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Xiaofeng Liu, Kang Ning, Gen Che, Shuangshuang Yan, Lijie Han, Ran Gu, Zheng Li, Yiqun Weng, Xiaolan Zhang
Anther and ovule genesis preconditions crop fertilization and fruit production. However, coordinative regulation of anther and ovule development and underlying molecular pathways remain largely elusive. Here, we found that SPOROCYTELESS (SPL)/NOZZLE (NZZ) expression was nearly abolished in a cucumber mutant with severely defective anther and ovule development. CsSPL was expressed specifically in the developing anthers and ovules. Knockdown of CsSPL reduced male and female fertility with malformed pollen and suppressed ovule development...
February 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Abdulaziz R Al-Harbi, Abdulrasoul M Al-Omran, Khadiga Alharbi
Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar ( Cucumis sativus L.) was grafted onto Affyne ( Cucumis sativus L.) and Shintoza A90 ( Cucurbitamaxima × C...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Andrés Andrade-Domínguez, Roberto Kolter, Lori R Shapiro
Erwinia tracheiphila is the causal agent of bacterial wilt of cucurbits. Here, we report the genome sequence of the temperate phage EtG, which was isolated from an E. tracheiphila -infected cucumber plant. Phage EtG has a linear 30,413-bp double-stranded DNA genome with cohesive ends and 45 predicted open reading frames.
February 22, 2018: Genome Announcements
Wael M Semida, Khaulood A Hemida, Mostafa M Rady
During its life cycle, plant has to cope with a number of abiotic stresses including cadmium stress. Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to plant and greatly influences its growth and entire metabolism. Antioxidants have to enable plant to beat such stresses. Therefore, effects of ascorbate (AsA), proline (Pro) and glutathione (GSH) applied, as seed soaking solutions, singly or in a sequence on cucumber transplant growth, physio-biochemical attributes and antioxidant defense system activity were investigated under 2 mM Cd stress...
February 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Abdullah Alsaeedi, Hassan El-Ramady, Tarek Alshaal, Mohamed El-Garawani, Nevien Elhawat, Awadh Al-Otaibi
The current work was aimed to elucidate the role of engineered nanosilica (SiNPs) particles to mitigate the damaging impacts of Na+ -derived salinity on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Beit Alpha variety by conducting in vitro experiments applying various Na+ concentrations i.e. 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg L-1 . By treating seeds and seedlings, respectively, of cucumber with SiNPs (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) and subsequent determination some germination and vegetative parameters as well as chemical analysis of seedlings, we verified that SiNPs succeeded to alleviate the detrimental effects of high Na+ salinity by increasing germination parameters and vegetative growth of cucumber seedlings...
February 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Thomas E Adrian, Peter Collin
Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa . Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines and animal models studied to date, the anti-cancer effects of the compound are seen in all solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias studied to date. These effects appear to be due to potent inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), which is up-regulated in many cancers...
February 19, 2018: Marine Drugs
Yong Zhou, Lifang Hu, Lunwei Jiang, Shiqiang Liu
Metacaspase (MC), a family of caspase-like proteins, plays vital roles in regulating programmed cell death (PCD) during development and in response to stresses in plants. In this study, five MC genes (designated as CsMC1 to CsMC5) were identified in the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) genome. Sequence analysis revealed that CsMC1-CsMC3 belong to type I MC proteins, while CsMC4 and CsMC5 are type II MC proteins. Phylogenetic tree and conserved motif analysis of MC proteins indicated that these proteins can be classified into two groups, which are correlated with the types of these MC proteins...
February 20, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Eman M Khalaf, Manish N Raizada
The cucurbit vegetables, including cucumbers, melons and pumpkins, have been cultivated for thousands of years without fungicides. However, their seed germination stage is prone to be infected by soil-borne fungal and oomycete pathogens. Endophytes are symbionts that reside inside plant tissues including seeds. Seed endophytes are founders of the juvenile plant microbiome and can promote host defense at seed germination and later stages. We previously isolated 169 bacterial endophytes associated with seeds of diverse cultivated cucurbits...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun Wang, Yaoguang Chang, Fanxiu Wu, Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is the major carbohydrate constituent of sea cucumber. However, the distribution of fCS in the sea cucumber body wall has not been fully described. We addressed this in the present study employing Apostichopus japonicus as the material, a sea cucumber species with significant commercial importance. It was found that fCS was covalently attached to collagen fibrils via O-glycosidic linkages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fCS precipitate was present in gap regions of collagen fibrils as roughly globular or ellipsoidal dots...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Longyan Zhao, Yujing Qin, Ruowei Guan, Wenqi Zheng, Jikai Liu, Jinhua Zhao
The digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) and its effects on digestive enzymes were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. Results showed that the molecular weight and the reducing sugar content of FG were not significantly changed, and no free monosaccharides released from FG were detected after the salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion, indicating that both the backbone and the sulfated fucose branches of FG are resistant to be cleaved in the saliva and gastrointestinal tract environments...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Boshra A Halo, Rashid A Al-Yahyai, Abdullah M Al-Sadi
The study investigated the efficacy of two isolates of Aspergillus terreus (65P and 9F) on the growth, morphology and pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum on cucumber. In vitro tests showed that the two isolates inhibited the growth of P. aphanidermatum in culture. Investigating P. aphanidermatum hyphae close to the inhibition zone showed that the hyphae showed abnormal growth and loss of internal content. Treating P. aphanidermatum with the culture filtrate (CF) of A. terreus resulted in significant rise in cellular leakage of P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Richard Moyle, Lara-Simone Pretorius, Louise S Shuey, Ekaterina Nowak, Peer M Schenk
The complete genome sequence of Cucumber mosaic virus strain K was determined by deep RNA sequencing. The tripartite genome consists of a 3,382-nucleotide (nt) RNA1, a 3,050-nt RNA2, and a 2,218-nt RNA3 segment. Phylogenetic analysis placed RNA1 and RNA2 in subgroup IB. However, RNA3 grouped with subgroup IA isolates, indicating a likely recombination event.
