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Ya-Hong An, Heng Zhou, Ying-Hui Yuan, Lin Li, Jin Sun, Sheng Shu, Shi-Rong Guo
Brassinosteroids (BRs) can effectively alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Ca(NO3)2 in cucumber seedlings. The root system is an essential organ in plants due to its roles in physical anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and metabolite synthesis and storage. In this study, 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) was applied to the cucumber seedling roots under Ca(NO3)2 stress, and the resulting chemical and anatomical changes were characterized to investigate the roles of BRs in alleviating salinity stress. Ca(NO3)2 alone significantly induced changes in the components of cell wall, anatomical structure, and expression profiles of several lignin biosynthetic genes...
December 14, 2017: Protoplasma
Ahmed S Thandar, Lazaro W V Vinola
This short communication addresses the problem associated with the current taxonomic status of the prehistoric edentate genus Neocnus Arredondo, 1961 (with type species Micronocnus gliriformis Matthew, 1931) which has long been considered a senior homonym of the dendrochirotid sea cucumber genus Neocnus Cherbonnier, 1972 (type species Neocnus incubans Cherbonnier, 1972) and replaces the latter (junior homonym) with Incubocnus n.g. The diagnosis of the new genus is the same as the cucumariid Neocnus as amended by O'Loughlin & O'Hara (1992)...
October 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Michael K Y Ting, Yi-Min She, William C Plaxton
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is an important regulatory enzyme situated at a key branch point of central plant metabolism. Plant genomes encode several plant-type PEPC (PTPC) isozymes, along with a distantly related bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC). BTPC is expressed at high levels in developing castor oil seeds where it tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC polypeptides to form unusual hetero-octameric Class-2 PEPC complexes that are desensitized to allosteric inhibition by L-malate. Analysis of RNA-Seq and microarray transcriptome datasets revealed two distinct patterns of tissue-specific BTPC expression in vascular plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Heng Wang, Xiangjie Qian, Lan Zhang, Sailong Xu, Haifeng Li, Xiaojian Xia, Liankui Dai, Liang Xu, Jingquan Yu, Xu Liu
For both field and greenhouse crops, it is challenging to evaluate their growth information on a large area over a long time. In this work, we developed a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging-based system for crop population growth information detection. Modular design was used to make the system provide high-intensity uniform illumination. This system can perform modulated chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics measurement and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter imaging over a large area of up to 45  cm×34  cm...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Ravi Suresh Devani, Sangram Sinha, Jayeeta Banerjee, Rabindra Kumar Sinha, Abdelhafid Bendahmane, Anjan Kumar Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Coccinia grandis (ivy gourd), is a dioecious member of Cucurbitaceae having heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Chromosome constitution of male and female plants of C. grandis is 22A + XY and 22A + XX respectively. Earlier we showed that a unique gynomonoecious form of C. grandis (22A + XX) also exists in nature bearing morphologically hermaphrodite flowers (GyM-H). Additionally, application of silver nitrate (AgNO3) on female plants induces stamen development leading to the formation of morphologically hermaphrodite flowers (Ag-H) despite the absence of Y-chromosome...
December 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Yalda Arast, Nina Seyed Razi, Melika Nazemi, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad
PURPOSE: Melanoma is a highly aggressive and deadly cancer with a poor prognosis given its drug resistance. A defect in apoptosis is one of the key mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance in Melonama. An important sea marine animal is the Holothuria parva, also known as the sea cucumber, which has various pharmacological activities. Compounds obtained from sea cucumbers have shown to have anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis singling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, selective toxicity and apoptotic effect of three extracts of Holothuria parva (H...
December 12, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Isaac Agyekum, Lauren Pepi, Yanlei Yu, Junhui Li, Lufeng Yan, Robert J Linhardt, Shiguo Chen, I Jonathan Amster
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates are complex polysaccharides extracted from sea cucumber. They have been extensively studied for their anticoagulant properties and have been implicated in other biological activities. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to extensively characterize fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers, we herein report the first detailed mass characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Li Su, Jing-Feng Yang, Xi Fu, Liang Dong, Da-Yong Zhou, Li-Ming Sun, Zhenwei Gong
Sea cucumber body wall melting occurs under certain circumstances. We have shown that apoptosis, but not autolysis, plays a critical role in the initial stage. However, it is still unclear how apoptosis is triggered in this process. In this study, we examined the reactive oxygen species (ROS), levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and the depolarization of mitochondria transmembrane potential and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) release during the sea cucumber melting induced by ultraviolet (UV) exposure...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Elizaveta Yu Borodina, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
A highly regular fucan sulfate SHFS was isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus horrens by extraction of the body walls in the presence of papain followed by ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. SHFS had MW of about 140 kDa and contained fucose and sulfate in the molar ratio of about 1:1. Chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods were applied for the structural characterization of the polysaccharide. SHFS was shown to have linear molecules built up of 3-linked α-l-fucopyranose 2-sulfate residues...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Ling Chen, Gangliang Huang, Jinchuan Hu
Preparation, deproteinization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from cucumber (Cucumis saticus L.) were investigated. The crude cucumber polysaccharide was extracted by hydrothermal method. It showed that the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method had the higher deproteinization percentage, but a little higher polysaccharide loss percentage than the CaCl2 method. The cucumber polysaccharide is linked by the β-glycosidic linkage. It consisted of D-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, D-glucuronic acid, and D-galacturonic acid...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Li-Juan Zou, Xing-Guang Deng, Li-E Zhang, Tong Zhu, Wen-Rong Tan, Arfan Muhammad, Li-Jun Zhu, Chao Zhang, Da-Wei Zhang, Hong-Hui Lin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting plant hormones that play a crucial role in biotic stress responses. Here, we found that BR treatment increased nitric oxide (NO) accumulation, and a significant reduction of virus accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the plants pre-treated with NO scavenger (PTIO) or nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor (tungstate) were hardly generated NO generation and appeared to have the highest viral replication and suffer more damages. Furthermore, the antioxidant system and photosystem parameters were up-regulated in brassinolide (BL) - treated plants but down regulated in PTIO- or tungstate-treated plants, suggesting NO may be involved in BRs induced virus resistance in Arabidopsis...
