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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643618/heat-stabilised-rice-bran-consumption-by-colorectal-cancer-survivors-modulates-stool-metabolite-profiles-and-metabolic-networks-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Dustin G Brown, Erica C Borresen, Regina J Brown, Elizabeth P Ryan
Rice bran (RB) consumption has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) growth in mice and modify the human stool microbiome. Changes in host and microbial metabolism induced by RB consumption was hypothesised to modulate the stool metabolite profile in favour of promoting gut health and inhibiting CRC growth. The objective was to integrate gut microbial metabolite profiles and identify metabolic pathway networks for CRC chemoprevention using non-targeted metabolomics. In all, nineteen CRC survivors participated in a parallel randomised controlled dietary intervention trial that included daily consumption of study-provided foods with heat-stabilised RB (30 g/d) or no additional ingredient (control)...
May 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642636/nucleotide-composition-determines-the-role-of-translational-efficiency-in-human-genes
#2
Binata Halder, Arup Kumar Malakar, Supriyo Chakraborty
The basic sequence features were analysed that influence gene expression via codon usage bias of the selected forty coding sequences of Homo sapiens in a simple prokaryotic model i.e. E. coli K-12 genome. The prime objective was to elucidate the interrelationships among tRNA gene copy numbers, synonymous codons, amino acids and translational efficiency using tRNA adaptation index. It was evident from RSCU scores and principal component analysis, that only those preferred codons were used by the isoacceptor tRNAs that had G and C base at their third codon position...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641781/pregnancy-to-postpartum-transition-of-serum-metabolites-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#3
Elin Chorell, Ulrika Andersson Hall, Carolina Gustavsson, Kerstin Berntorp, Jatta Puhkala, Riitta Luoto, Tommy Olsson, Agneta Holmäng
CONTEXT: Gestational diabetes is commonly linked to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a need to characterize metabolic changes associated with gestational diabetes in order to find novel biomarkers for T2DM. OBJECTIVE: To find potential pathophysiological mechanisms and markers for progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM by studying the metabolic transition from pregnancy to postpartum. DESIGN: The metabolic transition profile from pregnancy to postpartum was characterized in 56 women by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics; 11 women had gestational diabetes mellitus, 24 had normal glucose tolerance, and 21 were normoglycaemic but at increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641210/comparative-analysis-of-polyspecificity-of-the-endogenous-trna-synthetase-of-different-expression-host-towards-photocrosslinking-amino-acids-using-an-in-silico-approach
#4
Nadarajan Saravanan Prabhu, Hyungdon Yun
Photo-induced covalent crosslinking has emerged as the powerful strategy for analyzing and characterizing the protein-protein interaction and mapping protein 3D conformations. In the last decades, a number of photocrosslinking amino acids have been reported but only a few have been efficiently utilized for photocrosslinking purposes. Recently, incorporation of diazirine containing photoactivatable analogs such as photo-methionine, photo-leucine, photo-isoleucine and photo-lysine into target proteins were accomplished in live cells (Human A549cells, HEK 293) by depleting corresponding natural amino acid and supplementing these analogs in the medium...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640882/quantitation-of-underivatized-branched-chain-amino-acids-in-sport-nutritional-supplements-by-capillary-electrophoresis-with-direct-or-indirect-uv-absorbance-detection
#5
Jun Qiu, Jinhao Wang, Zhongqi Xu, Huiqing Liu, Jie Ren
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640216/a-branched-chain-amino-acid-related-metabolic-signature-characterizes-obese-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#6
Martina Goffredo, Nicola Santoro, Domenico Tricò, Cosimo Giannini, Ebe D'Adamo, Hongyu Zhao, Gang Peng, Xiaoqing Yu, Tukiet T Lam, Bridget Pierpont, Sonia Caprio, Raimund I Herzog
Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30) or without (n = 48) NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638350/branched-chain-amino-acid-ingestion-stimulates-muscle-myofibrillar-protein-synthesis-following-resistance-exercise-in-humans
#7
Sarah R Jackman, Oliver C Witard, Andrew Philp, Gareth A Wallis, Keith Baar, Kevin D Tipton
The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA) stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients) following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years), resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626469/serum-amino-acid-profiles-in-normal-subjects-and-in-patients-with-or-at-risk-of-alzheimer-dementia
#8
