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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912859/alienation-and-alterity-age-in-the-existentialist-discourse-on-others
#1
Harm-Peer Zimmermann
Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies belong together in a rather fundamental way, given that they share profound theoretical roots and far-reaching critical perspectives. These derive not only from the more recent poststructuralist discourse on others but also, further back, from the existentialist discourse on others - particularly in issues relating to "The Look" as elaborated by Jean-Paul Sartre in his major philosophical treatise Being and Nothingness and in his reflections on racism, colonialism and humanism...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905072/communicating-uncertainty-in-benefits-and-harms-a-review-of-patient-decision-support-interventions
#2
Nick Bansback, Madelaine Bell, Luke Spooner, Alysa Pompeo, Paul K J Han, Mark Harrison
BACKGROUND: Interventions designed to help people deliberate and participate in their healthcare choices frequently describe uncertainty in potential benefits and harms. This uncertainty can be generalized to aleatory, or first-order uncertainty, represented by risk estimates, and epistemic, or second-order uncertainty, represented by imprecision in the risk estimates. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this short communication was to review how patient decision support interventions (PDSIs) describe aleatory and epistemic uncertainty...
November 30, 2016: Patient
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899471/when-science-becomes-too-easy-science-popularization-inclines-laypeople-to-underrate-their-dependence-on-experts
#3
Lisa Scharrer, Yvonne Rupieper, Marc Stadtler, Rainer Bromme
Science popularization fulfills the important task of making scientific knowledge understandable and accessible for the lay public. However, the simplification of information required to achieve this accessibility may lead to the risk of audiences relying overly strongly on their own epistemic capabilities when making judgments about scientific claims. Moreover, they may underestimate how the division of cognitive labor makes them dependent on experts. This article reports an empirical study demonstrating that this "easiness effect of science popularization" occurs when laypeople read authentic popularized science depictions...
November 29, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873220/examining-how-and-why-to-engage-practitioners-from-across-the-learning-landscape-in-the-research-enterprise-proposal-for-phron%C3%A3%C2%AAtic-research-on-education
#4
Eugene Matusov
Educational practitioners are often reluctant, if not actively resistant, to their participation in production and consumption of educational research. Based on my research experience with educational practitioners, I try to deconstruct this phenomenon using dialogic Bakhtinian and Aristotelian sociocultural frameworks. I consider two major related breakdowns in the educational practice: 1) a lack of self-correcting process in the educational practice, while reliance on accountability policy to achieve the practice quality, and 2) a breakdown between educational research and educational practice...
November 21, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870614/active-inference-a-process-theory
#5
Karl Friston, Thomas FitzGerald, Francesco Rigoli, Philipp Schwartenbeck, Giovanni Pezzulo
This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena...
November 21, 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861799/mentalizing-family-violence-part-1-conceptual-framework
#6
Eia Asen, Peter Fonagy
This is the first of two companion papers describing concepts and techniques of a mentalization-based approach to understanding and managing family violence. We review evidence that attachment difficulties, sudden high levels of arousal, and poor affect control contribute to a loss of mentalizing capacity, which, in turn, undermines social learning and can favor the transgenerational transmission of violent interaction patterns. It is suggested that physically violent acts are only possible if mentalizing is temporarily inhibited or decoupled...
November 11, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859520/what-are-the-true-statistics-of-the-environment
#7
Jacob Feldman
A widespread assumption in the contemporary discussion of probabilistic models of cognition, often attributed to the Bayesian program, is that inference is optimal when the observer's priors match the true priors in the world-the actual "statistics of the environment." But in fact the idea of a "true" prior plays no role in traditional Bayesian philosophy, which regards probability as a quantification of belief, not an objective characteristic of the world. In this paper I discuss the significance of the traditional Bayesian epistemic view of probability and its mismatch with the more objectivist assumptions about probability that are widely held in contemporary cognitive science...
November 10, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853324/self-image-threat-decreases-stereotyping-the-role-of-motivation-toward-closure
#8
Małgorzata Kossowska, Marcin Bukowski, Ana Guinote, Piotr Dragon, Arie W Kruglanski
Some prior research indicated that self-image threat may lead people to stereotyping and prejudiced evaluations of others. Other studies found that self-image threat may promote less stereotypical thinking and unprejudiced behavior. In a series of three studies, we demonstrate that self-image threat may lead to either more or less stereotypical perception of the outgroup depending on the level of the individuals` motivation toward closure (NFC). The results reveal that when individuals high (vs. low) in NFC perceived a member of an outgroup, they are less likely to use stereotypical traits if their self-image had been threatened by negative feedback (Study 1) or if they had imagined an example of their own immoral activity (Studies 2 and 3)...
