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fumaric acid

Shinichi Hikasa, Megumi Yasuda, Kyoko Hideta, Mai Kawakami, Satoshi Higasa, Akihiro Sawada, Tazuko Tokugawa, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is recognized with increasing frequency among the noninfectious comorbidities associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) has been shown to be a new biomarker to screen for not only tubulointerstitial damage but also kidney dysfunction. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the association between the urinary L-FABP and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among 77 HIV-infected Japanese patients by backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
N Milanesi, G Bartolini, S Francalanci, M Gola
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the methyl ester form of fumaric acid (DMF) is an effective mold-growth inhibitor. It has a wide-spectrum biocide activity and has been used to protect leather during storage and transport. DMF was first identified as a potent contact sensitizer during a contact dermatitis outbreak that occurred because of its use in Chinese manufactured furniture (1,2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 14, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Katsuhiko Yamamoto, Taro Kojima, Masatoshi Karashima, Yukihiro Ikeda
To judge the developability and analyze functional mechanism of co-amorphouses, we investigated the physicochemical properties of co-amorphouses and compare the properties with the co-crystals having the same drug and counters. Co-amorphous compounds are a novel approach to improve the physicochemical properties of drugs. A co-amorphous is in an amorphous solid state allowing non-ionic interactions between drug molecules and counter molecules. The co-amorphous compounds composed of itraconazole (ITZ) with the organic carboxyl acid, fumaric acid (FA) or L-tartaric acid (TA), were prepared by mechanical grinding...
October 12, 2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xiulai Chen, Wei Song, Cong Gao, Wen Qin, Qiuling Luo, Jia Liu, Liming Liu
Fumarate is a well-known biomass building block compound. However, the poor catalytic efficiency of fumarase is one of the major factors preventing its widespread production. To address this issue, we selected residues 159HPND162 of fumarase from Rhizopus oryzae as targets for site-directed mutagenesis based on molecular docking analysis. Twelve mutants were generated and characterized in detail. Kinetic studies showed that the Km values of the P160A, P160T, P160H, N161E, and D162W mutants were decreased, whereas Km values of H159Y, H159V, H159S, N161R, N161F, D162K, and D162M mutants were increased...
2016: PloS One
Igor Zeman, Martina Neboháčová, Gabriela Gérecová, Kornélia Katonová, Eva Jánošiková, Michaela Jakúbková, Ivana Centárová, Ivana Dunčková, Ĺubomir Tomáška, Leszek P Pryszcz, Toni Gabaldón, Jozef Nosek
The pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis metabolizes hydroxyderivatives of benzene and benzoic acid to compounds channeled into central metabolism including the mitochondrially-localized tricarboxylic acid cycle via the 3-oxoadipate and gentisate pathways. The orchestration of both catabolic pathways with mitochondrial metabolism as well as their evolutionary origin is not fully understood. Our results show that the enzymes involved in these two pathways operate in the cytoplasm with the exception of the mitochondrially-targeted 3-oxoadipate CoA-transferase (Osc1p) and 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase (Oct1p) catalyzing the last two reactions of the 3-oxoadipate pathway...
October 5, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sean E Collins, Philip M Grant, Francois Uwinkindi, Annie Talbot, Eric Seruyange, Deborah Slamowitz, Adeline Mugeni, Eric Remera, Simon Pierre Niyonsenga, Josbert Nyirimigabo, Jean Paul Uwizihiwe, Pierre Dongier, Ribakare Muhayimpundu, Jean-Baptiste Mazarati, Andrew Zolopa, Sabin Nsanzimana
Background.  Many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remain on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite safety and efficacy concerns. Switching to a rilpivirine-based regimen is an alternative, but there is little experience with rilpivirine in sub-Saharan Africa where induction of rilpivirine metabolism by nevirapine, HIV subtype, and dietary differences could potentially impact efficacy. Methods.  We conducted an open-label noninferiority study of virologically suppressed (HIV-1 ribonucleic acid [RNA] < 50 copies/mL) HIV-1-infected Rwandan adults taking nevirapine plus 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Leonid A Solovyov
The structure of benzene:ethane co-crystal at 90 K is refined with anisotropic displacement parameters without geometric restraints from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data using the derivative difference method (DDM) with properly chosen weighting schemes. The average C-C bond precision achieved is 0.005 Å and the H-atom positions in ethane are refined independently. A new DDM weighting scheme is introduced that compensates for big distortions of experimental data. The results are compared with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reported by Maynard-Casely et al...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Xinrong Pan, Huanhuan Liu, Jiao Liu, Cheng Wang, Jianping Wen
In order to relieve the toxicity of furfural on Rhizopus oryzae fermentation, the molecular mechanism of R. oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production was investigated by omics-based approaches. In metabolomics analysis, 29 metabolites including amino acid, sugars, polyols and fatty acids showed significant changes for maintaining the basic cell metabolism at the cost of lowering fumaric acid production. To further uncover the survival mechanism, lipidomics was carried out, revealing that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and polyunsaturated acyl chains might be closely correlated with R...
September 30, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Wen-Cai Liu, Yi-Yu Wang, Jun-Hui Liu, Ai-Bing Ke, Zhi-Hui Zheng, Xin-Hua Lu, Yu-Shi Luan, Zhi-Long Xiu, Yue-Sheng Dong
With the aim of finding more potential inhibitors against NADH-fumarate reductase (specific target for treating helminthiasis and cancer) from natural resources, Talaromyces wortmannii was treated with the epigenome regulatory agent suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, which resulted in the isolation of four new wortmannilactones derivatives (wortmannilactones I-L, 1-4). The structures of these new compounds were elucidated based on IR, HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data analyses. These four new compounds showed potent inhibitory activity against NADH-fumarate reductase with the IC50 values ranging from 0...
