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Jisu Yeom, Mikhail A Nikitin, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko, Wonchoel Lee
The ectosymbiotic copepods, Vostoklaophonte eupenta gen. & sp. nov. associated with the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix , was found in the subtidal zone of Peter the Great Bay, East/Japan Sea. The new genus, Vostoklaophonte , is similar to Microchelonia in the flattened body form, reduced mandible, maxillule and maxilla, but with well-developed prehensile maxilliped, and in the reduced segmentation and setation of legs 1-5. Most appendages of the new genus are more primitive than those of Microchelonia ...
2018: PeerJ
Xin Li, Jing Du, Jinju Guo, Hongyun Wang, Si Ma, Jianguo Lü, Xiaolei Sui, Zhenxian Zhang
Sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs) are rate-limiting sucrose synthesis enzymes present in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues. The cucumber genome contains three SPSs that can be grouped into families A, B, and C. CsSPS1 and CsSPS2 are highly expressed in flowers and mature leaves, while the expression level of CsSPS4 increased gradually after leaf unfolding in our study and reached its peak after 20 days. In CsSPS4-overexpression tobacco plants, sucrose content and sucrose/starch ratio were increased significantly and resulted in improved leaf yield...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yang Li, Juanqi Li, Yan Yan, Wenqian Liu, Wenna Zhang, Lihong Gao, Yongqiang Tian
Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that plays a crucial role in plant growth and development. Nitrate ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mi>NO</mml:mi> <mml:mi>3</mml:mi> <mml:mn>-</mml:mn> </mml:msubsup> </mml:math> ) is the most abundant N source in aerobic soils. Plants have evolved two adaptive mechanisms such as up-regulation of the high-affinity transport system (HATS) and alteration of the root system architecture (RSA), allowing them to cope with the temporal and spatial variation of <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Munmi Borah, Margarita Berbati, Chrysavgi Reppa, Maria Holeva, Palash Deb Nath, Andreas Voloudakis
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causes great losses in Bhut Jolokia pepper ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.) plantations in Assam, India. To investigate possible means to induce plant resistance against this virus, the crude extract of bacterially-expressed double-stranded (ds) RNA, derived from CMV-2b gene (dsRNA_CMV-2b), was exogenously applied along with CMV-G strain onto Bhut Jolokia plants. In this 'RNA-vaccination' bioassay, disease incidence, assessed by testing the plants at 21 days post inoculation by DAS-ELISA, ranged from 0 to 29% in case of dsRNA-treated plants, and from 55 to 92% when only CMV was applied...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Bao-Tao Liu, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Shu-Wei Wan, Jun-Jie Hao, Rui-De Jiang, Feng-Jing Song
Vegetables harboring bacteria resistant to antibiotics are a growing food safety issue. However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this study, 411 vegetable samples from 36 supermarkets or farmer's markets in 18 cities in China, were analyzed for CRE. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and other resistance genes were analyzed among the CRE isolates. Plasmids carrying carbapenemase genes were studied by conjugation, replicon typing, S1-PFGE southern blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erica L Vonasek, Angela H Choi, Juan Sanchez, Nitin Nitin
There is a significant unmet need to develop antimicrobial solutions to reduce the risk of contamination in fresh produce. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a potential approach for controlling foodborne pathogens. This study evaluated the combination of edible dip coatings with T7 bacteriophages on whole and cut produce. The evaluation includes an assessment of phage loading, phage storage stability, antimicrobial activity, and phage stability during simulated gastric digestion on sliced cucumbers, sliced apples, and whole cherry tomatoes...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Hao Sun, Yaoke Duan, Xiaocui Qi, Liyang Zhang, Heqiang Huo, Haijun Gong
Background and Aims: Silicon has been proven to exert beneficial effects on plant growth and stress tolerance, and silicon accumulation varies among different plant species. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely used dicot model for silicon accumulation, but little is known about the molecular mechanism of its silicon uptake. Previously, we isolated and characterized CsLsi1, a silicon influx transporter gene from cucumber. In this study, we cloned a putative silicon efflux transporter gene, CsLsi2, from cucumber and investigated its role in silicon uptake...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Sen Yang, Changlong Wen, Bin Liu, Yanling Cai, Shudan Xue, Ezra S Bartholomew, Mingming Dong, Chen Jian, Shuo Xu, Ting Wang, Wenzhu Qi, Jinan Pang, Dehua Ma, Xingwang Liu, Huazhong Ren
The fruit epidermal features such as the size of tubercules are important fruit quality traits for cucumber production. But the mechanisms underlying tubercule formation remain elusive. Here, tubercule size locus CsTS1 was identified by map-based cloning, and was found to encode an oleosin protein. Allelic variation was identified in the promoter region of CsTS1, resulting in low expression of CsTS1 in all 22 different small-warty or non-warty cucumber lines. High CsTS1 expression levels were closely correlated with increased fruit tubercule size among 44 different cucumber lines...
