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Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anahi Sy
This paper aims to analyze the process of medicalization in current societies, starting from the description of the way in which medicine gradually appropriated various aspects of everyday life that were once part of the life cycle of people. At the theoretical level, we are based on authors such as Descola and Latour, who problematize the dichotomy between Nature and Culture, and propose the need to think from a superior episteme. Methodologically, this theoretical proposal enables an analysis of the medicalization that can illuminate what is hidden in the discourse and biomedical practices: the sociocultural, political and economic processes that are part of these "objects" of Medicine...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jennie Haw, Shannon Cunningham, Kieran C O'Doherty
RATIONALE: Asthma is a common respiratory condition with high prevalence rates globally. While there are effective treatments, asthma remains an important health concern as people continue to die from severe attacks. Improving the experiences of, and health outcomes for, people with asthma depends heavily on their interactions with healthcare professionals. Understanding negative clinical encounters will benefit people with asthma and healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: To examine epistemic tensions in negative clinical encounters from a patient perspective, with an aim to better understand how patients respond to these tensions...
May 1, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Emmanuel Delille, Ivan Crozier
The history of transcultural psychiatry has recently attracted much historical attention, including a workshop in March 2016 in which an international panel of scholars met at the Maison de Sciences de l'Homme Paris-Nord (MSH-PN). Papers from this workshop are presented here. By conceiving of transcultural psychiatry as a dynamic social field that frames its knowledge claims around epistemic objects that are specific to the field, and by focusing on the ways that concepts within this field are used to organize intellectual work, several themes are explored that draw this field into the historiography of psychiatry...
May 1, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Olga Vigiak, Stefanie Lutz, Angeliki Mentzafou, Gabriele Chiogna, Ye Tuo, Bruno Majone, Hylke Beck, Ad de Roo, Anna Malagó, Fayçal Bouraoui, Rohini Kumar, Luis Samaniego, Ralf Merz, Christos Gamvroudis, Nikolaos Skoulikidis, Nikolaos P Nikolaidis, Alberto Bellin, Vicenç Acuňa, Nataša Mori, Ralf Ludwig, Alberto Pistocchi
Sustainable water basin management requires characterization of flow regime in river networks impacted by anthropogenic pressures. Flow regime in ungauged catchments under current, future, or natural conditions can be assessed with hydrological models. Developing hydrological models is, however, resource demanding such that decision makers might revert to models that have been developed for other purposes and are made available to them ('off-the-shelf' models). In this study, the impact of epistemic uncertainty of flow regime indicators on flow-ecological assessment was assessed at selected stations with drainage areas ranging from about 400 to almost 90,000km2 in four South European basins (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Yael Peled
Contemporary realities of global population movement increasingly bring to the fore the challenge of quality and equitable health provision across language barriers. While this linguistic challenge is not unique to immigration contexts and is likewise shared by health systems responding to the needs of aboriginal peoples and other historical linguistic minorities, the expanding multilingual landscape of receiving societies renders this challenge even more critical, owing to limited or even non-existing familiarity of modern and often monolingual health systems with the particular needs of new linguistic minorities...
May 9, 2018: Bioethics
Sweta Rajan-Rankin
This theoretical essay examines the intersections between race, ethnicity and old age from an inter-disciplinary lens. Drawing on cultural gerontology (especially embodied aging studies) and post-colonial perspectives on aging, it explores how an emphasis on the body and embodiment can serve as a conceptual lens for understanding racialized aging bodies. A tentative framework for analysis is proposed. The concept of exile explores how bodies of color and older bodies are denigrated through the hegemonic (white, youth-centered, masculinist) gaze...
June 2018: Journal of Aging Studies
Willy Ciecior, Klaus-Jürgen Röhlig, Gerald Kirchner
In the present paper, deterministic as well as first- and second-order probabilistic biosphere modeling approaches are compared. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the influence of the probability distribution function shape (empirical distribution functions and fitted lognormal probability functions) representing the aleatory uncertainty (also called variability) of a radioecological model parameter as well as the role of interacting parameters are studied. Differences in the shape of the output distributions for the biosphere dose conversion factor from first-order Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis using empirical and fitted lognormal distribution functions for input parameters suggest that a lognormal approximation is possibly not always an adequate representation of the aleatory uncertainty of a radioecological parameter...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Roland Imhoff, Pia Lamberty, Olivier Klein
Classical theories of attitude change point to the positive effect of source expertise on perceived source credibility persuasion, but there is an ongoing societal debate on the increase in anti-elitist sentiments and conspiracy theories regarding the allegedly untrustworthy power elite. In one correlational ( N = 275) and three experimental studies ( N = 195, N = 464, N = 225), we tested the novel idea that people who endorse a conspiratorial mind-set (conspiracy mentality) indeed exhibit markedly different reactions to cues of epistemic authoritativeness than those who do not: Whereas the perceived credibility of powerful sources decreased with the recipients' conspiracy mentality, that of powerless sources increased independent of and incremental to other biases, such as the need to see the ingroup in particularly positive light...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Zaijia Liu, Michael L Slepian
Much of the social psychological literature considers how people engage with their social worlds. Shared reality theory proposes that people do so for one of two reasons: to connect with others, and to obtain others' perspectives and insights to understand the world around them. Although the literature on shared reality has focused on the ways in which people develop and maintain shared realities with those around them as well as the consequences of achieving such shared realities, we propose that a critical future avenue for this work is to explore what happens when people choose to not share realities...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Christopher M Federico, Pierce D Ekstrom
Numerous studies have indicated that the need for closure predicts political preferences. We examined a potential moderator of this relationship: political-identity centrality, or the extent to which individuals' political preferences are central to their self-concept. We tested three hypotheses. First, we predicted that need for closure would be more strongly related to political identity (symbolic ideology and party identification; Hypothesis 1) and issue positions (operational ideology; Hypothesis 2) among individuals who see their political preferences as more self-central...