February 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Guodong Zhang, Yi Chen, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric W Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K Bunning, Mickey Parish, Steven M Musser, Thomas S Hammack
The objective of this research was to assess the microbiological status of leafy greens, sprouts, and melons from U.S. markets. A total of 14,183 samples of leafy greens, 2,652 samples of sprouts, and 3,411 samples of melons were collected throughout the United States from 2009 to 2014. The samples were analyzed for aerobic plate counts, total coliform counts, Escherichia coli counts, and the presence and levels of Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), depending on the year and type of produce...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Sen Yang, Yanling Cai, Xingwang Liu, Mingming Dong, Yaqi Zhang, Shuying Chen, Wenbo Zhang, Yujing Li, Min Tang, Xuling Zhai, Yiqun Weng, Huazhong Ren
The fruit epidermal features such as the number and size of trichomes or spines are important fruit quality traits for cucumber production. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying fruit spine formation in cucumber. Here, we reported functional characterization of the cucumber CsMYB6 gene, which encodes a MIXTA-like MYB transcription factor that is an important player in regulating fruit trichome development in cucumber. Spatial-temporal expression analyses revealed high level expression of CsMYB6 in the epidermis of cucumber ovaries during fruit spine initiation, which was similar to CsTRY, a homolog of the Arabidopsis TRY gene that also plays a key role in trichome development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Leilani Sumabat, Robert C Kemerait, Marin Talbot Brewer
Corynespora cassiicola is a ubiquitous fungus causing emerging plant diseases worldwide, including target spot of cotton, soybean, and tomato, which have rapidly increased in incidence and severity throughout the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to understand the causes for the emerging target spot epidemics in the U.S. by comparing phylogenetic relationships of isolates from cotton, tomato, soybean, and other crop plants and ornamental hosts, and through the determination of the host range of isolates from emerging populations...
February 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Shiv Singh, Anshuman Srivastava, Sheelendra Pratap Singh
Phenolic resin based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were applied for the first time as a reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction (r-DSPE) sorbent. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to determine 26 pesticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, and herbicides) in different complex matrices, including cauliflower, cucumber, banana, apple, wheat, and black gram. Different physicochemical characterization techniques were used to investigate the engineering and structural properties of the r-DSPE sorbent...
February 12, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Suchi Chawla, Dilip J Patel, Sunny R Patel, Ravi L Kalasariya, Paresh G Shah
A field experiment was conducted to estimate residue persistence of fluopyram and its metabolite benzamide in cucumber fruits and soil and their risk assessment in humans and soil environment. Fluopyram (Kafka, 400 SC) was applied as soil drench twice at the interval of 15 days at the rate of 250 (standard dose) and 500 (double dose) g a.i. ha-1 (active ingredient per hectare). Cucumber fruits were collected at 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after second application. Soil samples were collected on 15th day after second application...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Baoshan Kang, Bin Peng, Huijie Wu, Lifeng Liu, Wanwan Wu, Qinsheng Gu
In this study, we found that the infectivity of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in watermelon lines H1 and K6 changed from partial to complete after propagation in the susceptible watermelon line ZXG637. When using cucumber infected with strain ZYMV-CH87 as an inoculum (named ZYMV-CH87C), the mean incidences of infection in lines H1 and K6 were 6% and 11%, respectively. However, when these lines were inoculated with ZXG637 infected with ZYMV-CH87C (named ZYMV-637), 100% of the plants became infected. Sequencing of ZYMV from these different inoculums revealed two nucleotide changes in the P3 cistron in ZYMV-637, which resulted in changes in the amino acids at positions 768 and 857 of the P3 protein, compared with the original strain ZYMV-CH87...
February 9, 2018: Archives of Virology
Jorge Viera-Vera, José E García-Arrarás
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood...
February 6, 2018: Gene
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