December 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Iqmal Asyraf Ilias, Othman Babul Airianah, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Hoe-Han Goh
Expansin increases cell wall extensibility to allow cell wall loosening and cell expansion even in the absence of hydrolytic activity. Previous studies showed that excessive overexpression of expansin gene resulted in defective growth (Goh et al., 2014; Rochange et al., 2001) [1,2] and altered cell wall chemical composition (Zenoni et al., 2011) [3]. However, the molecular mechanism on how the overexpression of non-enzymatic cell wall protein expansin can result in widespread effects on plant cell wall and organ growth remains unclear...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Naseer Hussain, Tasneem Abbasi, Shahid Abbas Abbasi
Utilization of Salvinia molesta, an aquatic weed which is notorious for its allelopathy and invasiveness, has been explored by its vermicomposting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and plant bioassay tests were conducted to analyze the composition and fertilizer value of S .molesta vermicompost. Germination and seedling growth tests were performed in soil supplemented with vermicompost at levels ranging from 0.75 to 40% by weight of the soil on three common food plants, ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and green gram (Vigna radiata)...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Deepika Tripathi, Mrigank Mauli Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Devendra Kumar Chauhan
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) techniques have been used to detect the silicon bioavailability in the exocarp of warty cucumber surface. Warts appear at the time of anthesis and are remnant part of spines/trichomes which on further fruit maturation abscised from the exocarp. Results of EPMA and phytolith analysis clearly revealed that the surface of exocarp (fruit) of Cucumis sativus Linn. containing warts has greater quantity of silicon as compared to the other part of the fruit...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Zhao Lei, Yujia Chen, Wen Yang, Wenbao Chen, Chaohong Feng, QiaoChun Wang, Yunfeng Wu
Plant viral diseases cause severe economic losses in agricultural production. The development of biosource-derived antiviral agents provides an alternative strategy to efficiently control plant viral diseases. We previously reported that the exogenous application of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) exerts significant inhibitive effects on Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection in Nicotiana tabacum. In this study, we studied the mechanism of how PSP can induce virus resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana in additional detail...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Xiaodong Li, Mengnan An, Zihao Xia, Xiaojiao Bai, Yuanhua Wu
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) belongs to the Tobamovirus genus and is a major global plant virus on cucurbit plants. It causes severe disease symptoms on infected watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus), particularly inducing fruit decay. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of CGMMV-induced watermelon fruit decay. For this study, comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of CGMMV-inoculated and mock-inoculated watermelon fruits were conducted via RNA-Seq. A total of 1,621 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in CGMMV-inoculated watermelon, among which 1,052 were up-regulated and 569 were down-regulated...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rong Lei, Zhixin Du, Jun Kong, Guifen Li, Yan He, Yanhong Qiu, Jin Yan, Shuifang Zhu
Virus infection in plants involves necrosis, chlorosis and mosaic. The M strain of cucumber mosaic virus (M-CMV) has six distinct symptoms: vein clearing, mosaic, chlorosis, partial green recovery, complete green recovery and secondary mosaic. Chlorosis indicates the loss of chlorophyll which is highly abundant in plant leaves and plays essential roles in photosynthesis. Blue native/SDS-PAGE combined with mass spectrum was performed to detect the location of virus, and proteomic analysis of chloroplast isolated from virus-infected plants was performed to quantify the changes of individual proteins in order to gain a global view of the total chloroplast protein dynamics during the virus infection...
November 28, 2017: Proteomics
Reza Khalili, Navid Ayoobian, Mehrdad Jafarpour, Babak Shirani
In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the shelf life and properties of cucumber was investigated. These properties include weight reduction, fruit density, juice, tissue firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity, chlorophyll and vitamin C, pH, marketability, flavor, frostbite and fungal effects. For this purpose, cucumbers were irradiated with dose of 2, 2.5 and 3 kGy. The exposure time was calculated by MCNP4C; the Monte Carlo particle transport code. Three types of fungi (white-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, gray-Botrytis cinerea and olive-Cladosporium cucumerinum), were used to infect some samples...
December 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zhongxin Guo, Xian-Bing Wang, Ying Wang, Wan-Xiang Li, Amit Gal-On, Shou-Wei Ding
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) processed from virus-specific dsRNA direct antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) in diverse eukaryotic hosts. We have recently performed a sensitized genetic screen in Arabidopsis thaliana and identified two related phospholipid flippases required for antiviral RNAi and the amplification of virus-derived siRNAs by plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) and RDR6. Here we report the identification and cloning of ANTIVIRAL RNAI-DEFECTIVE 2 (AVI2) from the same genetic screen. AVI2 encodes a multi-span transmembrane protein broadly conserved in plants and animals with two homologous human proteins known as magnesium transporters...
November 28, 2017: Plant Physiology
Aurélie Affret, Gianluca Severi, Courtney Dow, Francesca Romana Mancini, Grégoire Rey, Cyrille Delpierre, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with an increase in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption over a 12-year period and evaluate if some socio-economic factors were differentially associated with the change in consumption of some types of F&V. DESIGN: Associations between increased F&V consumption and socio-economic factors were studied with multivariate logistic regression. SETTING: E3N, a French prospective cohort study of 98 995 women...
November 29, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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