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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351297/a-fast-combination-method-in-dsmt-and-its-application-to-recommender-system
#1
Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs). This necessity occurs if one needs to embed the fusion result in a system based on the probabilistic framework and Bayesian inference (e.g. tracking systems), or if one needs to make a decision in the decision making problems. In this paper, we present a new fast combination method, called modified rigid coarsening (MRC), to obtain the final Bayesian BBAs based on hierarchical decomposition (coarsening) of the frame of discernment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344910/mimesis-and-clinical-pictures-thinking-with-plato-and-broekman-through-the-production-and-meaning-of-images-of-disease
#2
Marjolein Oele
This paper contends, following Plato and Broekman, that (1) seeing images as images is crucial to theorizing medicine and that (2) considering clinical pictures as images of images is a much-needed epistemic complement to the domineering view that sees clinical pictures as mirrors of disease. This does not only offer epistemic, but also ethical benefits to individual patients, especially in those cases where patients suffer from chronic, debilitating, and terminal illnesses and where medicine provides no, or limited, answers in terms of treatment, intervention, and meaning...
January 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340446/-tensions-and-contradictions-in-government-interventions-for-the-promotion-of-breastfeeding
#3
Rosa María Ramos Rodríguez, María Gabriela Hernández González
With the purpose of shedding light on the decrease in the practice of breastfeeding in rural areas of Mexico, this article looks at the current biomedical model and the policies and actions to promote breastfeeding derived from the model's theoretical approach. The article also discusses operational strategies of the governmental social welfare program Oportunidades. For this purpose, the study utilizes the testimonies of 39 young breastfeeding mothers, 11 mothers and grandmothers and 12 members of the health staff in the Nahuatl population of Cuentepec, Morelos, Mexico, which were collected during a previous study in 2008 and 2009...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332204/supplementing-living-kidney-transplantees-medical-records-with-donor-and-recipient-narratives
#4
Anne Hambro Alnæs
Norway provides total social welfare coverage for organ transplantations, including free immunosuppressive medication and prepaid life-long follow up for both recipients and donors. Despite these benefits the proportion of living kidney donors (LKD) has in recent years declined from around 40% (2011) of all kidney transplantations to 24% (2016). This study suggests harnessing patient- and donor-narratives as a tool for addressing the current fall in donation rates. The hospital records of 18 recipient/donor dyads were compared with patient and donor accounts elicited in semi-structured interviews...
January 13, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304087/human-visual-exploration-reduces-uncertainty-about-the-sensed-world
#5
M Berk Mirza, Rick A Adams, Christoph Mathys, Karl J Friston
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there is any evidence for 'epistemic foraging'; i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280164/the-epistemic-costs-of-compromise-in-bioethics
#6
Katrien Devolder, Thomas Douglas
Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether this common sense view can be given a principled basis...
December 27, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276484/commentary-what-is-art-good-for-the-socio-epistemic-value-of-art
#7
COMMENT
Martin Skov, Marcos Nadal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276345/the-psychology-of-conspiracy-theories
#8
Karen M Douglas, Robbie M Sutton, Aleksandra Cichocka
What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories, which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group)...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276343/for-reflexivity-as-an-epistemic-criterion-of-ontological-coherence-and-virtuous-social-theorizing
#9
Christoforos Bouzanis
This article offers an approach that combines, on the one hand, the philosophical notion of reflexivity, which is related to the ideas of self-reference and paradox, and, on the other hand, the sociological discussion of epistemic reflexivity as a problem of coherence, which was mainly initiated by certain branches of ethnomethodology and social constructionism. This combinatory approach argues for reflexivity as an epistemic criterion of ontological coherence, which suggests that social ontologies should account for the possibility of self-reflective subjectivity - for otherwise they result in a paradoxical conclusion according to which a social scientist reflects on her or his ontological commitments even though these commitments deny her or him the capacity for self-reflection...
December 2017: History of the Human Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240686/marketing-animal-friendly-products-addressing-the-consumer-social-dilemma-with-reinforcement-positioning-strategies
#10
Lenka van Riemsdijk, Paul T M Ingenbleek, Hans C M van Trijp, Gerrita van der Veen
This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors...
December 14, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235962/perspectives-on-policy-and-the-value-of-nursing-science-in-a-big-data-era
#11
Sheila M Gephart, Mary Davis, Kimberly Shea
As data volume explodes, nurse scientists grapple with ways to adapt to the big data movement without jeopardizing its epistemic values and theoretical focus that celebrate while acknowledging the authority and unity of its body of knowledge. In this article, the authors describe big data and emphasize ways that nursing science brings value to its study. Collective nursing voices that call for more nursing engagement in the big data era are answered with ways to adapt and integrate theoretical and domain expertise from nursing into data science...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233019/-the-expertness-of-his-healer-diagnosis-disclosure-and-the-power-of-a-profession
#12
Annemarie Jutel
Diagnosis is one of medicine's most important tools. It structures the relationship between patient and diagnostician, organises illness and provides access to resources. In this article, I reveal how the manner in which a serious diagnosis is revealed creates a kind of 'epistemic posture' reinforcing the power of medical knowledge, and contributing to medical authority. To achieve this, I explore historical material written by and for doctors about the disclosure of difficult diagnoses. Using historical data for sociological purposes follows Zerubavel, who asserts that phenomena should be studied across eras, media and cultures...
