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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166671/the-15n-leucine-single-injection-method-allows-for-determining-endogenous-losses-and-true-digestibility-of-amino-acids-in-cecectomized-roosters
#1
Rujiu Hu, Jing Li, Rab Nawaz Soomro, Fei Wang, Yan Feng, Xiaojun Yang, Junhu Yao
This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165113/alteration-in-plasma-free-amino-acid-levels-and-its-association-with-gout
#2
M H Mahbub, Natsu Yamaguchi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryosuke Hase, Hiroki Amano, Mikiko Kobayashi-Miura, Hideyuki Kanda, Yasuyuki Fujita, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Mai Yamamoto, Shinya Kikuchi, Atsuko Ikeda, Naoko Kageyama, Mina Nakamura, Yasutaka Ishimaru, Hiroshi Sunagawa, Tsuyoshi Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of plasma-free amino acids with gout are very limited and produced conflicting results. Therefore, we sought to explore and characterize the plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profile in patients with gout and evaluate its association with the latter. METHODS: Data from a total of 819 subjects (including 34 patients with gout) undergoing an annual health examination program in Shimane, Japan were considered for this study. Venous blood samples were collected from the subjects and concentrations of 19 plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163366/clinical-genetic-and-protein-structural-aspects-of-familial-dysalbuminemic-hyperthyroxinemia-and-hypertriiodothyroninemia
#3
REVIEW
Ulrich Kragh-Hansen, Monica Galliano, Lorenzo Minchiotti
Familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH-T4) and hypertriiodothyroninemia (FDH-T3) are dominantly inherited syndromes characterized by a high concentration of thyroid hormone in the blood stream. The syndromes do not cause disease, because the concentration of free hormone is normal, but affected individuals are at risk of erroneous treatment. FDH-T4 is the most common cause of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian populations in which its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 individuals, but the prevalence can be much higher in some ethnic groups...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156952/duodenal-infusions-of-isoleucine-influence-pancreatic-exocrine-function-in-dairy-heifers
#4
Kai Liu, Jing Shen, Yangchun Cao, Chuanjiang Cai, Junhu Yao
Four healthy Holstein heifers (235 ± 12 kg) fitted with duodenal and pancreatic cannulas were used to investigate infusion of isoleucine (Ile) on the pancreatic exocrine function in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Three doses of Ile, 10, 20 and 30 g in 2500 ml water, respectively, were infused into the duodenum over a period of 12 h in Experiment (Exp) 1 and over 10 d in Exp 2. Hourly pancreatic juice and jugular blood were taken during the infusion period in Exp 1, and the blood samples were taken in 2-h intervals over the last 2 d in Exp 2...
November 20, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154733/metabolomic-analysis-of-alterations-in-lipid-oxidation-carbohydrate-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-dairy-goats-caused-by-exposure-to-aflotoxin-b1
#5
Jianbo Cheng, Shuai Huang, Caiyun Fan, Nan Zheng, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151641/foliar-treatment-of-bacillus-methylotrophicus-ke2-reprograms-endogenous-functional-chemicals-in-sesame-to-improve-plant-health
#6
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, In-Jung Lee
The present study was aimed to investigate the health of vegetative and reproductive parts of sesame plants during Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 interaction by their pigments, sugars, organic acid, amino acids, hormones and antioxidant production analysis. In a green-house study, B. methylotrophicus KE2 was sprayed to sesame plants at late flowering stage. The bacterial treatment enhanced photosynthetic pigments of plants including pods than their controls. The shoots of plants had higher amount of sucrose, glucose, galactose, xylitol and malic acid, and while the pods of plants showed the more accumulation of sucrose, glucose, inulin and xylitol in bacterium treated plants...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148584/metabolic-effects-of-p-p-dde-on-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#7
Pål A Olsvik, Liv Søfteland
Decades after being banned in many countries, DDT and its metabolites are still considered major environmental hazards. The p,p'-DDE isomer, the DDT metabolite found in highest concentration in aquaculture feeds, is an endocrine disruptor with demonstrated ability to induce epigenetic effects. This study aimed at examining the impact of p,p'-DDE on Atlantic salmon. Primary hepatocytes were exposed to four concentrations of p,p'-DDE (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μm) for 48 hours, and endpoints included cytotoxicity, global DNA methylation, targeted transcription and metabolomics profiling (100 μm)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147085/a-comparison-of-the-essential-amino-acid-content-and-the-retention-rate-by-chicken-part-according-to-different-cooking-methods
#8
Honggyun Kim, Hyun Wook Do, Heajung Chung
This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pancooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144590/metabolic-profiling-of-normal-hepatocyte-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-via-1-h-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#9
Yang Chen, Zhong Chen, Jiang-Hua Feng, Yun-Bin Chen, Nai-Shun Liao, Ying Su, Chang-Yan Zou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes death mainly by disseminated metastasis progression from the organ being confined. Different metastatic stages are closely related to cellular metabolic profiles. Normal hepatocyte and HepG2 cell line from low metastatic HCC were studied by NMR-based metabolomic techniques. Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses were utilized to identify characteristic metabolites from cells and cultured media. Elevated levels of acetate, creatine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine were observed in HepG2 cells, suggesting more active in gathering nutrient components along with altered amino acid metabolisms and enhanced lipid metabolism...