Gaetano Corso, Adriana Cristofano, Nadia Sapere, Giancarlo la Marca, Antonella Angiolillo, Michela Vitale, Roberto Fratangelo, Teresa Lombardi, Carola Porcile, Mariano Intrieri, Alfonso Di Costanzo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormalities in the plasma amino acid profile have been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD), but no data exist for the prodromal phase characterized by subjective memory complaint (SMC). It was our aim to understand if serum amino acid levels change along the continuum from normal to AD, and to identify possible diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: Serum levels of 15 amino acids and 2 organic acids were determined in 4 groups of participants - 29 with probable AD, 18 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 24 with SMC, and 46 cognitively healthy subjects (HS) - by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623324/rapid-discrimination-of-human-oesophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-by-mass-spectrometry-based-on-differences-in-amino-acid-metabolism
#9
Zhang Jianyong, Xu Jianjun, Ouyang Yongzhong, Liu Junwen, Lu Haiyan, Yu Dongliang, Peng Jinhua, Xiong Junwen, Chen Huanwen, Wei Yiping
Oesophageal cancer (OC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and surgery is the most effective approach to treat it. In order to reduce surgical risks and duration of surgery, we explored a new strategy to determine tumour margins in surgery. In this study, we included 128 cancerous and 128 noncancerous database entries obtained from 32 human patients. Using internal extractive electrospray ionization-MS, in positive ion detection mode, the relative abundances of m/z 104.13, m/z 116.10, m/z 132...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623320/postprandial-metabolic-response-of-breast-fed-infants-and-infants-fed-lactose-free-vs-regular-infant-formula-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Carolyn M Slupsky, Xuan He, Olle Hernell, Yvonne Andersson, Colin Rudolph, Bo Lönnerdal, Christina E West
Lactose intolerance is a major concern driving the growth of lactose-free foods including lactose-free infant formula. It is unknown what the metabolic consequence is of consumption of a formula where lactose has been replaced with corn syrup solids (CSS). Here, a randomized double-blinded intervention study was conducted where exclusively formula-fed infants were fed formula containing either lactose or CSS-based infant formula and compared with an equal number of exclusively breast-fed infants. Plasma metabolites and insulin were measured at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after feeding...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623264/structural-characterization-of-the-smrt-corepressor-interacting-with-histone-deacetylase-7
#11
Danielle C Desravines, Itziar Serna Martin, Robert Schneider, Philippe J Mas, Nataliia Aleksandrova, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Martin Blackledge, Darren J Hart
The 2525 amino acid SMRT corepressor is an intrinsically disordered hub protein responsible for binding and coordinating the activities of multiple transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes. Here we have studied its interaction with HDAC7, a class IIa deacetylase that interacts with the corepressor complex together with the highly active class I deacetylase HDAC3. The binding site of class IIa deacetylases was previously mapped to an approximate 500 amino acid region of SMRT, with recent implication of short glycine-serine-isoleucine (GSI) containing motifs...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#12
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618210/the-non-canonical-substrates-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-tyrosine-and-aspartate-aminotransferases-branched-chain-amino-acids
#13
N C Manchola, A M Silber, C Nowicki
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, lacks genes that encode canonical branched-chain aminotransferases. However, early studies showed that when epimastigotes were grown in the presence of (14) C1 -DL-leucine, the label was incorporated into various intermediates. More recently, our studies provided evidence that T. cruzi epimastigotes display a single ATP-dependent and saturable transport system that enables epimastigotes to uptake branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) from the culture media...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616167/species-specific-regulation-of-herbivory-induced-defoliation-tolerance-is-associated-with-jasmonate-inducibility
#14
Ricardo A R Machado, Wenwu Zhou, Abigail P Ferrieri, Carla C M Arce, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu, Matthias Erb
Induced changes in root carbohydrate pools are commonly assumed to determine plant defoliation tolerance to herbivores. However, the regulation and species specificity of these two traits are not well understood. We determined herbivory-induced changes in root carbohydrates and defoliation tolerance in seven different solanaceous plant species and correlated the induced changes in root carbohydrates and defoliation tolerance with jasmonate inducibility. Across species, we observed strong species-specific variation for all measured traits...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615132/identification-of-a-secondary-mutation-in-the-kit-kinase-domain-correlated-with-imatinib-resistance-in-a-canine-mast-cell-tumor