December 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232617/shared-reality-in-interpersonal-relationships
#13
REVIEW
Susan M Andersen, Elizabeth Przybylinski
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked...
November 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224911/the-hands-and-head-of-a-surgeon-modeling-operative-competency-with-multimodal-epistemic-network-analysis
#14
A R Ruis, Alexandra A Rosser, Cheyenne Quandt-Walle, Jay N Nathwani, David Williamson Shaffer, Carla M Pugh
BACKGROUND: This paper explores a method for assessing intraoperative performance by modeling how surgeons integrate psychomotor, procedural, and cognitive skills to manage errors. METHODS: Audio-video data were collected from general surgery residents (N = 45) performing a simulated laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Errors were identified using a standard checklist, and speech was coded for elements related to error recognition and management. Epistemic network analysis (ENA) was used to model the integration of error management skills...
December 2, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223070/trusting-others-shared-reality-in-testimonial-learning
#15
REVIEW
Annelise Pesch, Sarah Suárez, Melissa A Koenig
Much of early learning depends on others, and the transmission of testimony presents children with a range of opportunities to learn about and from other people. Much work has focused on children's ability to select or prefer particular sources of information based on various epistemic (e.g. accuracy, reliability, perceptual access, expertise) and moral (e.g. benevolence, group membership, honesty) characteristics. Understanding the mechanisms by which such selective preferences emerge has been couched primarily in frameworks that treat testimony as a source of inductive evidence, and that treat children's trust as an evidence-based inference...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221510/theory-from-the-south-a-decolonial-approach-to-the-psychology-of-global-inequality
#16
REVIEW
Glenn Adams, Sara Estrada-Villalta
Hegemonic understandings rooted in the epistemic perspectives of the Global North explain global inequality (i.e., unequal relations between Global North and South) as a developmental gap in progress toward Eurocentric modernity. From this perspective, global inequality exists because Northern societies have created modern institutions and mentalities (e.g., independent selfways) that have enabled them to achieve development, and Southern societies suffer from poverty because their institutions and associated mentalities (e...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195654/hubris-to-humility-tonal-volume-and-the-fundamentality-of-psychophysical-quantities
#17
Alistair M C Isaac
Psychophysics measures the attributes of perceptual experience. The question of whether some of these attributes should be interpreted as more fundamental, or "real," than others has been answered differently throughout its history. The operationism of Stevens and Boring answers "no," reacting to the perceived vacuity of earlier debates about fundamentality. The subsequent rise of multidimensional scaling (MDS) implicitly answers "yes" in its insistence that psychophysical data be represented in spaces of low dimensionality...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195649/the-appeal-to-robustness-in-measurement-practice
#18
Alessandra Basso
This paper distinguishes between two arguments based on measurement robustness and defends the epistemic value of robustness for the assessment of measurement reliability. I argue that the appeal to measurement robustness in the assessment of measurement is based on a different inferential pattern and is not exposed to the same objections as the no-coincidence argument which is commonly associated with the use of robustness to corroborate individual results. This investigation sheds light on the precise meaning of reliability that emerges from measurement assessment practice...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195646/the-evaluation-of-measurement-uncertainties-and-its-epistemological-ramifications
#19
Nadine de Courtenay, Fabien Grégis
The way metrologists conceive of measurement has undergone a major shift in the last two decades. This shift can in great part be traced to a change in the statistical methods used to deal with the expression of measurement results, and, more particularly, with the calculation of measurement uncertainties. Indeed, as we show, the incapacity of the frequentist approach to the calculus of uncertainty to deal with systematic errors has prompted the replacement of the customary frequentist methods by fully Bayesian procedures...
October 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187776/amoral-im-moral-and-dis-loyal-children-s-moral-status-in-child-welfare
#20
Zlatana Knezevic
This article is a discursive examination of children's status as knowledgeable moral agents within the Swedish child welfare system and in the widely used assessment framework BBIC. Departing from Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice, three discursive positions of children's moral status are identified: amoral, im/moral and dis/loyal. The findings show the undoubtedly moral child as largely missing and children's agency as diminished, deviant or rendered ambiguous. Epistemic injustice applies particularly to disadvantaged children with difficult experiences who run the risk of being othered, or positioned as reproducing or accommodating to the very same social problems they may be victimised by...
November 2017: Childhood
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