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T S M Carvalho, L S Sousa, F A Nogueira, D P Vaz, M M Saldanha, M V Triginelli, M F V S Pinto, N C Baião, L J C Lara
This work aimed at evaluating the effects of 4 digestible Met+Cys levels on the diet of commercial layers and their influence on the productive performance, quality, and amino acid profile of eggs and economic viability of the activity. A total of 576 white Lohmann LSL-Lite layers was distributed into 6 replicates of 24 birds for each diet. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 treatments defined by levels evaluated in the feed (0.465, 0.540, 0.581, and 0.647%). The productive performance was measured for 30 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Hailong Zhang, Longzhen Cui, Wen Liu, Zhenfeng Wang, Yang Ye, Xue Li, Huijuan Wang
Introduction: Gastric cancer (GC) is a malignant tumor worldwide. As primary pathway for metastasis, the lymphatic system is an important prognostic factor for GC patients. Although the metabolic changes of gastric cancer have been investigated in extensive studies, little effort focused on the metabolic profiling of lymph node metastasis (LNM)-positive or negative GC patients. Objectives: We performed1 H NMR spectrum of GC tissue samples with and without LNM to identify novel potential metabolic biomarkers in the process of LNM of GC...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Gregg A Howe, Ian T Major, Abraham J Koo
The plant hormone jasmonate coordinates immune and growth responses to increase plant survival in unpredictable environments. The core jasmonate signaling pathway comprises several functional modules, including a repertoire of COI1-JAZ (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1-JASMONATEZIM DOMAIN) coreceptors that couple jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine perception to the degradation of JAZ repressors, JAZ-interacting transcription factors that execute physiological responses, and multiple negative feedback loops to ensure timely termination of these responses...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Nicolaia Iaffaldano, Michele Di Iorio, Luisa Mannina, Gianluca Paventi, Maria Pina Rosato, Silvia Cerolini, Anatoly P Sobolev
Metabolic profile of fresh turkey spermatozoa at three different reproductive period ages, namely 32, 44 and 56 weeks, was monitored by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and correlated to sperm quality parameters. The age-related decrease in sperm quality as indicated by reduction of sperm concentration, sperm mobility and osmotic tolerance was associated to variation in the level of specific water-soluble and liposoluble metabolites. In particular, the highest levels of isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, tyrosine and valine were found at 32 weeks of age, whereas aspartate, lactate, creatine, carnitine, acetylcarnitine levels increased during the ageing...
2018: PloS One
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano, Mohammad Atikur Rahman, Bala Rathinasabapathi, Md Ali Babar
Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in chickpea requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study is to demonstrate genetic variations in altered metabolic levels in chickpea varieties (tolerant and sensitive) grown under contrasting water regimes through UPLC-HRMS based untargeted metabolomic profiling. Chickpea plants were exposed to drought stress at the three-leaf stage for 25 days and the leaves were harvested at 14 days and 25 days after the imposition of drought stress...
March 13, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mitsutaka Kitano, Myra Hosmillo, Edward Emmott, Jia Lu, Ian Goodfellow
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide yet, despite their impact on society, vaccines and antivirals are currently lacking. A HuNoV replicon system has been widely applied to the evaluation of antiviral compounds and has thus accelerated the process of drug discovery against HuNoV infection. Rupintrivir, an irreversible inhibitor of the human rhinovirus 3C protease, has been reported to inhibit the replication of the Norwalk virus replicon via the inhibition of the norovirus protease...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Moran Brenner, Lior Lobel, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Marek J Noga, Ronald Zielman, Robin M van Dongen, Sabine Bos, Amy Harms, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Thomas Hankemeier, Michel D Ferrari
Introduction: Metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising technique for studying brain diseases. Measurements should reflect the in vivo situation, so ex vivo metabolism should be avoided. Objective: To investigate the effects of temperature (room temperature vs. 4 °C), centrifugation and ethanol, as anti-enzymatic additive during CSF sampling on concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine and other endogenous amines. Methods: CSF samples from 21 individuals were processed using five different protocols...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
E Yu Bezsudnova, K M Boyko, V O Popov
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) catalyze reversible stereoselective transamination of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. BCATs are the key enzymes of BCAA metabolism in all organisms. The catalysis proceeds through the ping-pong mechanism with the assistance of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). BCATs differ from other (S)-selective transaminases (TAs) in 3D-structure and organization of the PLP-binding domain. Unlike other (S)-selective TAs, BCATs belong to the PLP fold type IV and are characterized by the proton transfer on the re-face of PLP, in contrast to the si-specificity of proton transfer in fold type I (S)-selective TAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
P Raja, T M A Senthilkumar, C V Priyadarshini, M Parthiban, A Thangavelu, A Mangala Gowri, A Palanisammi, K Kumanan
Infectious bursal disease virus isolates obtained from southern parts of India were subjected to comparative sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 743bp hypervariable region of VP2. The sequence analysis showed that among eight isolates, only HY12 showed the characteristic conserved amino acid residues at 256I, 294I, and 299S of vvIBDV. Six isolates BGE14, PY12, NKL14, VCN14, RPM14 and EDE14 had conserved amino acid residues at 256I and 299S, whereas at residue 294, isoleucine was substituted by valine. The remaining isolate MB11 had leucine at residue 294 and asparagine at residue 299 similar to classical strain 52/70...
2018: Acta Virologica
Juho Tynkkynen, Vincent Chouraki, Sven J van der Lee, Jussi Hernesniemi, Qiong Yang, Shuo Li, Alexa Beiser, Martin G Larson, Katri Sääksjärvi, Martin J Shipley, Archana Singh-Manoux, Robert E Gerszten, Thomas J Wang, Aki S Havulinna, Peter Würtz, Krista Fischer, Ayse Demirkan, M Arfan Ikram, Najaf Amin, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Ramachandran S Vasan, Mika Kivimäki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Sudha Seshadri, Veikko Salomaa
INTRODUCTION: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented...
