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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079497/meanings-of-waves-electroencephalography-and-society-in-mexico-city-1940-1950
#1
Nuria Valverde PĂ©rez
Argument This paper focuses on the uses of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in Mexico during their introductory decade from 1940 to 1950. Following Borck (2006), I argue that EEGs adapted to fit local circumstances and that this adjustment led to the consolidation of different ways of making science and the emergence of new objects of study and social types. I also maintain that the way EEGs were introduced into the institutional networks of Mexico entangled them in discussions about the objective and juridical definitions of social groups, thereby preempting concerns about their technical and epistemic limitations...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064257/epistemic-cognition-in-medical-education-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer L Eastwood, Elysa Koppelman-White, Misa Mi, Jason Adam Wasserman, Ernest F Krug Iii, Barbara Joyce
Objective: To review the research literature on epistemic cognition in medical education. Methods: We conducted database searches using keywords related to epistemic cognition and medical education or practice. In duplicate, authors selected and reviewed empirical studies with a central focus on epistemic cognition and participant samples including medical students or physicians. Independent thematic analysis and consensus procedures were used to identify major findings about epistemic cognition and implications for research and medical education...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056721/controlling-new-knowledge-genomic-science-governance-and-the-politics-of-bioinformatics
#3
Brian Salter, Charlotte Salter
The rise of bioinformatics is a direct response to the political difficulties faced by genomics in its quest to be a new biomedical innovation, and the value of bioinformatics lies in its role as the bridge between the promise of genomics and its realization in the form of health benefits. Western scientific elites are able to use their close relationship with the state to control and facilitate the emergence of new domains compatible with the existing distribution of epistemic power - all within the embrace of public trust...
January 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053164/the-papillomavirus-episteme-a-major-update-to-the-papillomavirus-sequence-database
#4
Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Zhiwen Li, Sandhya Xirasagar, Piet Maes, David Kaminsky, David Liou, Qiang Sun, Ramandeep Kaur, Yentram Huyen, Alison A McBride
The Papillomavirus Episteme (PaVE) is a database of curated papillomavirus genomic sequences, accompanied by web-based sequence analysis tools. This update describes the addition of major new features. The papillomavirus genomes within PaVE have been further annotated, and now includes the major spliced mRNA transcripts. Viral genes and transcripts can be visualized on both linear and circular genome browsers. Evolutionary relationships among PaVE reference protein sequences can be analysed using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027705/parachemistries-colonial-chemopolitics-in-a-zone-of-contest
#5
Projit Bihari Mukharji
The globalization of modern chemistry through European colonialism resulted, by the end of the nineteenth century, in the emergence of a number of parachemical knowledges. Parachemistries were bodies of non-European knowledge which came to be related to modern chemistry within particular historical milieux. Their relationship with modern chemistry was not necessarily epistemic and structural, but historical and performative. Actual historically located intellectuals posited their relationship. Such relationships were not merely abstract intellectual exercises; at a time when the practical uses of modern chemistry in statecraft were growing, the existence of these rival, competing parachemical knowledges challenged modern chemistry's regulatory deployments...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009427/first-italian-consensus-conference-on-vats-lobectomy-for-nsclc
#6
Mario Nosotti, Andrea Droghetti, Luca Luzzi, Piergiorgio Solli, Roberto Crisci
PURPOSE: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become an accepted procedure for the treatment of selected cases of lung cancer. The aim of this project was to establish national practical recommendations for the management of patients suitable for VATS lobectomy. METHODS: The Scientific Committee of the VATS Lobectomy Group (a branch of the Italian Society of Thoracic Surgery) identified the consensus conference as an appropriate tool for a national debate...
December 19, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005251/investigating-trust-expertise-and-epistemic-injustice-in-chronic-pain
#7
Daniel Z Buchman, Anita Ho, Daniel S Goldberg
Trust is central to the therapeutic relationship, but the epistemic asymmetries between the expert healthcare provider and the patient make the patient, the trustor, vulnerable to the provider, the trustee. The narratives of pain sufferers provide helpful insights into the experience of pain at the juncture of trust, expert knowledge, and the therapeutic relationship. While stories of pain sufferers having their testimonies dismissed are well documented, pain sufferers continue to experience their testimonies as being epistemically downgraded...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997224/implementing-peer-learning-in-clinical-education-a-framework-to-address-challenges-in-the-real-world
#8
Joanna Hong Meng Tai, Benedict J Canny, Terry P Haines, Elizabeth K Molloy
: Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum...
December 20, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991816/instrumental-motives-in-negative-emotion-regulation-in-daily-life-frequency-consistency-and-predictors
#9
Elise K Kalokerinos, Maya Tamir, Peter Kuppens
People regulate their emotions not only for hedonic reasons but also for instrumental reasons, to attain the potential benefits of emotions beyond pleasure and pain. However, such instrumental motives have rarely been examined outside the laboratory as they naturally unfold in daily life. To assess whether and how instrumental motives operate outside the laboratory, it is necessary to examine them in response to real and personally relevant stimuli in ecologically valid contexts. In this research, we assessed the frequency, consistency, and predictors of instrumental motives in negative emotion regulation in daily life...
December 19, 2016: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988369/factors-for-consumer-choice-of-dairy-products-in-iran
#10
Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women)...
