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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940233/epistemic-beliefs-as-predictors-of-epistemic-emotions-extending-a-theoretical-model
#1
Tom Rosman, Anne-Kathrin Mayer
BACKGROUND: The cognitive incongruity model of epistemic beliefs and emotions states that if students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge (e.g., knowledge as simple and absolute) are incompatible with the epistemic nature of learning materials (e.g., complex and contradictory), cognitive incongruity arises. This, in turn, entails negative emotional consequences. AIMS: The epistemic nature of contradictory learning materials might be perceived differently depending on whether individuals resolve the contradictions or not...
September 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939945/fairness-in-knowing-science-communication-and-epistemic-justice
#2
Fabien Medvecky
Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably...
September 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934358/pre-service-teachers-perceived-value-of-general-pedagogical-knowledge-for-practice-relations-with-epistemic-beliefs-and-source-beliefs
#3
Samuel Merk, Tom Rosman, Julia Rueß, Marcus Syring, Jürgen Schneider
Pre-service teachers tend to devalue general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) as a valid source for deriving successful teaching practices. The present study investigated beliefs about knowledge sources and epistemic beliefs as predictors for students' perceived value of GPK. Three pre-registered hypotheses were tested. We expected beliefs that GPK originates from scientific sources to entail a devaluation of GPK (Hypothesis 1). Concerning epistemic beliefs, we expected absolute beliefs to positively, and multiplistic beliefs to negatively predict pre-service teachers' perceived practical value of GPK (Hypothesis 2)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933947/on-the-safety-of-machine-learning-cyber-physical-systems-decision-sciences-and-data-products
#4
Kush R Varshney, Homa Alemzadeh
Machine learning algorithms increasingly influence our decisions and interact with us in all parts of our daily lives. Therefore, just as we consider the safety of power plants, highways, and a variety of other engineered socio-technical systems, we must also take into account the safety of systems involving machine learning. Heretofore, the definition of safety has not been formalized in a machine learning context. In this article, we do so by defining machine learning safety in terms of risk, epistemic uncertainty, and the harm incurred by unwanted outcomes...
September 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924175/the-epistemic-and-aleatory-uncertainties-of-the-etas-type-models-an-application-to-the-central-italy-seismicity
#5
A M Lombardi
Stochastic models provide quantitative evaluations about the occurrence of earthquakes. A basic component of this type of models are the uncertainties in defining main features of an intrinsically random process. Even if, at a very basic level, any attempting to distinguish between types of uncertainty is questionable, an usual way to deal with this topic is to separate epistemic uncertainty, due to lack of knowledge, from aleatory variability, due to randomness. In the present study this problem is addressed in the narrow context of short-term modeling of earthquakes and, specifically, of ETAS modeling...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922467/intelligence-and-neurophysiological-markers-of-error-monitoring-relate-to-children-s-intellectual-humility
#6
Judith H Danovitch, Megan Fisher, Hans Schroder, David Z Hambrick, Jason Moser
This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922387/epistemic-beliefs-role-in-promoting-misperceptions-and-conspiracist-ideation
#7
R Kelly Garrett, Brian E Weeks
Widespread misperceptions undermine citizens' decision-making ability. Conclusions based on falsehoods and conspiracy theories are by definition flawed. This article demonstrates that individuals' epistemic beliefs-beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how one comes to know-have important implications for perception accuracy. The present study uses a series of large, nationally representative surveys of the U.S. population to produce valid and reliable measures of three aspects of epistemic beliefs: reliance on intuition for factual beliefs (Faith in Intuition for facts), importance of consistency between empirical evidence and beliefs (Need for evidence), and conviction that "facts" are politically constructed (Truth is political)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900879/darwinism-in-metaethics-what-if-the-universal-acid-cannot-be-contained
#8
Eleonora Severini, Fabio Sterpetti
The aim of this article is to explore the impact of Darwinism in metaethics and dispel some of the confusion surrounding it. While the prospects for a Darwinian metaethics appear to be improving, some underlying epistemological issues remain unclear. We will focus on the so-called Evolutionary Debunking Arguments (EDAs) which, when applied in metaethics, are defined as arguments that appeal to the evolutionary origins of moral beliefs so as to undermine their epistemic justification. The point is that an epistemic disanalogy can be identified in the debate on EDAs between moral beliefs and other kinds of beliefs, insofar as only the former are regarded as vulnerable to EDAs...
