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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336791/faultless-responsibility-on-the-nature-and-allocation-of-moral-responsibility-for-distributed-moral-actions
#1
Luciano Floridi
The concept of distributed moral responsibility (DMR) has a long history. When it is understood as being entirely reducible to the sum of (some) human, individual and already morally loaded actions, then the allocation of DMR, and hence of praise and reward or blame and punishment, may be pragmatically difficult, but not conceptually problematic. However, in distributed environments, it is increasingly possible that a network of agents, some human, some artificial (e.g. a program) and some hybrid (e.g. a group of people working as a team thanks to a software platform), may cause distributed moral actions (DMAs)...
December 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303075/epistemic-injustice-and-illness
#2
Ian James Kidd, Havi Carel
This article analyses the phenomenon of epistemic injustice within contemporary healthcare. We begin by detailing the persistent complaints patients make about their testimonial frustration and hermeneutical marginalization, and the negative impact this has on their care. We offer an epistemic analysis of this problem using Miranda Fricker's account of epistemic injustice. We detail two types of epistemic injustice, testimonial and hermeneutical, and identify the negative stereotypes and structural features of modern healthcare practices that generate them...
February 2017: Journal of Applied Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299586/race-research-and-the-ethics-of-belief
#3
Jonathan Anomaly
On most accounts, beliefs are supposed to fit the world rather than change it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to the moral status of believing apart from its epistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287844/intersectional-epistemologies-of-ignorance-how-behavioral-and-social-science-research-shapes-what-we-know-think-we-know-and-don-t-know-about-u-s-black-men-s-sexualities
#4
Lisa Bowleg, Ana María Del Río-González, Sidney L Holt, Carolin Pérez, Jenné S Massie, Jessica E Mandell, Cheriko A Boone
Epistemologies of ignorance describe how ignorance influences the production of knowledge. Advancing an intersectional epistemologies of ignorance approach that examines how conscious (or unconscious) ignorance about racism, heterosexism, and classism shapes empirical knowledge about Black men's sexualities, we conducted a critical review of the behavioral and social science research on U.S. Black men, ages 18 and older, for two time frames: pre-1981 and the most recent decade, 2006-2016. Our search yielded 668 articles, which we classified into five categories: sexual violence, sexual experiences and expressions, sexual identities, cultural and social-structural influences, and sexual health and sexual risk...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283411/where-do-uncertainties-reside-within-environmental-risk-assessments-testing-unisera-a-guide-for-uncertainty-assessment
#5
Daniel J C Skinner, Sophie A Rocks, Simon J T Pollard
A means for identifying and prioritising the treatment of uncertainty (UnISERA) in environmental risk assessments (ERAs) is tested, using three risk domains where ERA is an established requirement and one in which ERA practice is emerging. UnISERA's development draws on 19 expert elicitations across genetically modified higher plants, particulate matter, and agricultural pesticide release and is stress tested here for engineered nanomaterials (ENM). We are concerned with the severity of uncertainty; its nature; and its location across four accepted stages of ERAs...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283052/silent-performances-are-repertoires-really-post-kuhnian
#6
Matthew Sample
Ankeny and Leonelli (2016) propose "repertoires" as a new way to understand the stability of certain research programs as well as scientific change in general. By bringing a more complete range of social, material, and epistemic elements into one framework, they position their work as a correction to the Kuhnian impulse in philosophy of science and other areas of science studies. I argue that this "post-Kuhnian" move is not complete, and that repertoires maintain an internalist perspective. Comparison with an alternative framework, the "sociotechnical imaginaries" of Jasanoff and Kim (2015), illustrates precisely which elements of practice are externalized by Ankeny and Leonelli...
February 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278258/three-factor-structure-for-epistemic-belief-inventory-a-cross-validation-study
#7
Francisco Leal-Soto, Rodrigo Ferrer-Urbina
Research on epistemic beliefs has been hampered by lack of validated models and measurement instruments. The most widely used instrument is the Epistemological Questionnaire, which has been criticized for validity, and it has been proposed a new instrument based in the Epistemological Questionnaire: the Epistemic Belief Inventory. The Spanish-language version of Epistemic Belief Inventory was applied to 1,785 Chilean high school students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in independent subsamples were performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262363/mapping-landslide-susceptibility-using-data-driven-methods
#8
J L Zêzere, S Pereira, R Melo, S C Oliveira, R A C Garcia
Most epistemic uncertainty within data-driven landslide susceptibility assessment results from errors in landslide inventories, difficulty in identifying and mapping landslide causes and decisions related with the modelling procedure. In this work we evaluate and discuss differences observed on landslide susceptibility maps resulting from: (i) the selection of the statistical method; (ii) the selection of the terrain mapping unit; and (iii) the selection of the feature type to represent landslides in the model (polygon versus point)...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257036/investigating-philosophies-underpinning-dietetic-private-practice
#9
Claudia Harper, Judith Maher
There is limited theory or knowledge regarding dietitians' practice philosophies and how these philosophies are generated and incorporated into their professional practices. For the purposes of this study, a conceptual framework will explain and define the 'philosophies' as three different types of knowledge; episteme, techne, and phronesis. This study aimed to develop an explanatory theory of how dietitians in private practice source, utilise, and integrate practice philosophies. A grounded theory qualitative methodology was used to inform the sampling strategy, data collection, and analytical processes...