February 28, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Caiyun Fan, Di Su, He Tian, Xiaojiao Li, Yu Li, Lei Ran, Ruiting Hu, Jianbo Cheng
Objective: The objective of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying liver metabolic perturbations in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Method: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to analyze metabolic differences in livers of 20 dairy cows, with and without exposure to HS. Results: The results revealed 33 potential metabolite candidate biomarkers for the detection of HS in dairy cows. Fifteen of these metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate, acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), fumaric acid, citric acid, choline, glycine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, urea, creatinine, and orotic acid) were previously found to be potential biomarkers of HS in plasma or milk, discriminating dairy cows with and without HS...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Charlène Gadais, Emmanuelle Devillers, Vincent Gasparik, Evelyne Chelain, Julien Pytkowicz, Thierry Brigaud
In order to accurately probe the local hydrophobicity increase of peptide sequences by trifluoromethylated amino acids (TfmAAs) incorporation, the chromatographic hydrophobicity indexes (φ0) of three series of tripeptides containing three unnatural trifluoromethylated amino acids have been measured and compared to the indexes of their non-fluorinated analogs. The hydrophobic contribution of each fluorinated amino acids was quantified by varying the position and the protection of (R) and (S)-α-trifluoromethyl alanine (TfmAla), (S)-trifluoromethyl cysteine (TfmCys) and (L)-trifluoromethionine (TFM) in a short peptide sequence...
March 7, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yogan Khatri, Ilona K Jóźwik, Michael Ringle, Irina Alexandra Ionescu, Martin Litzenburger, Michael Christopher Hutter, Andy-Mark W H Thunnissen, Rita Bernhardt
The production of regio- and stereoselectively hydroxylated steroids is of high pharmaceutical interest and can be achieved by cytochrome P450-based biocatalysts. CYP260A1 from Sorangium cellulosum strain So ce56 catalyzes hydroxylation of C19 or C21 steroids at the very unique 1-position. However, the conversion of progesterone (PROG) by CYP260A1 is very unselective. In order to improve its selectivity we applied a semi-rational protein engineering approach, resulting in two different, highly regio- and stereoselective mutants by replacing a single serine residue (S276) of the substrate recognition site 5 with an asparagine or isoleucine...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Matt Stevenson, Abdullah Pandor, Jean Hamilton, John Stevens, Clare Rowntree, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Andrew Rawdin, Ruth Wong
As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Incyte Corporation) of ponatinib (Inclusig® ) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for previously treated Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) and chronic myeloid leukaemia. This paper focusses on Ph+ ALL. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent evidence review group (ERG)...
March 3, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Rui Miao, Hao Xie, Felix Ho, Peter Lindblad
Protein engineering is a powerful tool to modify e.g. protein stability, activity and substrate selectivity. Heterologous expression of the enzyme α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase (Kivd) in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocysits PCC 6803 results in cells producing isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, with Kivd identified as a potential bottleneck. In the present study, we used protein engineering of Kivd to improve isobutanol production in Synechocystis PCC 6803. Isobutanol is a flammable compound that can be used as a biofuel due to its high energy density and suitable physical and chemical properties...
March 1, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Ebenezer Ajewole, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel, Agnieszka Pajak, Mariusz Jaskolski, Frédéric Marsolais
L-asparaginases (EC play an important role in nitrogen mobilization in plants. Here, we investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of potassium dependent (PvAspG1) and potassium independent (PvAspG-T2) L-asparaginases from Phaseolus vulgaris. Our previous studies revealed that PvAspG1 requires potassium for catalytic activation and its crystal structure suggested that Ser-118 in the activation loop plays a critical role in coordinating the metal cation. This amino acid residue is replaced by isoleucine in PvAspG-T2...
March 2, 2018: FEBS Journal
Soo Jin Yang, Hyun Ju Do, Youngae Jung, Geum-Sook Hwang, Min-Jeong Shin
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose (VO) was recently reported to have a protective effect against weight gain as well as affect various metabolic changes related to food intake and gut-brain signaling. We hypothesized that VO prevents weight gain by altering neurometabolome profiles in the hypothalamus to reduce food intake. To test this hypothesis, we assessed metabolite profiles in the hypothalamus of standard diet- or high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice in the absence or presence of VO. In total, 29 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups: (1) lean control, (2) HF, and (3) HF + VO...
March 1, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Minlu Han, Mengyu Xie, Jun Han, Daoyi Yuan, Tian Yang, Ying Xie
A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum. Under the optimum conditions, except for DL-proline, L-glutamine, and D-lysine, the enantioseparation of the other 19 enantiomeric pairs of proteinogenic amino acids and nonchiral glycine was achieved with a CROWNPAK CR-I(+) chiral column within 13 min. The lower limits of quantitation for L-amino acids (including glycine) and D-amino acids were 5-56.25 μM and 0...
March 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Akira Uchiyama, Takaomi Yaguchi, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Kento Sasaki, Naoshige Kuwata, Hideyuki Matsuura, Kosaku Takahashi
The isoleucine conjugate of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA-Ile), a new member of the jasmonate family, was recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and might be a signaling molecule in plants. However, the biosynthesis and function of OPDA-Ile remains elusive. This study reports an in vitro enzymatic method for synthesizing OPDA-Ile, which is catalyzed by reactions of lipoxygenase (LOX), allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase (AOC) using isoleucine conjugates of α -linolenic acid (LA-Ile) as the substrate...
February 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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