#15
Yuko Nakano, Masato Kobayashi, Makoto Bonkobara, Masamine Takanosu
Imatinib-resistance is a major therapeutic problem in human chronic myeloid leukemia, human gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and canine mast cell tumors. In the present study, we identified the secondary mutation c.2006C>T in c-KIT exon 14 in a mast cell tumor obtained from a dog carrying c.1663-1671del in exon 11 and showing resistance to imatinib. The mutation in exon 14 resulted in substitution of threonine with isoleucine at position 669, which was located at the center of the ATP binding site as a gatekeeper and played an important role in binding to imatinib...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612295/neuroprotective-effect-of-creatine-and-pyruvate-on-enzyme-activities-of-phosphoryl-transfer-network-and-oxidative-stress-alterations-caused-by-leucine-administration-in-wistar-rats
#16
Elenara Rieger, Itiane Diehl de Franceschi, Thales Preissler, Clovis Milton Duval Wannmacher
Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. In this disease occur the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their corresponding branched-chain α-keto acids in the tissues and body fluids. The affected patients may present psychomotor development delay and mental retardation. The pathophysiology of maple syrup urine disease is not entirely understood, but leucine seems to be the primary neurotoxic metabolite...
June 13, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611296/does-the-1h-nmr-plasma-metabolome-reflect-the-host-tumor-interactions-in-human-breast-cancer
#17
Vincent Richard, Raphaël Conotte, David Mayne, Jean-Marie Colet
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. There is an obvious need for a better understanding of BC biology. Alterations in the serum metabolome of BC patients have been identified but their clinical significance remains elusive. We evaluated by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, filtered plasma metabolome of 50 early (EBC) and 15 metastatic BC (MBC) patients. Using Principal Component Analysis, Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering we show that plasma levels of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, glutamate, glutamine, valine, lysine, glycine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, acetate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxy-butyrate, urea, creatine and creatinine are modulated across patients clusters...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595189/increased-incretin-but-not-insulin-response-after-oral-versus-intravenous-branched-chain-amino-acids
#18
Jan Gojda, Radka Straková, Andrea Plíhalová, Petr Tůma, Jana Potočková, Jan Polák, Michal Anděl
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are known to exert an insulinotropic effect. Whether this effect is mediated by incretins (glucagon like peptide 1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) is not known. The aim of this study was to show whether an equivalent dose of BCAA elicits a greater insulin and incretin response when administered orally than intravenously (IV). METHODS: Eighteen healthy, male subjects participated in 3 tests: IV application of BCAA solution, oral ingestion of BCAA and placebo in an equivalent dose (30...
June 9, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594299/dimerization-of-gtr1-regulates-their-plasma-membrane-localization
#19
Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Kento Washiyama, Takaya Oikawa, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Minoru Ueda
Members of the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) are multifunctional transporters of various compounds including plant hormones and play important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stress. Recently, we found that Arabidopsis GTR1 (also known as NPF2.10) takes up gibberellic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine in addition to glucosinolates. For normal plant growth, GTR1 is regulated at the gene expression level; however, it is unclear whether post-translational regulation also occurs...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592011/-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-urinary-metabolomics-in-very-low-birth-weight-premature-infants
#20
S T Li, X L Huang, S G Wu, Y M Ma, C C Shi, X Xiao, H Hao
Objective: To investigate the urinary metabolic spectrum and pathways in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. Method: A prospective case-control study was conducted to collect and compare the data of VLBW premature infants and full term infants from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-Sen University in 2014. Within 24 hours after birth, urine specimens in each group were collected. Metabolites of urine samples including amino acid, fatty acid and organic acid were detected using the urease pre-processing and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology...
June 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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