November 16, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141216/slc3a2-mediates-branched-chain-amino-acid-dependent-maintenance-of-regulatory-t-cells
#10
Kayo Ikeda, Makoto Kinoshita, Hisako Kayama, Shushi Nagamori, Pornparn Kongpracha, Eiji Umemoto, Ryu Okumura, Takashi Kurakawa, Mari Murakami, Norihisa Mikami, Yasunori Shintani, Satoko Ueno, Ayatoshi Andou, Morihiro Ito, Hideki Tsumura, Koji Yasutomo, Keiichi Ozono, Seiji Takashima, Shimon Sakaguchi, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Kiyoshi Takeda
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress immune responses, are highly proliferative in vivo. However, it remains unclear how the active replication of Treg cells is maintained in vivo. Here, we show that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including isoleucine, are required for maintenance of the proliferative state of Treg cells via the amino acid transporter Slc3a2-dependent metabolic reprogramming. Mice fed BCAA-reduced diets showed decreased numbers of Foxp3(+) Treg cells with defective in vivo proliferative capacity...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138501/targeting-sxip-eb1-interaction-an-integrated-approach-to-the-discovery-of-small-molecule-modulators-of-dynamic-binding-sites
#11
T B Almeida, A J Carnell, I L Barsukov, N G Berry
End binding protein 1 (EB1) is a key element in the complex network of protein-protein interactions at microtubule (MT) growing ends, which has a fundamental role in MT polymerisation. EB1 is an important protein target as it is involved in regulating MT dynamic behaviour, and has been associated with several disease states, such as cancer and neuronal diseases. Diverse EB1 binding partners are recognised through a conserved four amino acid motif, (serine-X-isoleucine-proline) which exists within an intrinsically disordered region...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132733/enhanced-nutrient-supply-to-very-low-birth-weight-infants-is-associated-with-higher-blood-amino-acid-concentrations-and-improved-growth
#12
Kenneth Strømmen, Alexander Haag, Sissel J Moltu, Marit B Veierød, Elin W Blakstad, Britt Nakstad, Astrid N Almaas, Kristin Brække, Arild E Rønnestad, Hannelore Daniel, Christian A Drevon, Per O Iversen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Customized nutrient supply is vital to ensure optimal growth among very low birth weight infants (birth weight < 1500 g). The supply of amino acids is especially important due to their impact on protein synthesis and growth. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of enhanced nutrition on growth, blood concentrations of amino acids, and explore possible associations between amino acid concentrations and common neonatal morbidities. We hypothesized higher amino acids levels and growth velocity among infants on enhanced nutrient supply...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128497/replacement-of-oxidizable-residues-predicted-by-qm-mm-simulation-of-a-fungal-laccase-generates-variants-with-higher-operational-stability
#13
Mayra Avelar, Nina Pastor, Joaquin Ramirez-Ramirez, Marcela Ayala
In this work, we sought to obtain a more stable laccase with higher operational stability for the oxidation of phenols. During this reaction, phenoxy free radicals are produced that gradually inactivate the enzyme; the inactivation rate depends on the phenol chemical nature. In order to predict residues prone to oxidize within the active site, we simulated activated states of the catalytic region of a fungal laccase using QM-MM tools (Quantum Mechanics-Molecular Mechanics). After simulating the electron distribution in both the basal and activated state (plus or minus one electron) of several conformations of Coriolopsis gallica laccase, residues that could be susceptible to oxidation were identified, according to the values of spin density obtained from calculations...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127553/identification-of-histidine-303-as-the-catalytic-base-of-lysyl-oxidase-via-site-directed-mutagenesis
#14
Rachel N Oldfield, Kathryn A Johnston, Jeanette Limones, Caitlin Ghilarducci, Karlo M Lopez
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent amine oxidase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of crosslinkages of collagen and elastin in connective tissues by oxidative deamination of lysine. Using site-directed mutagenesis, Histidine 303 has been shown to be a key residue that acts as the necessary catalytic base for this enzyme to function properly. Histidine 303 was mutated to isoleucine to remove catalytic activity and to aspartate and glutamate, respectively, in order to provide alternate residues that could act as a general base that could maintain catalytic activity...
