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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727810/cucumber-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-modulates-the-accumulation-of-2b-protein-and-antiviral-silencing-that-causes-symptom-recovery-in-planta
#1
Xiao-Peng Zhang, De-Shui Liu, Teng Yan, Xiao-Dong Fang, Kai Dong, Jin Xu, Ying Wang, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang
Shoot apical meristems (SAM) are resistant to most plant viruses due to RNA silencing, which is restrained by viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) to facilitate transient viral invasion of the SAM. In many cases chronic symptoms and long-term virus recovery occur, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that wild-type Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVWT) invaded the SAM transiently, but was subsequently eliminated from the meristems. Unexpectedly, a CMV mutant, designated CMVRA that harbors an alanine substitution in the N-terminal arginine-rich region of the coat protein (CP) persistently invaded the SAM and resulted in visible reductions in apical dominance...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727218/altered-sediment-biota-and-lagoon-habitat-carbonate-dynamics-due-to-sea-cucumber-bioturbation-in-a-high-pco2-environment
#2
Kennedy Wolfe, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Sophie Dove, Dione Deaker, Maria Byrne
The effects of global change on biological systems and functioning are already measureable, but how ecological interactions are being altered is poorly understood. Ecosystem resilience is strengthened by ecological functionality, which depends on trophic interactions between key species and resilience generated through biogenic buffering. Climate-driven alterations to coral reef metabolism, structural complexity and biodiversity are well documented, but the feedbacks between ocean change and trophic interactions of non-coral invertebrates are understudied...
July 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724770/rgs-cam-detects-and-counteracts-viral-rna-silencing-suppressors-in-plant-immune-priming
#3
Eun Jin Jeon, Kazuki Tadamura, Taiki Murakami, Jun-Ichi Inaba, Bo Min Kim, Masako Sato, Go Atsumi, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu, Chikara Masuta, Kenji S Nakahara
Primary infection of a plant with a pathogen that causes high accumulation of salicylic acid in the plant typically via a hypersensitive response confers enhanced resistance against secondary infection with a broad spectrum of pathogens, including viruses. This phenomenon is called systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a plant-priming for adaption to repeated biotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of SAR-mediated enhanced inhibition, especially of virus infection, remain unclear. Here, we show that SAR against cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) involves a calmodulin-like protein, rgs-CaM...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724762/stability-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-at-the-quasi-six-fold-axis-affects-zoospore-transmission
#4
Michael B Sherman, Kishore Kakani, D'Ann Rochon, Wen Jiang, Neil R Voss, Thomas J Smith
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus, Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (1). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (2) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N-termini of the C subunit at the quasi 6-fold axes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722158/gravitropism-interferes-with-hydrotropism-via-counteracting-auxin-dynamics-in-cucumber-roots-clinorotation-and-spaceflight-experiments
#5
Keita Morohashi, Miki Okamoto, Chiaki Yamazaki, Nobuharu Fujii, Yutaka Miyazawa, Motoshi Kamada, Haruo Kasahara, Ikuko Osada, Toru Shimazu, Yasuo Fusejima, Akira Higashibata, Takashi Yamazaki, Noriaki Ishioka, Akie Kobayashi, Hideyuki Takahashi
Roots of land plants show gravitropism and hydrotropism in response to gravity and moisture gradients, respectively, for controlling their growth orientation. Gravitropism interferes with hydrotropism, although the mechanistic aspects are poorly understood. Here, we differentiated hydrotropism from gravitropism in cucumber roots by conducting clinorotation and spaceflight experiments. We also compared mechanisms regulating hydrotropism and auxin-regulated gravitropism. Clinorotated or microgravity (μG)-grown cucumber seedling roots hydrotropically bent toward wet substrate in the presence of moisture gradients, but they grew straight in the direction of normal gravitational force at the Earth's surface (1G) on the ground or centrifuge-generated 1G in space...