September 12, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895137/bringing-radical-behaviorism-to-revolutionary-brazil-and-back-fred-keller-s-personalized-system-of-instruction-and-cold-war-engineering-education
#9
Atsushi Akera
This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894418/what-is-art-good-for-the-socio-epistemic-value-of-art
#10
REVIEW
Aleksandra Sherman, Clair Morrissey
Scientists, humanists, and art lovers alike value art not just for its beauty, but also for its social and epistemic importance; that is, for its communicative nature, its capacity to increase one's self-knowledge and encourage personal growth, and its ability to challenge our schemas and preconceptions. However, empirical research tends to discount the importance of such social and epistemic outcomes of art engagement, instead focusing on individuals' preferences, judgments of beauty, pleasure, or other emotional appraisals as the primary outcomes of art appreciation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873245/scenario-analysis-for-the-safety-assessment-of-nuclear-waste-repositories-a-critical-review
#11
Edoardo Tosoni, Ahti Salo, Enrico Zio
A major challenge in scenario analysis for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories pertains to the comprehensiveness of the set of scenarios selected for assessing the safety of the repository. Motivated by this challenge, we discuss the aspects of scenario analysis relevant to comprehensiveness. Specifically, we note that (1) it is necessary to make it clear why scenarios usually focus on a restricted set of features, events, and processes; (2) there is not yet consensus on the interpretation of comprehensiveness for guiding the generation of scenarios; and (3) there is a need for sound approaches to the treatment of epistemic uncertainties...
September 5, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843724/working-class-conservatism-a-system-justification-perspective
#12
REVIEW
John T Jost
Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826514/opaque-models-using-drugs-and-dreams-to-explore-the-neurobiological-basis-of-mental-phenomena
#13
Nicolas Langlitz
On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826511/connectomes-as-constitutively-epistemic-objects-critical-perspectives-on-modeling-in-current-neuroanatomy
#14
Philipp Haueis, Jan Slaby
The term "connectome" is commonly taken to describe a complete map of neural connections in a nervous system of a given species. This chapter provides a critical perspective on the role of connectomes in neuroscientific practice and asks how the connectomic approach fits into a larger context in which network thinking permeates technology, infrastructure, social life, and the economy. In the first part of this chapter, we argue that, seen from the perspective of ongoing research, the notion of connectomes as "complete descriptions" is misguided...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826509/infrastructural-intelligence-contemporary-entanglements-between-neuroscience-and-ai
#15
Johannes Bruder
In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826508/vital-brains-on-the-entanglement-of-media-minds-and-models
#16
Cornelius Borck
The advent of functional imaging, hailed as a breakthrough for marrying morphological and functional approaches in brain research, invites a reflection upon the interplay between models, instruments, and theories. Brain research and theorizing about the brain are generally mediated by the research technologies employed. Going back into the history of brain research, the chapter explores the epistemic effects of research technologies by focusing on the localization debate in relation to different visualization strategies...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#17
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805114/lack-of-compassion-or-poor-discretion-ways-of-addressing-malpractice
#18
Bodil Tveit, Anne Raustøl
In this article, our point of departure is the 'compassion crisis' in the National Health Service in the UK and the initiatives introduced in the aftermath of scandals that were intended to strengthen healthcare professionals' ability to show compassion. We look at the two main strategies, which we term the 'recruitment and staff development strategy' and the 'amelioration of the quality systems strategy' and the debate that has arisen related to them. Based on this analysis, we question whether compassion really is a helpful concept to understand the crisis and hence to underpin relevant strategies...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791930/sts-symmetry-and-post-truth
#19
Michael Lynch
This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'...
August 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782424/the-ideal-of-a-knowledge-society-in-dee-s-monas-hieroglyphica-1564-and-other-productions-by-willem-silvius
#20
Steven Vanden Broecke
It is well known that John Dee presented the Monas Hieroglyphica (1564) as the basis for a wholesale transformation of early modern knowledge culture - a claim that raises obvious issues of epistemic credibility. This paper discusses the social techniques that Dee proposed as a solution to these issues. First, our reconstruction of the "socio-epistemic imaginary" that Dee conveyed in the Monas shows how the marriage between a traditional rhetoric of secrecy and a courtly politicising of natural philosophy allowed Dee to invent social distinctions between credible and false purveyors of true knowledge...
August 6, 2017: Ambix
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