November 10, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127264/protein-moonlighting-revealed-by-non-catalytic-phenotypes-of-yeast-enzymes
#15
Adriana Espinosa-Cantú, Diana Ascencio, Selene Herrera-Basurto, Jiewei Xu, Assen Roguev, Nevan J Krogan, Alexander DeLuna
A single gene can partake in several biological processes, and therefore gene deletions can lead to different-sometimes unexpected-phenotypes. However, it is not always clear whether such pleiotropy reflects the loss of a unique molecular activity involved in different processes or the loss of a multifunctional protein. Here, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism as a model, we systematically test the null hypothesis that enzyme phenotypes depend on a single annotated molecular function, namely their catalysis...
November 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125388/conserved-function-of-mediator-in-regulating-nuclear-hormone-receptor-activation-between-plants-and-animals
#16
Qingzhe Zhai, Lin Li, Chunpeng An, Chuanyou Li
Perception of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) involves the formation of a co-receptor complex between COI1, the F-box subunit of a SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, and its substrates, a group of jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors. In recent studies, we show that MED25, a subunit of the Arabidopsis Mediator, physically and functionally interacts with COI1 and the master transcription factor MYC2 on MYC2 target promoters. Here we provide evidence that MED25 also physically interacts with a subset of JAZ proteins...
November 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124341/phytophagy-of-omnivorous-predator-macrolophus-pygmaeus-affects-performance-of-herbivores-through-induced-plant-defences
#17
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore...
November 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113091/linking-compositional-and-functional-predictions-to-decipher-the-biogeochemical-significance-in-dfaa-turnover-of-abundant-bacterioplankton-lineages-in-the-north-sea
#18
Bernd Wemheuer, Franziska Wemheuer, Dimitri Meier, Sara Billerbeck, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Meinhard Simon, Christoph Scherber, Rolf Daniel
Deciphering the ecological traits of abundant marine bacteria is a major challenge in marine microbial ecology. In the current study, we linked compositional and functional predictions to elucidate such traits for abundant bacterioplankton lineages in the North Sea. For this purpose, we investigated entire and active bacterioplankton composition along a transect ranging from the German Bight to the northern North Sea by pyrotag sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and transcripts. Functional profiles were inferred from 16S rRNA data using Tax4Fun...
November 5, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112406/nicrophorusamides-a-and-b-antibacterial-chlorinated-cyclic-peptides-from-a-gut-bacterium-of-the-carrion-beetle-nicrophorus-concolor
#19
Yern-Hyerk Shin, Suhyun Bae, Jaehoon Sim, Joonseong Hur, Shin-Il Jo, Jongheon Shin, Young-Ger Suh, Ki-Bong Oh, Dong-Chan Oh
Nicrophorusamides A and B (1 and 2) were discovered from a rare actinomycete, Microbacterium sp., which was isolated from the gut of the carrion beetle Nicrophorus concolor. The structures of the nicrophorusamides were established as new chlorinated cyclic hexapeptides bearing uncommon amino acid units mainly based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues 5-chloro-l-tryptophan, d-threo-β-hydroxyasparagine/d-asparagine, l-ornithine, l-allo-isoleucine, d-leucine, and d-valine were determined using Marfey's method and chemical derivatization with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl isothiocyanate followed by LC/MS analysis...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111702/identification-and-interrogation-of-the-herbicidin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-first-insight-into-the-biosynthesis-of-a-rare-undecose-nucleoside-antibiotic
#20
Geng-Min Lin, Anthony J Romo, Priscilla H Liem, Zhang Chen, Hung-Wen Liu
Herbicidins are adenosine-based nucleoside antibiotics with an unusual tricyclic undecose core decorated with a (5-hydroxy)tiglyl moiety. Feeding studies are herein reported demonstrating that the tricyclic core is derived from d-glucose and d-ribose, whereas the tiglyl moiety is derived from an intermediate of l-isoleucine catabolism. Identification of the gene cluster for herbicidin A biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. L-9-10 as well as its verification by heterologous expression in a nonproducing host are described, and the results of in vitro characterization of a carboxyl methyltransferase encoded in the cluster, Her8, are presented...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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