individuals worldwide. A number of environmental factors are implicated in asthma pathogenesis, one of which is vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern and has increased in parallel with asthma incidence. Epidemiological studies report associations between low vitamin D status, assessed as circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, with asthma incidence, severity, exacerbations and responses to treatment...
January 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087381/prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-atopic-and-nonatopic-asthma-among-rural-children
#11
Joshua A Lawson, Luan M Chu, Donna C Rennie, Louise Hagel, Chandima P Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, James A Dosman
BACKGROUND: Because of time and cost constraints, objective classification of atopic and nonatopic asthma has been limited in large epidemiologic studies. However, as we try to better understand exposure-outcome associations and ensure appropriate treatment of asthma, it is important to focus on phenotype-defined asthma classification. OBJECTIVE: To compare atopic and nonatopic asthma in rural children with regard to risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2011...
March 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077740/the-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction-after-antibiotic-treatment-of-spirochetal-infections-a-review-of-recent-cases-and-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Butler
Within 24 hours after antibiotic treatment of the spirochetal infections syphilis, Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and relapsing fever (RF), patients experience shaking chills, a rise in temperature, and intensification of skin rashes known as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) with symptoms resolving a few hours later. Case reports indicate that the JHR can also include uterine contractions in pregnancy, worsening liver and renal function, acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury, hypotension, meningitis, alterations in consciousness, seizures, and strokes...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076799/adenylyl-cyclase-type-9-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-asthma-and-allergy-in-brazilian-children
#13
Helena M P Teixeira, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Maurício Barreto, Camila A Figueiredo, Ryan S Costa
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. This heterogeneous disease is caused by the interaction of interindividual genetic variability and environmental factors. The gene adenylyl cyclase type 9 (ADCY9) encodes a protein called adenylyl cyclase (AC), responsible for producing the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP is produced by T regulatory cells and is involved in the down-regulation of T effector cells. Failures in cAMP production may be related to an imbalance in the regulatory immune response, leading to immune-mediated diseases, such as allergic disorders...
January 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056905/determinants-of-chronic-otitis-media-with-effusion-in-preschool-children-a-case-control-study
#14
Rebecca E Walker, Jim Bartley, David Flint, John M D Thompson, Edwin A Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is a prevalent upper airway infection resulting in hearing loss. The aim of this research was to determine risk factors for COME in preschool children. METHODS: A case-control design was conducted in Auckland, New Zealand from May 2011 until November 2013. The cases were children aged 3 and 4 years referred for tympanostomy tube placement due to a diagnosis of COME (n = 178). The controls were a random sample of healthy children aged 3 and 4 years from primary care practices (n = 209)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041752/burns-and-long-term-infectious-disease-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#15
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Fiona M Wood, James H Boyd, Mark W Fear
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of data that indicates that serious injury suppresses immune function, predisposing individuals to infectious complications. With recent evidence showing long-term immune dysfunction after less severe burn, this study aimed to investigate post-burn infectious disease morbidity and assess if burn patients have increased long-term hospital use for infectious diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia for all persons hospitalised for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019110/severe-kaposi-sarcoma-in-an-urban-public-hospital
#16
Shirin Elisha Kasturia, Clifford Gunthel, Cheng Zeng, Minh Ly Nguyen
The national incidence of epidemic Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) has decreased dramatically since the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy. Despite national trends, we continue to see admissions for KS. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients with HIV who were admitted with active KS between 2010 and 2013 and records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics and factors affecting survival. Data were collected from all hospital admissions until death or May 1, 2015. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with log-rank tests were used to test for differences in survival and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the prognostic value of variables...
January 31, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000117/monitoring-indoor-air-quality-for-enhanced-occupational-health
#17
Rui Pitarma, Gonçalo Marques, Bárbara Roque Ferreira
Indoor environments are characterized by several pollutant sources. Because people spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, several studies have pointed out the impact of indoor air quality on the etiopathogenesis of a wide number of non-specific symptoms which characterizes the "Sick Building Syndrome", involving the skin, the upper and lower respiratory tract, the eyes and the nervous system, as well as many building related diseases. Thus, indoor air quality (IAQ) is recognized as an important factor to be controlled for the occupants' health and comfort...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943451/chemical-kinetics-of-multiphase-reactions-between-ozone-and-human-skin-lipids-implications-for-indoor-air-quality-and-health-effects
#18
P S J Lakey, A Wisthaler, T Berkemeier, T Mikoviny, U Pöschl, M Shiraiwa
Ozone reacts with skin lipids such as squalene, generating an array of organic compounds, some of which can act as respiratory or skin irritants. Thus, it is important to quantify and predict the formation of these products under different conditions in indoor environments. We developed the kinetic multilayer model that explicitly resolves mass transport and chemical reactions at the skin and in the gas phase (KM-SUB-Skin). It can reproduce the concentrations of ozone and organic compounds in previous measurements and new experiments...
December 10, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931290/hygiene-factors-associated-with-childhood-food-allergy-and-asthma
#19
Ruchi S Gupta, Anne Marie Singh, Madeline Walkner, Deanna Caruso, Paul J Bryce, Xiaobin Wang, Jacqueline A Pongracic, Bridget M Smith
BACKGROUND: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternalchild factors. METHODS: Children ages 021 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings...
November 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907884/factors-determining-human-to-human-transmissibility-of-zoonotic-pathogens-via-contact
#20
REVIEW
Mathilde Richard, Sascha Knauf, Philip Lawrence, Alison E Mather, Vincent J Munster, Marcel A Müller, Derek Smith, Thijs Kuiken
The pandemic potential of zoonotic pathogens lies in their ability to become efficiently transmissible amongst humans. Here, we focus on contact-transmitted pathogens and discuss the factors, at the pathogen, host and environmental levels that promote or hinder their human-to-human transmissibility via the following modes of contact transmission: skin contact, sexual contact, respiratory contact and multiple route contact. Factors common to several modes of transmission were immune evasion, high viral load, low infectious dose, crowding, promiscuity, and co-infections; other factors were specific for a pathogen or mode of contact transmission...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
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