March 1, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239363/formal-and-informal-learning-and-first-year-psychology-students-development-of-scientific-thinking-a-two-wave-panel-study
#10
Demet Soyyılmaz, Laura M Griffin, Miguel H Martín, Šimon Kucharský, Ekaterina D Peycheva, Nina Vaupotič, Peter A Edelsbrunner
Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239195/who-is-the-scientist-subject-a-critique-of-the-neo-kantian-scientist-subject-in-lorraine-daston-and-peter-galison-s-objectivity
#11
REVIEW
Esha Shah
The main focus of this essay is to closely engage with the role of scientist-subjectivity in the making of objectivity in Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison's book Objectivity, and Daston's later and earlier works On Scientific Observation and The Moral Economy of Science. I have posited four challenges to the neo-Kantian and Foucauldian constructions of the co-implication of psychology and epistemology presented in these texts. Firstly, following Jacques Lacan's work, I have argued that the subject of science constituted by the mode of modern science suffers from paranoia...
2017: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237834/looking-the-past-in-the-eye-distortion-in-memory-and-the-costs-and-benefits-of-recalling-from-an-observer-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Jude McCarroll
Jordi Fernández (2015) discusses the possible benefits of two types of allegedly distorted memories: observer memories and fabricated memories. Fernández argues that even when memory does not preserve the past, some memories can still provide an adaptive benefit for the subject. I explore Fernández's claims focussing on the case of observer perspective memories. For Fernández, observer perspectives are distorted memories because they do not preserve past experience. In contrast, I suggest that observer perspectives can accurately reflect past experience: observer perspectives are not necessarily distorted memories...
March 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231439/the-rights-of-drug-treatment-patients-experience-of-addiction-treatment-in-poland-from-a-human-rights-perspective
#13
Justyna Klingemann
BACKGROUND: Drug dependence is a recognized medical condition and therefore, right to health applies in the same way to drug dependence as it does to any other health condition. The human rights in patient care framework - which refers to the application of basic human rights principles in the delivery of health care services - was used to explore the experiences of equality in the dignity and rights protected by Polish law within four different specialist drug treatment settings in Poland...
February 20, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214530/automaton-model-of-protein-dynamics-of-conformational-and-functional-states
#14
REVIEW
Andrei Khrennikov, Ekaterina Yurova
In this conceptual paper we propose to explore the analogy between ontic/epistemic description of quantum phenomena and interrelation between dynamics of conformational and functional states of proteins. Another new idea is to apply theory of automata to model the latter dynamics. In our model protein's behavior is modeled with the aid of two dynamical systems, ontic and epistemic, which describe evolution of conformational and functional states of proteins, respectively. The epistemic automaton is constructed from the ontic automaton on the basis of functional (observational) equivalence relation on the space of ontic states...
February 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205086/-agonism-and-antagonism
#15
Anne-Lise Rey
This essay considers dissensus as the starting point for the construction of a common epistemic space rather than as the acknowledgement of an irreducible disagreement. In the argumentative confrontation and disagreements, we do not want to identify a process which might lead to agreement through rational debate. The aim of this essay is rather to understand how dissensus leads to the constitution of plural communities. It discusses a certain number of texts of political philosophy (Habermas, Mouffe, etc.), where the notion of agreement is crucial to an analysis of argumentative confrontations...
December 2016: Revue de Synthèse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195029/the-problem-of-epistemic-jurisdiction-in-global-governance-the-case-of-sustainability-standards-for-biofuels
#16
David E Winickoff, Matthieu Mondou
While there is ample scholarly work on regulatory science within the state, or single-sited global institutions, there is less on its operation within complex modes of global governance that are decentered, overlapping, multi-sectorial and multi-leveled. Using a co-productionist framework, this study identifies 'epistemic jurisdiction' - the power to produce or warrant technical knowledge for a given political community, topical arena or geographical territory - as a central problem for regulatory science in complex governance...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195025/the-depth-of-fields-managing-focus-in-the-epistemic-subcultures-of-mind-and-brain-science
#17
David Peterson
The 'psy' sciences emerged from the tangled roots of philosophy, physiology, biology and medicine, and these origins have produced heterogeneous fields. Scientists in these areas work in a complex, overlapping ecology of fields that results in the constant co-presence of dissonant theories, methods and research objects. This raises questions regarding how conceptual clarity is maintained. Using the optical metaphor 'depth of field', I show how researchers in all fields marginalize potential threats to routine scientific work by framing them as either too broad and imprecise or too narrow and technical...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184321/epistemic-injustice-or-safety-first
#18
Manhal M Zarroug, Dieneke Hubbeling, Robert Bertram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181069/quality-of-life-and-uncertainty-in-crohn-s-disease
#19
Galia Niv, Simona Bar Josef, Ofer Ben Bassat, Irit Avni, Lev Lictenstein, Yaron Niv, Sivia Barnoy
INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease impairs patients' perception of health and has a negative impact on health-related quality of life. Although it is apparent that uncertainty is a significant factor that decreases quality of life, it has never been studied in patients with Crohn's disease. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between level of certainty, self-epistemic authority, Internet information gathering habits, and health-related quality of life. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 105 Crohn's disease patients was conducted...
February 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171816/the-western-disease-autism-and-somali-parents-embodied-health-movements
#20
Claire Laurier Decoteau
There is some statistical evidence indicating that Somali refugees and immigrants have high rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Somalis in North America call autism the "Western disease" because there is no word for autism in the Somali language and because many believe it does not exist in Somalia. In Toronto, Somali parents have forged an "epistemic community," united around a coherent theory of the development of autism, its defining features, and most successful therapies. They work together with researchers to support the theory that gut bacteria is a causal factor for the development of autism...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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