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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515647/comparative-study-on-compositions-and-functional-properties-of-porcine-chicken-and-duck-blood
#1
Supaluk Sorapukdee, Supawadee Narunatsopanon
Hematological, chemical and functional characteristics of porcine, chicken and duck blood were evaluated. A porcine blood sample showed the most abundant red blood cell, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and plasma protein content as well as its freeze-dried blood possessed the highest contents of protein, fat, Cu and Cr with the highest percentage of heme iron (p<0.05). Unlike porcine blood, chicken blood showed a well balance in some essential amino acids, specifically for a higher isoleucine content (p<0...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515297/attenuation-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-by-engineering-viral-polymerase-fidelity
#2
Devendra K Rai, Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Grace Campagnola, Anna Keith, Elizabeth A Schafer, Anna Kloc, Teresa de Los Santos, Olve Peersen, Elizabeth Rieder
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D(pol)) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allows FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3D(pol) in combination with prior results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#3
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#4
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510485/metabolomic-response-to-huanglongbing-role-of-carboxylic-compounds-in-citrus-sinensis-response-to-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-and-its-vector-diaphorina-citri
#5
Nabil Killiny, Yasser Nehela
Huanglongbing, a destructive disease of citrus, is caused by the fastidious bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. The impact of CLas-infection and/or D. citri-infestation on Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) leaf metabolites was investigated using GC-MS, followed by gene expression analysis for 37 genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and proline-glutamine pathways. The total amino acid abundance increased after CLas-infection, while the total fatty acids increased dramatically after infestation with D...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500583/laser-induced-acoustic-desorption-electron-ionization-of-amino-acids-and-small-peptides
#6
Tiffany M Jarrell, Benjamin C Owen, James S Riedeman, Boone M Prentice, Chris J Pulliam, Joann Max, Hilkka I Kenttämaa
Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) allows for desorption of neutral nonvolatile compounds independent of their volatility or thermal stability. Many different ionization methods have been coupled with LIAD. Hence, this setup provides a better control over the types of ions formed than other mass spectrometry evaporation/ionization methods commonly used to characterize biomolecules, such as ESI or MALDI. In this study, the utility of LIAD coupled with electron ionization (EI) was tested for the analysis of common amino acids with no derivatization...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497654/oxidative-stickland-reactions-in-an-obligate-aerobic-organism-amino-acid-catabolism-in-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus
#7
Helge Stark, Jacqueline Wolf, Andreas Albersmeier, Trong K Pham, Julia D Hofmann, Bettina Siebers, Jörn Kalinowski, Phillip C Wright, Meina Neumann-Schaal, Dietmar Schomburg
The thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is a model organism for archaeal adaptation to extreme environments and renowned for its ability to degrade a broad variety of substrates. It has been well characterised concerning the utilisation of numerous carbohydrates as carbon source. However, its amino acid metabolism, especially the degradation of single amino acids, is not as well understood. In this work, we performed metabolic modelling as well as metabolome, transcriptome and proteome analysis on cells grown on caseinhydrolysate as carbon source in order to draw a comprehensive picture of amino acid metabolism in S...
May 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495885/proteolytic-cleavage-of-the-hydrophobic-domain-in-the-cav%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-subunit-improves-assembly-and-activity-of-cardiac-cav1-2-channels
#8
Emilie Segura, Benoîte Bourdin, Marie-Philippe Tétreault, Julie Briot, Bruce G Allen, Gaétan Mayer, Lucie Parent
Voltage-gated L-type CaV1.2 channels in cardiomyocytes exist as heteromeric complexes with the pore-forming CaVα1, CaVβ, and CaVα2δ1 subunits. The full complement of subunits is required to reconstitute the native-like properties of L-type Ca(2+) currents but the molecular determinants responsible for the formation of the heteromeric complex are still being studied. Enzymatic treatment with PI-PLC, a phospholipase C specific for the cleavage of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, disrupted plasma membrane localization of the cardiac CaVα2δ1 prompting us to investigate deletions of its hydrophobic transmembrane domain...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492986/biosynthesis-and-bioactivity-of-glucosinolates-and-their-production-in-plant-in-vitro-cultures
#9
REVIEW
Pedro Joaquín Sánchez-Pujante, María Borja-Martínez, María Ángeles Pedreño, Lorena Almagro
Glucosinolates are biologically active compounds which are involved in plant defense reaction. The use of plant in vitro cultures and genetic engineering is a promising strategy for their sustainable production. Glucosinolates are a class of secondary metabolites found mainly in Brassicaceae, which contain nitrogen and sulfur in their structures. Glucosinolates are divided into three groups depending on the amino acid from which they are biosynthesized. Aliphatic glucosinolates are generally derived from leucine, valine, methionine, isoleucine and alanine while indole and aromatic glucosinolates are derived from tryptophan and phenylalanine or tyrosine, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489193/soluble-amino-acid-profile-mineral-nutrient-and-carbohydrate-content-of-maize-kernels-harvested-from-plants-submitted-to-ascorbic-acid-seed-priming
#10
Berenice K Alcântara, Vanessa Rizzi, Salete A Gaziola, Ricardo A Azevedo
Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated...