September 14, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Amparo Jiménez-Quero, Eric Pollet, Minjie Zhao, Eric Marchioni, Luc Averous, Vincent Phalip
The production of high-value chemicals from natural resources as alternative of petroleum-based products is currently expanding in parallel with biorefinery. The use of lignocellulosic biomass as raw material is promising to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. Filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergillus species, are already used industrially to produce organic acid as well as many enzymes. The production of lignocellulose degrading enzymes opens the possibility for direct fungal fermentation towards organic acids as itaconic and fumaric acids...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fernando G de Macedo, Joana D Bresolin, Elcio F Santos, Felipe Furlan, Wilson T Lopes da Silva, Joe C Polacco, José Lavres
Nickel (Ni) availability in soil varies as a function of pH. Plants require Ni in small quantities for normal development, especially in legumes due its role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. This study investigated the effect of soil base saturation, and Ni amendments on Ni uptake, N accumulation in the leaves and grains, as well as to evaluate organic acids changes in soybean. In addition, two N assimilation enzymes were assayed: nitrate reductase (NR) and Ni-dependent urease. Soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum were cultivated in soil-filled pots under two base-cation saturation (BCS) ratios (50 and 70%) and five Ni rates - 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ting-Shun Wang, Tsen-Fang Tsai
BACKGROUND: Scalp psoriasis is commonly the initial presentation of psoriasis, and almost 80 % of patients with psoriasis will eventually experience it. OBJECTIVE: Although several systematic reviews and guidelines exist, an up-to-date evidence-based review including more recent progress on the use of biologics and new oral small molecules was timely. METHODS: Of the 475 studies initially retrieved from PubMed and the 845 from Embase (up to May 2016), this review includes 27 clinical trials, four papers reporting pooled analyses of other clinical trials, ten open-label trials, one case series, and two case reports after excluding non-English literature...
September 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
S Sevinç Şengör, Gursharan Singh, Alice Dohnalkova, Nicolas Spycher, Timothy R Ginn, Brent M Peyton, Rajesh K Sani
This study investigates the impact of specific environmental conditions on the formation of colloidal U(IV) nanoparticles by the sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB, Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20). The reduction of soluble U(VI) to less soluble U(IV) was quantitatively investigated under growth and non-growth conditions in bicarbonate or 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (PIPES) buffered environments. The results showed that under non-growth conditions, the majority of the reduced U nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated out of solution...
September 13, 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Carolina V Toledo, Carolina Barroetaveña, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
D O Castro, N Tabary, B Martel, A Gandini, N Belgacem, J Bras
Current investigations deal with new surface functionalization strategy of nanocrystalline cellulose-based substrates to impart active molecule release properties. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were surface-functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) using succinic acid (SA) and fumaric acid (FA) as bridging agents. The main objective of this surface modification performed only in aqueous media was to obtain new active materials able to release antibacterial molecules over a prolonged period of time...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yijing Zhuang, Weidong Chen, Fen Yao, Yuanchun Huang, Shuqin Zhou, Haiyan Li, Zijie Zhang, Congyi Cai, Yi Gao, Qing Peng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Motility is a feature of many pathogens that contributes to the migration and dispersion of the infectious agent. Whether gentamycin has a post-antibiotic effect (PAE) on the swarming and swimming motility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to examine whether short-term pretreatment of sub-inhibitory concentrations of gentamycin alter motility of E. coli and the mechanisms involved therein. METHODS: After exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations (0...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xin Li, Jin Zhou, Shuiping Ouyang, Jia Ouyang, Qiang Yong
Production of fumaric acid from alkali-pretreated corncob (APC) at high solids loading was investigated using a combination of separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Rhizopus oryzae. Four different fermentation modes were tested to maximize fumaric acid concentration at high solids loading. The highest concentration of 41.32 g/L fumaric acid was obtained from 20 % (w/v) APC at 38 °C in the combined SHF and fed-batch SSF process, compared with 19...
September 7, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Khaled Fadhlaoui, Wajdi Ben Hania, Anne Postec, Moktar Hamdi, Bernard Ollivier, Marie-Laure Fardeau
A mesophilic anaerobic bacterium, designated KHALHBD91T was isolated from the moderately hot spring of Hamman Biadha, Tunisia. The strain was Gram staining negative, non sporulating, non motile and rod shaped, appearing singly (0.5-2.0µm x 0.5-1µm).It grew anaerobically at temperatures between 20 and 50°C (optimum 37°C) and at pH between 5.5-7.8 (optimum 7.0). It required NaCl for growth, and with growth observed to 8.5% and an optimum at 2.5%. Strain KHALHBD91T used glucose, galactose, maltose, pyruvate, lactate, fumarate, yeast extract as electron donors...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Stevanus Hiendrawan, Edward Widjojokusumo, Bambang Veriansyah, Raymond R Tjandrawinata
We report novel pharmaceutical salts of an anti-hypertensive drug carvedilol (CVD) with pharmaceutically acceptable salt formers, including oxalic acid (OXA), fumaric acid (FUMA), benzoic acid (BZA), and mandelic acid (MDA) via conventional solvent evaporation technique. The pKa difference between CVD and selected acids was greater than 3, thus suggesting salt formation. Two polymorphic forms of CVD/MDA salts and one p-Dioxane solvate of CVD/FUMA salt were also reported in this paper. The salts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
September 6, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
L D Silva, V C S Amaral, M C Vinaud, A M Castro, H H A Rezende, D B Santos, C C Mello-Silva, J C B Bezerra
Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
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