July 19, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715451/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-with-variation-in-individual-growth
#6
Lei Gao, Chongbo He, Xiangbo Bao, Meilin Tian, Zhen Ma
The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is an economically important aquaculture species in China. However, the serious individual growth variation often caused financial losses to farmers and the genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the extensively analysis at the transcriptome level for individual growth variation in sea cucumber was carried out. A total of 118946 unigenes were assembled from 255861 transcripts, with N50 of 1700. Of all unigenes, about 23% were identified with at least one significant match to known databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711664/complete-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-s3-1-a-potential-biological-pesticide-with-plant-pathogen-inhibiting-and-plant-promoting-capabilities
#7
Qing Jin, Qiuyue Jiang, Lei Zhao, Cuizhu Su, Songshuo Li, Fangyi Si, Shanshan Li, Chenhao Zhou, Yonglin Mu, Ming Xiao
Antagonistic soil microorganisms, which are non-toxic, harmless non-pollutants, can effectively reduce the density of pathogenic species by some ways. Bacillus velezensis strain S3-1 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of cucumber, and was shown to inhibit plant pathogens, promote plant growth and efficiently colonize rhizosphere soils. The strain produced 13 kinds of lipopeptide antibiotics, belonging to the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families. Here, we presented the complete genome sequence of S3-1...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709723/synbiotic-dietary-supplement-affects-growth-immune-responses-and-intestinal-microbiota-of-apostichopus-japonicas
#8
Xitao Wang, Yongxin Sun, Lili Wang, Xiaoyu Li, Kunli Qu, Yongping Xu
A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administration of synbiotic with Bacillus lincheniformis WS-2 (CGMCC No. 12813) and alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) on the growth, innate immune response, and intestinal microbiota of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas and its resistance to Vibrio infection. Sea cucumbers were given a control diet (non-supplemented), pro diet (basal diet plus 1 × 10(9) cfu (g diet)(-1)B. lincheniformis WS-2), syn diet (basal diet plus 1 × 10(9) cfu (g diet)(-1)B...
July 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708030/growth-kinetics-of-listeria-monocytogenes-in-cut-produce
#9
Joelle K Salazar, Surasri N Sahu, Ian M Hildebrandt, Lijie Zhang, Yan Qi, Girvin Liggans, Atin R Datta, Mary Lou Tortorello
Cut produce continues to constitute a significant portion of the fresh fruit and vegetables sold directly to consumers. As such, the safety of these items during storage, handling, and display remains a concern. Cut tomatoes, cut leafy greens, and cut melons, which have been studied in relation to their ability to support pathogen growth, have been specifically identified as needing temperature control for safety. Data are needed on the growth behavior of foodborne pathogens in other types of cut produce items that are commonly offered for retail purchase and are potentially held without temperature control...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705978/draft-genome-sequences-of-pseudoalteromonas-tetraodonis-csb01kr-and-pseudoalteromonas-lipolytica-csb02kr-isolated-from-the-gut-of-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#10
Jihoon Jo, Hyunjun Choi, Sung-Gwon Lee, Jooseong Oh, Hyun-Gwan Lee, Chungoo Park
We present here the complete genome sequences of two newly isolated Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis and Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica strains, isolated from the gut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, to provide a useful means for facilitating the study of antibacterial, bacteriolytic, agarolytic, and algicidal activities of marine Pseudoalteromonas species.
July 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698472/oxidative-stress-associated-with-chilling-injury-in-immature-fruit-postharvest-technological-and-biotechnological-solutions
#11
REVIEW
Juan Luis Valenzuela, Susana Manzano, Francisco Palma, Fátima Carvajal, Dolores Garrido, Manuel Jamilena
Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694504/melatonin-alleviates-chilling-stress-in-cucumber-seedlings-by-up-regulation-of-cszat12-and-modulation-of-polyamine-and-abscisic-acid-metabolism
#12
Hailiang Zhao, Kai Zhang, Xiaoting Zhou, Linjie Xi, Yuping Wang, Hongjun Xu, Tonghua Pan, Zhirong Zou
To obtain new insights into the mechanisms of the positive effects of exogenous melatonin applications to cucumber seedlings during chilling, we investigated its role in regulating photosynthesis, the transcription level of csZat12 and the metabolism of polyamines (PAs) and of abscisic acid (ABA). The negative effects of chilling were clearly alleviated in cucumber seedlings by irrigation with 200 μM melatonin solution. This was evidenced by alleviation of the decline in net photosynthesis rate and also in electrolyte leakage in chilled plants...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691663/quantitative-trait-loci-in-pepper-control-the-effective-population-size-of-two-rna-viruses-at-inoculation
#13
Lucie Tamisier, Elsa Rousseau, Sebastien Barraillé, Ghislaine Nemouchi, Marion Szadkowski, Ludovic Mailleret, Frederic Grognard, Frederic Fabre, Benoit Moury, Alain Palloix
Infection of plants by viruses is a complex process involving several steps: inoculation into plant cells, replication in inoculated cells and plant colonization. The success of the different steps depends, in part, on the viral effective population size (Ne), defined as the number of individuals passing their genes to the next generation. During infection, the virus population will undergo bottlenecks, leading to drastic reductions in Ne and, potentially, to the loss of the fittest variants. Therefore, it is crucial to better understand how plants affect Ne...