December 14, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965548/methodological-problems-on-the-way-to-integrative-human-neuroscience
#11
REVIEW
Boris Kotchoubey, Felix Tretter, Hans A Braun, Thomas Buchheim, Andreas Draguhn, Thomas Fuchs, Felix Hasler, Heiner Hastedt, Thilo Hinterberger, Georg Northoff, Ingo Rentschler, Stephan Schleim, Stephan Sellmaier, Ludger Tebartz Van Elst, Wolfgang Tschacher
Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942074/modelling-and-the-nation-institutionalising-climate-prediction-in-the-uk-1988-92
#12
Martin Mahony, Mike Hulme
How climate models came to gain and exercise epistemic authority has been a key concern of recent climate change historiography. Using newly released archival materials and recently conducted interviews with key actors, we reconstruct negotiations between UK climate scientists and policymakers which led to the opening of the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in 1990. We historicize earlier arguments about the unique institutional culture of the Hadley Centre, and link this culture to broader characteristics of UK regulatory practice and environmental politics...
2016: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938722/can-the-behavioral-sciences-self-correct-a-social-epistemic-study
#13
Felipe Romero
Advocates of the self-corrective thesis argue that scientific method will refute false theories and find closer approximations to the truth in the long run. I discuss a contemporary interpretation of this thesis in terms of frequentist statistics in the context of the behavioral sciences. First, I identify experimental replications and systematic aggregation of evidence (meta-analysis) as the self-corrective mechanism. Then, I present a computer simulation study of scientific communities that implement this mechanism to argue that frequentist statistics may converge upon a correct estimate or not depending on the social structure of the community that uses it...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938718/repertoires-a-post-kuhnian-perspective-on-scientific-change-and-collaborative-research
#14
Rachel A Ankeny, Sabina Leonelli
We propose a framework to describe, analyze, and explain the conditions under which scientific communities organize themselves to do research, particularly within large-scale, multidisciplinary projects. The framework centers on the notion of a research repertoire, which encompasses well-aligned assemblages of the skills, behaviors, and material, social, and epistemic components that a group may use to practice certain kinds of science, and whose enactment affects the methods and results of research. This account provides an alternative to the idea of Kuhnian paradigms for understanding scientific change in the following ways: (1) it does not frame change as primarily generated and shaped by theoretical developments, but rather takes account of administrative, material, technological, and institutional innovations that contribute to change and explicitly questions whether and how such innovations accompany, underpin, and/or undercut theoretical shifts; (2) it thus allows for tracking of the organization, continuity, and coherence in research practices which Kuhn characterized as 'normal science' without relying on the occurrence of paradigmatic shifts and revolutions to be able to identify relevant components; and (3) it requires particular attention be paid to the performative aspects of science, whose study Kuhn pioneered but which he did not extensively conceptualize...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938717/how-we-load-our-data-sets-with-theories-and-why-we-do-so-purposefully
#15
Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda
In this paper, I compare theory-laden perceptions with imputed data sets. The similarities between the two allow me to show how the phenomenon of theory-ladenness can manifest itself in statistical analyses. More importantly, elucidating the differences between them will allow me to broaden the focus of the existing literature on theory-ladenness and to introduce some much-needed nuances. The topic of statistical imputation has received no attention in philosophy of science. Yet, imputed data sets are very similar to theory-laden perceptions, and they are now an integral part of many scientific inferences...
December 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924116/epistemic-benefits-of-elaborated-and-systematized-delusions-in-schizophrenia
#16
Lisa Bortolotti
In this article I ask whether elaborated and systematized delusions emerging in the context of schizophrenia have the potential for epistemic innocence. Cognitions are epistemically innocent if they have significant epistemic benefits that could not be attained otherwise. In particular, I propose that a cognition is epistemically innocent if it delivers some significant epistemic benefit to a given agent at a given time, and if alternative cognitions delivering the same epistemic benefit are unavailable to that agent at that time...
September 2016: British Journal for the Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920164/epistemic-injustice-in-healthcare-encounters-evidence-from-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Charlotte Blease, Havi Carel, Keith Geraghty
Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) remains a controversial illness category. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and attitudes about this illness and proposes that epistemic concerns about the testimonial credibility of patients can be articulated using Miranda Fricker's concept of epistemic injustice. While there is consensus within mainstream medical guidelines that there is no known cause of CFS/ME, there is continued debate about how best to conceive of CFS/ME, including disagreement about how to interpret clinical studies of treatments...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919381/consumer-choice-of-on-demand-mhealth-app-services-context-and-contents-values-using-structural-equation-modeling
#18
Euehun Lee, Semi Han, Sang Hyun Jo
OBJECTIVE: As smartphone penetration increases and the technology advances, various mobile services have reached the market. mHealth Applications are specifically highlighted for phenomena such as global aging & well-being, but the technology-driven mHealth services have not been successful in the market because consumer needs have not been reflected in the services properly. This study developed a research model consisting of context/contents values to explain the intention of consumers over the age of 40 in using mHealth Applications...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912859/alienation-and-alterity-age-in-the-existentialist-discourse-on-others
#19
Harm-Peer Zimmermann
Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies belong together in a rather fundamental way, given that they share profound theoretical roots and far-reaching critical perspectives. These derive not only from the more recent poststructuralist discourse on others but also, further back, from the existentialist discourse on others - particularly in issues relating to "The Look" as elaborated by Jean-Paul Sartre in his major philosophical treatise Being and Nothingness and in his reflections on racism, colonialism and humanism...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905072/communicating-uncertainty-in-benefits-and-harms-a-review-of-patient-decision-support-interventions
#20
Nick Bansback, Madelaine Bell, Luke Spooner, Alysa Pompeo, Paul K J Han, Mark Harrison
BACKGROUND: Interventions designed to help people deliberate and participate in their healthcare choices frequently describe uncertainty in potential benefits and harms. This uncertainty can be generalized to aleatory, or first-order uncertainty, represented by risk estimates, and epistemic, or second-order uncertainty, represented by imprecision in the risk estimates. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this short communication was to review how patient decision support interventions (PDSIs) describe aleatory and epistemic uncertainty...
November 30, 2016: Patient
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