April 27, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484491/amino-acid-signatures-to-evaluate-the-beneficial-effects-of-weight-loss
#11
Nina Geidenstam, Martin Magnusson, Anders P H Danielsson, Robert E Gerszten, Thomas J Wang, Lovisa E Reinius, Hindrik Mulder, Olle Melander, Martin Ridderstråle
Aims. We investigated the relationship between circulating amino acid levels and obesity; to what extent weight loss followed by weight maintenance can correct amino acid abnormalities; and whether amino acids are related to weight loss. Methods. Amino acids associated with waist circumference (WC) and BMI were studied in 804 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC). Changes in amino acid levels were analyzed after weight loss and weight maintenance in 12 obese subjects and evaluated in a replication cohort (n = 83)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482808/valine-isoleucine-variants-drive-selective-pressure-in-the-vp1-sequence-of-ev-a71-enteroviruses
#12
Nghia Ngu Duy, Le Thi Thanh Huong, Patrice Ravel, Le Thi Song Huong, Ankit Dwivedi, October Michael Sessions, Yan'An Hou, Robert Chua, Guilhem Kister, Aneta Afelt, Catherine Moulia, Duane J Gubler, Vu Dinh Thiem, Nguyen Thi Hien Thanh, Christian Devaux, Tran Nhu Duong, Nguyen Tran Hien, Emmanuel Cornillot, Laurent Gavotte, Roger Frutos
BACKGROUND: In 2011-2012, Northern Vietnam experienced its first large scale hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic. In 2011, a major HFMD epidemic was also reported in South Vietnam with fatal cases. This 2011-2012 outbreak was the first one to occur in North Vietnam providing grounds to study the etiology, origin and dynamic of the disease. We report here the analysis of the VP1 gene of strains isolated throughout North Vietnam during the 2011-2012 outbreak and before. METHODS: The VP1 gene of 106 EV-A71 isolates from North Vietnam and 2 from Central Vietnam were sequenced...
May 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482070/elevated-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-bcaa-levels-predict-deterioration-of-glycemic-control-in-adolescents
#13
Domenico Tricò, Hetty Prinsen, Cosimo Giannini, Robin de Graff, Christoph Juchem, Fangyong Li, Sonia Caprio, Nicola Santoro, Raimund I Herzog
Context: Traditional risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are weak predictors of changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in youth. Objective: To identify early metabolic features of insulin resistance in youth and whether they predict deterioration of glycemic control. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted at the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Patients and Intervention: Concentrations of α-hydroxybutyrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) were measured by NMR spectroscopy in 78 non-diabetic adolescents during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475656/nmr-based-metabolomic-analysis-for-the-effects-of-creatine-supplementation-on-mouse-myoblast-cell-line-c2c12
#14
Wenqi Xu, Donghai Lin, Caihua Huang
Creatine (Cr) supplementation has drawn much attention from researchers owing to its widespread efficacy in sports, and more recently, in therapeutic fields. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic analysis to address the metabolic profile of aqueous extracts from the mouse myoblast cell line C2C12 exposed to 2 mM Cr for 24 h (the Cr-treated group). Results showed that Cr supplementation facilitated the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts...
May 5, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471367/crystal-structure-of-the-novel-amino-acid-racemase-isoleucine-2-epimerase-from-lactobacillus-buchneri
#15
Junji Hayashi, Yuta Mutaguchi, Yume Minemura, Noriko Nakagawa, Kazunari Yoneda, Taketo Ohmori, Toshihisa Ohshima, Haruhiko Sakuraba
Crystal structures of Lactobacillus buchneri isoleucine 2-epimerase, a novel branched-chain amino-acid racemase, were determined for the enzyme in the apo form, in complex with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), in complex with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-isoleucine (PLP-L-Ile) and in complex with N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-D-allo-isoleucine (PLP-D-allo-Ile) at resolutions of 2.77, 1.94, 2.65 and 2.12 Å, respectively. The enzyme assembled as a tetramer, with each subunit being composed of N-terminal, C-terminal and large PLP-binding domains...