June 14, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Prapaporn Jattujan, Pawanrat Chalorak, Tanapan Siangcham, Kant Sangpairoj, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
Holothuria scabra is a sea cucumber that is mostly found in the Indo-Pacific region including Thailand. Extracts from many sea cucumbers possess pharmacological activities proposed to benefit human health. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-ageing activities of extracts from H. scabra by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Parts of H. scabra were solvent-extracted and divided into nine fractions including whole body-hexane (WBHE), whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-hexane (BWHE), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), body wall-butanol (BWBU), viscera-hexane (VIHE), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), and viscera-butanol (VIBU)...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Luming Yang, Hanqiang Liu, Jianyu Zhao, Yupeng Pan, Siyuan Cheng, Calvin D Lietzow, Changlong Wen, Xiaolan Zhang, Yiqun Weng
Plants employ tight genetic control to integrate intrinsic growth signals and environmental cues to enable organ growth to a defined size. Many genes contributing to cell proliferation and/or cell expansion and consequently organ size control have been identified, but the regulatory pathways are poorly understood. Here we have characterized a cucumber littleleaf (ll) mutant which exhibits smaller organ sizes but more lateral branches than the wildtype. The small organ size in ll was due to a reduction of both cell number and cell size...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jordi Morata, Marc Tormo, Konstantinos G Alexiou, Cristina Vives, Sebastián Ramos-Onsins, Jordi Garcia-Mas, Josep M Casacuberta
Transposable elements (TEs) are a major driver of plant genome evolution. A part from being a rich source of new genes and regulatory sequences, TEs can also affect plant genome evolution by modifying genome size and shaping chromosome structure. TEs tend to concentrate in heterochromatic pericentromeric regions and their proliferation may expand these regions. Here we show that after the split of melon and cucumber, TEs have expanded the pericentromeric regions of melon chromosomes that, probably as a consequence, show a very low recombination frequency...
June 13, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Huiling Zhang, Wenchao Du, Jose R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey, Jason C White, Arturo A Keller, Hongyan Guo, Rong Ji, Lijuan Zhao
Due to their well-known antifungal activity, the intentional use of Ag nanoparticle (NPs) as sustainable nano-fungicides is expected to increase in agriculture. However, the impacts of AgNPs on plants must be critically evaluated to guarantee their safe use in food production. In this study, 4-week-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants received a foliar application of AgNPs (4 or 40 mg per plant) or Ag+ (0.04 or 0.4 mg per plant) for seven days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based non-target metabolomics enabled the identification and quantification of 268 metabolites in cucumber leaves...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rong Jiang, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Xuzhi Li
Combined pollution of agrichemicals and heavy metals in urban lawn soils were commonly observed throughout the world, and the co-existed two chemicals could interact with each other both in environment behavior and toxic effect. However, little has been reported on the ecological risk of their combined pollution, especially in field due to lack of systematic methodology. In this study, four soils (C, N1, N2, N3) from two public parks in Beijing, China, with similar properties but contrasting heavy metal contaminated level were chosen to assess the ecological risks of co-existed herbicide siduron and heavy metals...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chiara Malagoli, Maria Carmen Usai
Adolescence is a fundamental transition phase, marked by physical, social, cognitive and emotional changes. At this stage in development two contrasting phenomena take place: brain changes cause a sensitivity to emotional aspects (Dahl, 2004); while also control processes register as well impressive improvements (e.g., Hooper et al., 2004; Best and Miller, 2010). The study is aimed to investigate the relationship between a core cognitive feature such as working memory (WM) (Diamond, 2013) and complex abilities such as emotion regulation (ER) and behavioral self-reported outcomes using a structural equation model approach...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Yong Zhou, Lifang Hu, Lunwei Jiang, Shiqiang Liu
YTH domain-containing RNA-binding proteins are involved in post-transcriptional regulation and play important roles in the growth and development as well as abiotic stress responses of plants. However, YTH genes have not been previously studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In this study, a total of five YTH genes (CsYTH1-CsYTH5) were identified in cucumber, which could be mapped on three out of the seven cucumber chromosomes. All CsYTH proteins had highly conserved C-terminal YTH domains, and two of them (CsYTH1 and CsYTH4) harbored extra CCCH and P/Q/N-rich domains...
