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Dongxue Xu, Shun Zhou, Lina Sun
In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Apostichopus japonicus under continuous heat stress (6 h, 48 h and 192 h) by applying RNA-seq technique. A total of 676, 1010 and 1083 differentially expressed genes were detected at three heat stress groups respectively, which suggested complex regulation of various biological processes. Then we focused on the changing of immune system under HS in sea cucumbers. Key immune-associated genes were involved in heat stress response, which were classified into six groups: heat shock proteins, transferrin superfamily members, effector genes, proteases, complement system, and pattern recognition receptors and signaling...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mengfei Song, Qingzhen Wei, Jing Wang, Wenyuan Fu, Xiaodong Qin, Xiumei Lu, Feng Cheng, Kang Yang, Lu Zhang, Xiaqing Yu, Ji Li, Jinfeng Chen, Qunfeng Lou
Leaf color mutants in higher plants are ideal materials for investigating the structure and function of photosynthetic system. In this study, we identified a cucumber vyl (virescent-yellow leaf) mutant in the mutant library, which exhibited reduced pigment contents and delayed chloroplast development process. F2 and BC1 populations were constructed from the cross between vyl mutant and cucumber inbred line 'Hazerd' to identify that the vyl trait is controlled by a simply recessive gene designated as CsVYL. The CsVYL gene was mapped to a 3...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junsong Pan, Junyi Tan, Yuhui Wang, Xiangyang Zheng, Ken Owens, Dawei Li, Yuhong Li, Yiqun Weng
Map-based cloning identified a candidate gene for resistance to the anthracnose fungal pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare in cucumber, which reveals a novel function for the highly conserved STAYGREEN family genes for host disease resistance in plants. Colletotrichum orbiculare is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in cucumber and other cucurbit crops. No host resistance genes against the anthracnose pathogens have been cloned in crop plants. Here, we reported fine mapping and cloning of a resistance gene to the race 1 anthracnose pathogen in cucumber inbred lines Gy14 and WI 2757...
April 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Hosein Kiani, Farzaneh Karimi, Mohsen Labbafi, Morteza Fathi
The objective of this paper was to study the moisture and salt diffusivity during ultrasonic assisted-osmotic dehydration of cucumbers. Experimental measurements of moisture and salt concentration versus time were carried out and an inverse numerical method was performed by coupling a CFD package (OpenFOAM) with a parameter estimation software (DAKOTA) to determine mass transfer coefficients. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was observed. Mass transfer coefficients were from 3.5 × 10-9 to 7 × 10-9  m/s for water and from 4...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Hao Zhang, Feng Chen, Hua-Zhu Zhao, Jia-Sen Lu, Meng-Jun Zhao, Qing Hong, Xing Huang
Colonization and degradation of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl by Hansschlegelia zhihuaiae S113 in the cucumber rhizosphere was investigated. Results reveal that S113 colonized the cucumber roots (2.14×105cells/g roots) and possessed survival ability in the rhizosphere (maintained for 20 d). Root exudates promoted the colonization on roots and increased the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by S113. Five organic acids in cucumber root exudates were detected and identified by HPLC. Citric acid and fumaric acid significantly stimulated S113 colonization on cucumber roots, with an 18...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Haoming Chen, Jinyi Ma, Jiaxing Wei, Xin Gong, Xichen Yu, Hui Guo, Yanwen Zhao
Green roofs have increasingly been designed and applied to relieve environmental problems, such as water loss, air pollution as well as heat island effect. Substrate and vegetation are important components of green roofs providing ecosystem services and benefiting the urban development. Biochar made from sewage sludge could be potentially used as the substrate amendment for green roofs, however, the effects of biochar on substrate quality and plant performance in green roofs are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of adding sludge biochar (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, v/v) to natural soil planted with three types of plant species (ryegrass, Sedum lineare and cucumber) on soil properties, plant growth and microbial communities in both green roof and ground ecosystems...
