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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#1
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135441/mentalizing-attachment-and-epistemic-trust-how-psychotherapy-can-promote-resilience
#2
Peter Fonagy, Chloe Campbell
No abstract available.
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135440/-peter-fonagy-on-epistemic-trust
#3
Mária Simon
No abstract available.
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132629/to-share-or-not-to-share-the-role-of-epistemic-belief-in-online-health-rumors
#4
Alton Y K Chua, Snehasish Banerjee
OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the role of epistemic belief in affecting Internet users' decision to share online health rumors. To delve deeper, it examines how the characteristics of rumors-true or false, textual or pictorial, dread or wish-shape the decision-making among epistemologically naïve and robust users separately. METHODS: An experiment was conducted. Responses were obtained from 110 participants, who were exposed to eight rumors. This yielded 880 cases (110 participants×8 rumors) for statistical analyses...
December 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119459/ethics-and-epistemology-of-big-data
#5
Wendy Lipworth, Paul H Mason, Ian Kerridge
In this Symposium on the Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data, we present four perspectives on the ways in which the rapid growth in size of research databanks-i.e. their shift into the realm of "big data"-has changed their moral, socio-political, and epistemic status. While there is clearly something different about "big data" databanks, we encourage readers to place the arguments presented in this Symposium in the context of longstanding debates about the ethics, politics, and epistemology of biobank, database, genetic, and epidemiological research...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116905/epistemic-injustice-in-dementia-and-autism-patient-organizations-an-empirical-analysis
#6
Karin Jongsma, Elisabeth Spaeth, Silke Schicktanz
Patient organizations (POs) represent patient collectives in health care policy. The inclusion of people with a 'neuro-psychiatric' condition poses a particular challenge for the organizational processes and political representation of such collectives. In recent years, new POs (POs of) have been established in the field of autism spectrum disorder and dementia that advocate a different agenda and have a different organizational structure than traditional POs (POs for). The divide between these two types of POs indicates a different standpoint with regard to who should be included on an organizational level, which voices are accepted and who should represent these voices on the political level...
November 8, 2017: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116142/working-memory-attention-and-salience-in-active-inference
#7
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
The psychological concepts of working memory and attention are widely used in the cognitive and neuroscientific literatures. Perhaps because of the interdisciplinary appeal of these concepts, the same terms are often used to mean very different things. Drawing on recent advances in theoretical neurobiology, this paper tries to highlight the correspondence between these established psychological constructs and the formal processes implicit in mathematical descriptions of brain function. Here, we consider attention and salience from the perspective offered by active inference...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108525/who-s-afraid-of-institutionalizing-health-technology-assessment-hta-interests-and-policy-positions-on-hta-in-the-czech-republic
#8
Olga Löblová
This article identifies the interests and policy positions of key health policy stakeholders regarding the creation of a health technology assessment (HTA) agency in the Czech Republic, and what considerations influenced them. Vested interests have been suggested as a factor mitigating the diffusion of HTA bodies internationally. The Czech Republic recently considered and discarded establishing an HTA agency, making it a good case for studying actors' policy positions throughout the policy debates. Findings are based on in-depth, semi-structured expert and elite interviews with 34 key Czech health policy actors, supported by document analysis and extensive triangulation...
November 7, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104706/talking-about-looks
#9
Kathrin Glüer
In natural language, looks-talk is used in a variety of ways. I investigate three uses of 'looks' that have traditionally been distinguished - epistemic, comparative, and phenomenal 'looks' - and endorse and develop considerations in support of the view that these amount to polysemy. Focusing on the phenomenal use of 'looks', I then investigate connections between its semantics, the content of visual experience, and the metaphysics of looks. I argue that phenomenal 'looks' is not a propositional attitude operator: We do not use it to ascribe propositional attitudes to subjects, but to directly ascribe looks to objects, where looks are relational properties...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101418/-the-big-data-game-on-the-ludic-constitution-of-the-collaborative-production-of-knowledge-in-high-energy-physics-at-cern
#10
Anne Dippel
This article looks at how games and play contribute to the big data-driven production of knowledge in High-Energy Physics, with a particular focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the author has been conducting anthropological fieldwork since 2014. The ludic (playful) aspect of knowledge production is analyzed here in three different dimensions: the Symbolic, the Ontological, and the Epistemic. The first one points towards CERN as place where a cosmological game of probability is played with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101341/quantum-mechanics-as-classical-statistical-mechanics-with-an-ontic-extension-and-an-epistemic-restriction
#11
Agung Budiyono, Daniel Rohrlich
Where does quantum mechanics part ways with classical mechanics? How does quantum randomness differ fundamentally from classical randomness? We cannot fully explain how the theories differ until we can derive them within a single axiomatic framework, allowing an unambiguous account of how one theory is the limit of the other. Here we derive non-relativistic quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics within a common framework. The common axioms include conservation of average energy and conservation of probability current...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095658/can-science-explain-the-human-mind-intuitive-judgments-about-the-limits-of-science