May 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465237/biochemical-and-functional-characterization-of-mra_1571-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra-and-effect-of-its-down-regulation-on-survival-in-macrophages
#16
Rishabh Sharma, Deepa Keshari, Kumar Sachin Singh, Sudheer Kumar Singh
Amino acid biosynthesis has emerged as a source of new drug targets as many bacterial strains auxotrophic for amino acids fail to proliferate under in vivo conditions. Branch chain amino acids (BCAAs) are important for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survival and strains deficient in their biosynthesis were attenuated for growth in mice. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step in isoleucine biosynthesis. The MRA_1571 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra), annotated to be coding for IlvA, was cloned, expressed and purified...
June 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465213/metabolomic-changes-and-metabolic-responses-to-expression-of-heterologous-biosynthetic-genes-for-lycopene-production-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#17
Chen Zhao, Qi Gao, Jun Chen, Liujing Wei, Tadayuki Imanaka, Qiang Hua
The metabolomic studies were conducted for both the engineered lycopene-producing Yarrowia lipolytica strain and the control strain. The changes in metabolome profiling and main pathway abundance of Y. lipolytica with the introduction of heterologous crt genes were investigated by multiple analytical and statistical methods More importantly, the metabolome data were transformed into pathway abundances visualized by a pathway relationship network using Cytoscape software. This network provided a simple way to present the statistical results of pathway abundance and interpret the effects of the crt genes in a metabolic view, and the results highlighted the up-regulation of eight pathways and the down-regulation of three pathways in the lycopene fast production phase...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456691/a-new-thioredoxin-reductase-with-additional-glutathione-reductase-activity-in-haemonchus-contortus
#18
Agustín Plancarte, Gabriela Nava, Javier A Munguía
We report, herein, the purification to homogeneity and the biochemical and kinetic characterization of HcTrxR3, a new isoform of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from Haemonchus contortus. HcTrxR3 was found to have a relative molecular weight of 134,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 67,000. By peptide mass spectrophotometric analysis, HcTrxR3 was determined to have 99% identity with the H. contortus HcTrxR1 although, and most importantly, they are different in their amino acid sequence in two amino acid positions: 48 (isoleucine instead of leucine) and 460 (leucine instead of proline)...
April 26, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456306/characterization-and-establishment-of-a-reference-deltamethrin-and-cypermethrin-resistant-tick-line-ivri-iv-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus
#19
Srikant Ghosh, Snehil Gupta, K G Ajith Kumar, Anil Kumar Sharma, Sachin Kumar, Gaurav Nagar, Rinesh Kumar, Souvik Paul, Ashutosh Fular, Gajanan Chigure, Abhijit Nandi, H V Manjunathachar, Aquil Mohammad, M R Verma, B C Saravanan, Debdatta Ray
The problem of ticks and tick borne diseases is a global threat and growing reports of resistance to commonly used insecticides further aggravated the condition and demands for country specific resistance monitoring tools and possible solutions of the problem. Establishment of standard reference is prerequisite for development of monitoring tools. For studying possible role of different mechanisms involved in development of resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population and to develop newer drug to manage the problem of resistance, a deltamethrin exposed and selected tick colony, referred to as IVRI-IV, was characterized using reference susceptible IVRI-I tick line as control...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453535/plasma-amino-acids-and-metabolic-profiling-of-dairy-cows-in-response-to-a-bolus-duodenal-infusion-of-leucine
#20
Hassan Sadri, Dirk von Soosten, Ulrich Meyer, Jeannette Kluess, Sven Dänicke, Behnam Saremi, Helga Sauerwein
Leucine (Leu), one of the three branch chain amino acids, acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of overall amino acid (AA) and protein metabolism. Leucine is also considered to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of insulin from pancreatice β-cells. Our objective was to study the effects of a duodenal bolus infusion of Leu on insulin and glucagon secretion, on plasma AA concentrations, and to do a metabolomic profiling of dairy cows as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 days, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period...
2017: PloS One
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