2016: Motivation and Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848942/communicating-microarray-results-of-uncertain-clinical-significance-in-consultation-summary-letters-and-implications-for-practice
#9
Jean Lillian Paul, Rachel Pope-Couston, Samantha Wake, Trent Burgess, Tiong Yang Tan
Letter-writing is an integral practice for genetic health professionals. In Victoria, Australia, patients with a chromosomal variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS) referred to a clinical geneticist (CG) for evaluation receive consultation summary letters. While communication of uncertainty has been explored in research to some extent, little has focused on how uncertainty is communicated within consultation letters. We aimed to develop a multi-layered understanding of the ways in which CGs communicate diagnostic uncertainty in consultation summary letters...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848107/defining-disease-in-the-context-of-overdiagnosis
#10
Mary Jean Walker, Wendy Rogers
Recently, concerns have been raised about the phenomenon of 'overdiagnosis', the diagnosis of a condition that is not causing harm, and will not come to cause harm. Along with practical, ethical, and scientific questions, overdiagnosis raises questions about our concept of disease. In this paper, we analyse overdiagnosis as an epistemic problem and show how it challenges many existing accounts of disease. In particular, it raises questions about conceptual links drawn between disease and dysfunction, harm, and risk...
November 15, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833905/perspectives-on-disease-and-disability-in-child-health-the-case-of-childhood-neurodisability
#11
REVIEW
Anton Rodney Miller, Peter Rosenbaum
Chronic health conditions are often associated with what is termed disability. Traditional thinking has focused on diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases and disorders, with less attention to people's functional abilities and their contextual determinants. Understanding all of these factors is integral to addressing the predicaments and needs of persons with chronic conditions. However, these complementary yet distinct "worldviews" reflected in what we call disease and disability perspectives often remain, at best, only vaguely articulated...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826316/ltdna-evidence-on-trial
#12
Paul Roberts
Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818538/from-boundary-work-to-boundary-object-how-biology-left-and-re-entered-the-social-sciences
#13
Maurizio Meloni
In an archaeological spirit this paper comes back to a founding event in the construction of the twentieth-century episteme, the moment at which the life- and the social sciences parted ways and intense boundary-work was carried out on the biology/society border, with significant benefits for both sides. Galton and Weismann for biology, and Alfred Kroeber for anthropology delimit this founding moment and I argue, expanding on an existing body of historical scholarship, for an implicit convergence of their views...
March 2016: Sociological Review Mongraph
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818393/-east-asia-as-a-platform-for-debate-grouping-and-bioethics
#14
Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner
This article examines the use of the notions of "Asian" and "East Asian" in definitions of bioethics. Using examples from East Asia, I argue that the verbal Asianization of bioethics is based on the notion of "Asia" as a family metaphor and serves as a platform of bioethical debate, networking, and political change. I maintain that the use of "Asia" and "East Asia" to shape bioethics is not so much a sign of inward-looking regionalism, but an attempt to build bridges among Asian countries, while putting up a common stance against what educated elites interpret as undesirable global trends of Westernization through bioethics...
2016: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815016/what-is-unrealistic-optimism
#15
Anneli Jefferson, Lisa Bortolotti, Bojana Kuzmanovic
Here we consider the nature of unrealistic optimism and other related positive illusions. We are interested in whether cognitive states that are unrealistically optimistic are belief states, whether they are false, and whether they are epistemically irrational. We also ask to what extent unrealistically optimistic cognitive states are fixed. Based on the classic and recent empirical literature on unrealistic optimism, we offer some preliminary answers to these questions, thereby laying the foundations for answering further questions about unrealistic optimism, such as whether it has biological, psychological, or epistemic benefits...
November 1, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801874/information-fusion-of-conflicting-input-data
#16
Uwe Mönks, Helene Dörksen, Volker Lohweg, Michael Hübner
Sensors, and also actuators or external sources such as databases, serve as data sources in order to realise condition monitoring of industrial applications or the acquisition of characteristic parameters like production speed or reject rate. Modern facilities create such a large amount of complex data that a machine operator is unable to comprehend and process the information contained in the data. Thus, information fusion mechanisms gain increasing importance. Besides the management of large amounts of data, further challenges towards the fusion algorithms arise from epistemic uncertainties (incomplete knowledge) in the input signals as well as conflicts between them...
October 29, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795915/the-factualization-of-i-suppose-in-american-english-a-corpus-based-study-of-the-subjectification-of-epistemic-predicates-toward-factuality
#17
Vittorio Tantucci
This work provides a case study centered on the cognitive phenomenon of factualization, viz. "the SP/W's increasing certainty about the realization of an event or situation" (cf. Tantucci 2014, 2015a, b, 2016b). Factualization corresponds to a cognitive-control mechanism (i.e. Kan et al. 2013) specifically occurring in the epistemic domain. It instantiates both in online language production and throughout the diachronic reanalysis of a construction (i.e. grammaticalization, semasiological change or constructionalization, cf...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774245/patenting-nature-or-protecting-culture-ethnopharmacology-and-indigenous-intellectual-property-rights
#18
Ian Vincent McGonigle
Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761861/identifying-effective-factors-on-consumers-choice-behavior-toward-green-products-the-case-of-tehran-the-capital-of-iran
#19
Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761688/whose-values-whose-risk-exploring-decision-making-about-trial-of-labor-after-cesarean
#20
Sonya Charles, Allison B Wolf
In this article, we discuss decision making during labor and delivery, specifically focusing on decision making around offering women a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC). Many have discussed how humans are notoriously bad at assessing risks and how we often distort the nature of various risks surrounding childbirth. We will build on this discussion by showing that physicians make decisions around TOLAC not only based on distortions of risk, but also based on personal values (i.e. what level of risk are you comfortable with or what types of risks are you willing to take) rather than medical data (or at least medical data alone)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
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