April 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Gustav Preller, Anna-Henrikje Seidlein, Sabine Salloch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
William M Webb
Thirty years after the rise of the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement, formal training in philosophy remains poorly represented among medical students and their educators. In this paper, I argue that EBM’s reception in this context has resulted in a privileging of empiricism over rationalism in clinical reasoning with unintended consequences for medical practice. After a limited review of the history of medical epistemology, I argue that a solution to this problem can be found in the method of the 2nd-century Roman physician Galen, who brought empiricism and rationalism together in a synthesis anticipating the scientific method...
April 25, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Rachel Mason Dentinger, Abigail Woods
Comparison between different animal species is omnipresent in the history of science and medicine but rarely subject to focussed historical analysis. The articles in the "Working Across Species" topical collection address this deficit by looking directly at the practical and epistemic work of cross-species comparison. Drawn from papers presented at a Wellcome-Trust-funded workshop in 2016, these papers investigate various ways that comparison has been made persuasive and successful, in multiple locations, by diverse disciplines, over the course of two centuries...
April 24, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
Chris Bonell, Graham Moore, Emily Warren, Laurence Moore
BACKGROUND: We have previously proposed that trials of social interventions can be done within a "realist" research paradigm. Critics have countered that such trials are irredeemably positivist and asked us to explain our philosophical position. METHODS: We set out to explore what is meant by positivism and whether trials adhere to its tenets (of necessity or in practice) via a narrative literature review of social science and philosophical discussions of positivism, and of the trials literature and three case studies of trials...
April 19, 2018: Trials
Letizia Caronia, Marzia Saglietti
This paper focuses on the epistemic and interactional resources displayed by nurses participating in medical case construction and the ways through which they make a difference in the unfolding of this activity. This paper draws on an ethnographic research in an Italian Intensive Care Unit (ICU) selected according to a purposeful sampling approach out of a national sample of 40 ICUs participating in a larger research project. Our dataset, collected over a period of six months of ethnographic observations, consisted of the observers' field notes and log-books, audio and video-recordings of morning briefings, in-depth interviews, informal conversations and shadowing of bedside practices...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Rebecca A Hardesty
Recently there has been a practice turn in the philosophy of science that has called for analyses to be grounded in the actual doings of everyday science. This paper is in furtherance of this call and it does so by employing participant-observation ethnographic methods as a tool for discovering epistemological features of scientific practice in a neuroscience lab. The case I present focuses on a group of neurobiologists researching the genetic underpinnings of cognition in Down syndrome (DS) and how they have developed a new mouse model which they argue should be regarded as the "gold standard" for all DS mouse research...
April 11, 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Michael J Neuss
William Harvey's famous quantitative argument from De motu cordis (1628) about the circulation of blood explained how a small amount of blood could recirculate and nourish the entire body, upending the Galenic conception of the blood's motion. This paper argues that the quantitative argument drew on the calculative and rhetorical skills of merchants, including Harvey's own brothers. Modern translations of De motu cordis obscure the language of accountancy that Harvey himself used. Like a merchant accounting for credits and debits, intake and output, goods and moneys, Harvey treated venous and arterial blood as essentially commensurate, quantifiable and fungible...
April 13, 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
Ipek G Kulahci, Asif A Ghazanfar, Daniel I Rubenstein
Strong relationships exist between social connections and information transmission [1-9], where individuals' network position plays a key role in whether or not they acquire novel information [2, 3, 5, 6]. The relationships between social connections and information acquisition may be bidirectional if learning novel information, in addition to being influenced by it, influences network position. Individuals who acquire information quickly and use it frequently may receive more affiliative behaviors [10, 11] and may thus have a central network position...
April 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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