#12
Sara Gottlieb, Tania Lombrozo
Can science explain romantic love, morality, and religious belief? We documented intuitive beliefs about the limits of science in explaining the human mind. We considered both epistemic evaluations (concerning whether science could possibly fully explain a given psychological phenomenon) and nonepistemic judgments (concerning whether scientific explanations for a given phenomenon would generate discomfort), and we identified factors that characterize phenomena judged to fall beyond the scope of science. Across six studies, we found that participants were more likely to judge scientific explanations for psychological phenomena to be impossible and uncomfortable when, among other factors, they support first-person, introspective access (e...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091237/a-qualitative-analysis-of-metacognition-in-simulation
#13
Jayne M Josephsen
BACKGROUND: Metacognition enables understanding, analysis, and regulation of one's cognition when engaged in learning. Metacognition, epistemic questioning, and self-regulated learning are foundational to the development of critical reasoning and self-reflective practice. METHOD: This pilot qualitative study used observations and interviews to identify metacognitive strategies used by a convenience sample of nursing students prior to and during simulation and debriefing...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083210/knowing-it-all-but-still-learning-perceptions-of-one-s-own-knowledge-and-belief-revision
#14
Sara Hagá, Kristina R Olson
Lay theories suggest that people who are overconfident in their knowledge are less likely to revise that knowledge when someone else offers an alternative belief. Similarly, one might assume that people who are willing to revise their beliefs might not be very confident in their knowledge to begin with. Two studies with children ages 4-11 years old and college students call these lay theories into question. We found that young children were simultaneously more overconfident in their knowledge (e.g., believing they knew what chartreuse meant) and more likely to revise their initial beliefs (e...
October 30, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081433/vernacularizing-the-body-informational-egalitarianism-hindu-divine-design-and-race-in-physiology-schoolbooks-bengal-1859-1877
#15
Projit Bihari Mukharji
Government-aided vernacular schools introduced "human physiology" as a subject in 1859. I use the first couple of schoolbooks and the debate running up to the introduction of the subject to open up the particular and specific histories through which modern anatomo-physiological knowledge was vernacularized in colonial Bengal. In so doing I have two interconnected goals in this article. My first goal is to analyze the precocious decision to teach human physiology to colonial schoolboys, at a time when this was the norm neither in Great Britain nor indeed in traditional Bengali schools...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073509/rhythms-of-the-body-rhythms-of-the-brain-respiration-neural-oscillations-and-embodied-cognition
#16
Somogy Varga, Detlef H Heck
In spite of its importance as a life-defining rhythmic movement and its constant rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the body, respiration has not received attention in Embodied Cognition (EC) literature. Our paper aims to show that (1) respiration exerts significant and unexpected influence on cognitive processes, and (2) it does so by modulating neural synchronization that underlies specific cognitive processes. Then, (3) we suggest that the particular example of respiration may function as a model for a general mechanism through which the body influences cognitive functioning...
October 23, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067488/-the-historicity-of-data-concepts-tools-and-practices-during-the-nineteenth-century
#17
Christine von Oertzen
This essay explores the use of the concept of "data" during the nineteenth century. It traces the development of manual data driven research decades before the introduction of Hollerith machines and electronic computers. Census statisticians in late-nineteenth century Prussia employed moveable paper tools to assemble numerical information in novel ways; their actions fundamentally recast processes of compilation. The paper considers the epistemic impact of moving data inscribed on tons of paper, reconstructing the logistics of a circulatory compilation system spread across the Prussian capital...
December 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058988/understanding-understanding-in-public-understanding-of-science
#18
Joanna K Huxster, Matthew H Slater, Jason Leddington, Victor LoPiccolo, Jeffrey Bergman, Mack Jones, Caroline McGlynn, Nicolas Diaz, Nathan Aspinall, Julia Bresticker, Melissa Hopkins
This study examines the conflation of terms such as "knowledge" and "understanding" in peer-reviewed literature, and tests the hypothesis that little current research clearly distinguishes between importantly distinct epistemic states. Two sets of data are presented from papers published in the journal Public Understanding of Science. In the first set, the digital text analysis tool, Voyant, is used to analyze all papers published in 2014 for the use of epistemic success terms. In the second set of data, all papers published in Public Understanding of Science from 2010-2015 are systematically analyzed to identify instances in which epistemic states are empirically measured...
October 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028465/cultivating-humility-and-diagnostic-openness-in-clinical-judgment
#19
John R Stone
In this case, a physician rejects a patient's concerns that tainted water is harming the patient and her community. Stereotypes and biases regarding socioeconomic class and race/ethnicity, constraining diagnostic frameworks, and fixed first impressions could skew the physician's judgment. This paper narratively illustrates how cultivating humility could help the physician truly hear the patient's suggestions. The discussion builds on the multifaceted concept of cultural humility as a lifelong journey that addresses not only stereotypes and biases but also power inequalities and community inequities...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024926/metsovo-lung-a-story-of-episteme-techne-and-phronesis
#20
Vasilios Tzilas, Argyris Tzouvelekis, Demosthenes Bouros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
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