April 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
G Nishanthan, P A D A Kumara, M D S T de Croos, D V P Prasada, D C T Dissanayake
Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche - de - mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche - de - mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Keach Murakami, Yasuomi Ibaraki
Time courses of photochemical reflectance index (PRI) of an attached cucumber leaf during a dark-light transition were compared to those of photochemical yields of photosystem II (YII ) to discuss the feasibility of PRI imaging for estimating the efficiency of photosynthetic light use. YII and PRI were simultaneously evaluated with a pulse-amplitude modulation chlorophyll fluorometer and a low-cost imaging system consisted of digital cameras and band-pass filters, respectively. YII decreased immediately after the transition and then increased under various photon flux densities...
April 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Qianyi Tao, Huanhuan Niu, Zhongyuan Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Hu Wang, Shenhao Wang, Xian Zhang, Zheng Li
In plants, unisexual flowers derived from developmental sex determination form separate stamens and pistils that facilitate cross pollination. In cucumber and melon, ethylene plays a key role in sex determination. Six sex determination-related genes have been identified involving in ethylene biosynthesis in these Cucumis species. The interactions among these genes are thought to involve ethylene signaling; however, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, hormone treatment and qPCR assays were used to confirm expression of these sex determination-related genes in cucumber and melon is ethylene sensitive...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Roger I Vargas, Jaime C Piñero, Neil W Miller
Foraging behavior of wild female melon fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett, a worldwide pest of economically important cucurbit crops, was examined through mark and recapture studies in both wild (Kona: dominated by the invasive weed ivy gourd, Coccinea grandis [L.] Voigt [Cucurbitaceae]), and cultivated (Kapoho: dominated by papaya, Carica papaya L. [Caricaceae] orchards) habitats on Hawaii Island. In particular, the extent to which wild melon flies and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber odor and Solulys yeast hydrolysate laced with ammonium acetate (1%, wt/vol) according to sexual maturity stage and degree of protein hunger was documented...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Minghua Zhu, Hongxia Zhao, Deming Xia, Juan Du, Huaijun Xie, Jingwen Chen
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell clean-up method coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine 21 antibiotics in sea cucumber. The analytes include 10 sulfonamides, 4 fluoroquinolones, 3 amphenicols, 2 beta-lactams, 1 lincosamide and trimethoprim. Optimal parameters of ASE method were obtained at 80 °C, 1 static cycle of 5 min with methanol/acetonitrile (1/1, v/v) using 2 g of C18 as adsorbent. Recoveries at 50...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Waheda Rahman Ansary, Ferdous Rezwan Khan Prince, Effi Haque, Farzana Sultana, Helen M West, Mahbubur Rahman, Abdul Mojid Mondol, Abdul Mannan Akanda, Mahfuz Rahman, Michele L Clarke, Tofazzal Islam
Plant growth-promoting bacteria that are also capable of suppressing plant pathogenic fungi play an important role in sustainable agriculture. There is a critical need for conducting research to discover, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of new strains of such bacteria in controlling highly aggressive plant pathogens. In this study, we isolated endophytic bacteria from medicinal plants of Bangladesh and evaluated their antagonistic capacity against an important phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum...
April 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Stefan Merkel, Oliver Kappenstein, Stefan Sander, Jürgen Weyer, Stephan Richter, Karla Pfaff, Andreas Luch
The aim of this study was to compare the transfer of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) from napkins into cold water extract (CWE) with transfer into four different food matrices. A HPLC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for quantification of 26 PAAs in CWE was validated and applied. In addition, the method was validated for seven different PAAs in four different food matrices (cucumber, rice, pickled gherkin and butter cookie) representing wet, dry, acidic, and fatty food. The CWEs of 12 coloured napkin samples were analysed, and three napkins released more than 0...