July 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690629/genome-wide-analysis-of-simple-sequence-repeats-in-bitter-gourd-momordica-charantia
#14
Junjie Cui, Jiaowen Cheng, Dingguo Nong, Jiazhu Peng, Yafei Hu, Weiming He, Qianjun Zhou, Narinder P S Dhillon, Kailin Hu
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and melon (Cucumis melo) genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689086/validation-of-reference-genes-for-quantifying-changes-in-gene-expression-in-virus-infected-tobacco
#15
Eseul Baek, Ju-Yeon Yoon, Peter Palukaitis
To facilitate quantification of gene expression changes in virus-infected tobacco plants, eight housekeeping genes were evaluated for their stability of expression during infection by one of three systemically-infecting viruses (cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus X, potato virus Y) or a hypersensitive-response-inducing virus (tobacco mosaic virus; TMV) limited to the inoculated leaf. Five reference-gene validation programs were used to establish the order of the most stable genes for the systemically-infecting viruses as ribosomal protein L25 > β-Tubulin > Actin, and the least stable genes Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) < PP2A < GAPDH...
July 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688355/bioavailability-of-coated-and-uncoated-zno-nanoparticles-to-cucumber-in-soil-with-or-without-organic-matter
#16
Sahar Moghaddasi, Amir Fotovat, Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, F Karimzadeh, Hamid Reza Khazaei, Reza Khorassani
There is a gap of knowledge for the fate, effects and bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in soil. Moreover, little is known about the effects of soil properties on effects of NPs on plants. In this study, the availability ZnO NPs in two soils with different organic matter content (one treated with cow manure (CM) and the other as untreated) was compared with their bulk particles. Results showed that coated and uncoated ZnO NPs can be more bioaccessible than their bulk counterpart and despite their more positive effects at low concentration (< 100mgkg(-1)), they were more phytotoxic for plants compared to the bulk ZnO particles at high concentration (1000mgkg(-1)) in the soil untreated with CM...
July 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688040/identification-of-all-homoeologous-chromosomes-of-newly-synthetic-allotetraploid-cucumis-%C3%A3-hytivus-and-its-wild-parent-reveals-stable-subgenome-structure
#17
Yunzhu Wang, Qinzheng Zhao, Xiaodong Qin, Shuqiong Yang, Ziang Li, Ji Li, Qunfeng Lou, Jinfeng Chen
Allopolyploidy and homoeologous recombination are two important processes in reshaping genomes and generating evolutionary novelties. Newly formed allopolyploids usually display chromosomal perturbations as a result of pairing errors at meiosis. To understand mechanisms of stabilization of allopolyploid species derived from distant chromosome bases, we investigated mitotic stability of a synthetic Cucumis allotetraploid species in relation to meiosis chromosome behavior. The Cucumis × hytivus is an allotetraploid synthesized from interspecific hybridization between cucumber (Cucumis sativus, 2n = 14) and its wild relative Cucumis hystrix (2n = 24) followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling...
July 7, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687360/extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-ajmmp-2-like-and-ajmmp-16-like-characterization-during-intestine-regeneration-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#18
Ting Miao, Zixuan Wan, Lina Sun, Xiaoni Li, Lili Xing, Yucen Bai, Fang Wang, Hongsheng Yang
Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A...
July 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684750/molecular-ecological-network-analysis-reveals-the-effects-of-probiotics-and-florfenicol-on-intestinal-microbiota-homeostasis-an-example-of-sea-cucumber
#19
Gang Yang, Mo Peng, Xiangli Tian, Shuanglin Dong
Animal gut harbors diverse microbes that play crucial roles in the nutrition uptake, metabolism, and the regulation of host immune responses. The intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for health but poorly understood. Probiotics Paracoccus marcusii DB11 and Bacillus cereus G19, and antibiotics florfenicol did not significantly impact species richness and the diversity of intestinal microbiota of sea cucumber, in comparison with those in the control group by high-throughput sequencing. Molecular ecological network analysis indicated that P...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674223/expression-analysis-of-argonaute-dicer-like-and-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-genes-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-in-response-to-abiotic-stress
#20
Defang Gan, Mengdan Zhan, Feng Yang, Qiqi Zhang, Keling Hu, Wenjuan Xu, Qinghui Lu, Ling Zhang, Dandi Liang
Posttranscriptional control of gene expression can be achieved through RNA interference when the activities of Dicer-like (DCL), argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins are significant. In this study, we analysed the expression of seven AGO, five DCL and eight RDR genes in cucumber under cold, heat, hormone, salinity and dehydration treatments using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). All CsAGO, CsDCL and CsRDR genes were differentially expressed under abiotic stress treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Genetics
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