June 2018: Genes & Genomics
Ninghai Kou, Zhixin Xiang, Weiti Cui, Longna Li, Wenbiao Shen
Previous results have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), mainly catalyzed by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) in plants, triggers adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether H2 S is involved in methane (CH4 )-induced adventitious root development in cucumber explants. First, we observed that the activities of DES, endogenous H2 S production, and thereafter adventitious root development were induced by CH4 and NaHS (an H2 S donor). Some responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT; a scavenger of H2 S), showing that endogenous H2 S production and adventitious rooting were obviously blocked...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Aifen Yan, Chunhua Ren, Ting Chen, Da Huo, Xiao Jiang, Hongyan Sun, Chaoqun Hu
In this study, a novel caspase-6 named HLcaspase-6 was identified from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of HLcaspase-6 is 2195 bp in size, containing a 126 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1043 bp 3'-UTR and a 1026 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 341 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 38.57 kDa. HLcaspase-6 contains the common signatures of the caspase family, including the conserved pentapeptide motif QACRG, as well as the P20 and P10 domains. In addition, HLcaspase-6 contains a short pro-domain...
June 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Bin Huang, Jun Li, Qian Wang, Meixia Guo, Dongdong Yan, Wensheng Fang, Zongjie Ren, Qiuxia Wang, Canbin Ouyang, Yuan Li, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., RKN) causes a disease that significantly reduces the yield of greenhouse cucumber crops year after year. Chemical control based on a single pesticide is now unreliable mainly due to pest resistance. Fumigant and non-fumigant pesticide combinations can potentially result in effective and economic RKN control. RESULTS: Combining the insecticide abamectin (ABM) with fumigants dazomet (DZ) or chloropicrin (CP) significantly extended the half-life of ABM by an average of about 1...
2018: PloS One
Leiming He, Kaidi Cui, Yufei Song, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
ABSTRACT:In this study, a novel succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide benzovindiflupyr was found to have strong inhibitory activity against gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The sensitivity of B. cinerea to benzovindiflupyr was determined by testing 103 pathogen isolates with mean values of 2.15 ± 0.19 mg liter-1 and 0.89 ± 0.14 mg liter-1 for mycelial growth and spore germination inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, benzovindiflupyr had excellent long-lasting protective activity. Unfortunately, there were positive correlations between benzovindiflupyr and boscalid (r=0...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Pham Duc Thinh, Bui Minh Ly, Roza V Usoltseva, Natalia M Shevchenko, Anton B Rasin, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Olesya S Malyarenko, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Pham Trung San, Svetlana P Ermakova
In the present study, three sulfated polysaccharides, two fractions of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates, and one sulfated fucan were isolated from the body wall of the Vietnamese sea cucumber Stichopus variegatus. The structure of the sulfated fucan fraction SvF3 from S. variegatus was investigated for the first time. According to NMR spectroscopy data, the sulfated fucan SvF3 contained 1,2- and 1,3-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues. Sulfate groups were found at the 2 and/or 4 positions. The structural analysis of fucoidan was assisted by tandem mass spectrometry; the recently-developed technique of autohydrolysis in heavy‑oxygen water for the obtaining of selectively labeled fucoidan fragments was applied...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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