April 12, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Attila L Ádám, Zoltán Á Nagy, György Kátay, Emese Mergenthaler, Orsolya Viczián
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a defence mechanism that induces protection against a wide range of pathogens in distant, pathogen-free parts of plants after a primary inoculation. Multiple mobile compounds were identified as putative SAR signals or important factors for influencing movement of SAR signalling elements in Arabidopsis and tobacco. These include compounds with very different chemical structures like lipid transfer protein DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE1), methyl salicylate (MeSA), dehydroabietinal (DA), azelaic acid (AzA), glycerol-3-phosphate dependent factor (G3P) and the lysine catabolite pipecolic acid (Pip)...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seong-Hoon Yun, Eun-Hye Sim, Sang-Heum Han, Jin-Yeong Han, Sung-Hyun Kim, Alexandra S Silchenko, Valentin A Stonik, Joo-In Park
Marine triterpene glycosides are attractive candidates for the development of anticancer agents. Holotoxin A₁ is a triterpene glycoside found in the edible sea cucumber, Apostichopus (Stichopus) japonicus. We previously showed that cladoloside C₂, the 25(26)-dihydro derivative of holotoxin A₁ induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by activating ceramide synthase 6. Thus, we hypothesized that holotoxin A₁, which is structurally similar to cladoloside C₂, might induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through the same molecular mechanism...
April 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Su Jeung Kim, Eun Ju Ko, Jeum Kyu Hong, Yong Chull Jeun
Chlorella , one single-cell green algae organism that lives autotrophically by photosynthesis, can directly suppress some plant diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether pre-spraying with Chlorella fusca suspension could induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cucumber plants against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare . In order to illustrate SAR induced by algae, infection structures in host cells were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Cytological changes as defense responses of host mesophyll cells such as accumulation of vesicles, formation of sheath around penetration hyphae, and thickness of cell wells adjoining with intracellular hyphae were demonstrated in cucumber leaves...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Ying Wang, Zhuang Xue, Qilin Yi, Hui Wang, Lingling Wang, Guangxia Lu, Yu Liu, Chen Qu, Yannan Li, Linsheng Song
F-type lectin (also known as fucolectin) is a newly identified family of fucose binding lectins with the sequence characters of a fucose binding motif and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). In the present study, a fucolectin was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (designated AjFL-1). The open reading frame (ORF) of AjFL-1 was of 546 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of AjFL-1 shared 30%-40% similarity with the fucolectins from other animals...
April 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Antonia Fettelschoss-Gabriel, Victoria Fettelschoss, Franziska Thoms, Christoph Giese, Michelle Daniel, Florian Olomski, Jivko Kamarachev, Katharina Birkmann, Maya Bühler, Martin Kummer, Andris Zeltins, Eliane Marti, Thomas M Kündig, Martin F Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Insect-bite hypersensitivity is the most common allergic dermatitis in horses. Excoriated skin lesions are typical symptoms of this seasonal and refractory chronic disease. On a cellular level, the skin lesions are characterized by massive eosinophil infiltration caused by an underlying allergic response. OBJECTIVE: To target these cells and treat disease, we developed a therapeutic vaccine against equine IL-5 (eIL-5), the master regulator of eosinophils...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Nana Sun, Yuan Ding, Zhexuan Tao, Hongjie You, Xiude Hua, Minghua Wang
An upconversion fluorescence DNA probe which consists of aptamer-conjugated magnet nanoparticles (apt-MNPs) and complementary DNA-conjugated upconversion nanoparticles (cDNA-UCNPs) was developed to detect acetamiprid. Acetamiprid can specifically conjugate with the apt-MNPs to dissociate the cDNA-UCNPs from the apt-MNPs and resulted in reduced fluorescence intensity through an external magnet. The change of fluorescence intensity (△I) is positively related to the concentration of acetamiprid, which can be applied for the quantification of acetamiprid...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hao Gu, Man Lu, Zhiping Zhang, Jinjin Xu, Wenhua Cao, Minmin Miao
Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate under stress conditions in many plants and have been suggested to act as stress protectants. To elucidate the metabolic process of RFOs under cold stress, levels of RFOs, and related carbohydrates, the expression and activities of main metabolic enzymes and their subcellular compartments were investigated during low-temperature treatment and during the recovery period in cucumber leaves. Cold stress induced the accumulation of stachyose in vacuoles, galactinol in vacuoles and cytosol, and sucrose and raffinose in vacuoles, cytosol, and chloroplasts...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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