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Hassan Rahnama, Shayan Rajabpour
The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sonya Charles, Allison B Wolf
In this article, we discuss decision making during labor and delivery, specifically focusing on decision making around offering women a trial of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC). Many have discussed how humans are notoriously bad at assessing risks and how we often distort the nature of various risks surrounding childbirth. We will build on this discussion by showing that physicians make decisions around TOLAC not only based on distortions of risk, but also based on personal values (i.e. what level of risk are you comfortable with or what types of risks are you willing to take) rather than medical data (or at least medical data alone)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Giuseppe Riva, Rosa M Baños, Cristina Botella, Fabrizia Mantovani, Andrea Gaggioli
During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Osamu Muramoto
BACKGROUND: This essay provides an ethical and conceptual argument for the use of informed consent prior to the diagnosis of brain death. It is meant to enable the family to make critical end-of-life decisions, particularly withdrawal of life support system and organ donation, before brain death is diagnosed, as opposed to the current practice of making such decisions after the diagnosis of death. The recent tragic case of a 13-year-old brain-dead patient in California who was maintained on a ventilator for over 2 years illustrates how such a consent would have made a crucial difference...
October 13, 2016: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
Tomasz Zaleskiewicz, Agata Gasiorowska, Katarzyna Stasiuk, Renata Maksymiuk, Yoram Bar-Tal
The goal of this experimental project was to investigate lay peoples' perceptions of epistemic authority (EA) in the field of finance. EA is defined as the extent to which a source of information is treated as evidence for judgments independently of its objective expertise and based on subjective beliefs. Previous research suggested that EA evaluations are biased and that lay people tend to ascribe higher EA to experts who advise action (in the case of medical experts) or confirm clients' expectations (in the case of politicians)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Erwin B Montgomery
Theories impact the movement disorders clinic, not only affecting the development of new therapies but determining how current therapies are used. Models are theories that are procedural rather than declarative. Theories and models are important because, as argued by Kant, one cannot know the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) and only a model is knowable. Further, biological variability forces higher level abstraction relevant for all variants. It is that abstraction that is raison d'être of theories and models...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Omkar Aphale, David J Tonjes
We demonstrate the application of the Area Metric developed by Ferson et al. (2008) for multimodel validity assessment. The Area Metric quantified the degree of models' replicative validity: the degree of agreement between the observed data and the corresponding simulated outputs represented as their empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs). This approach was used to rank multiple representations of a case study groundwater flow model of a landfill by their Area Metric scores. A multimodel approach allows to account for uncertainties that may either be epistemic (from lack of knowledge) or aleatory (from variability inherent in the system)...
October 5, 2016: Ground Water
Eann A Patterson, Maurice P Whelan
Computational models in biology and biomedical science are often constructed to aid people's understanding of phenomena or to inform decisions with socioeconomic consequences. Model credibility is the willingness of people to trust a model's predictions and is often difficult to establish for computational biology models. A 3 × 3 matrix has been proposed to allow such models to be categorised with respect to their testability and epistemic foundation in order to guide the selection of an appropriate process of validation to supply evidence to establish credibility...
October 1, 2016: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Remington J Moll, Daniel Steel, Robert A Montgomery
Philosophers and scientists alike have suggested Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), and other similar model selection methods, show predictive accuracy justifies a preference for simplicity in model selection. This epistemic justification of simplicity is limited by an assumption of AIC which requires that the same probability distribution must generate the data used to fit the model and the data about which predictions are made. This limitation has been previously noted but appears to often go unnoticed by philosophers and scientists and has not been analyzed in relation to complexity...
September 30, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Sophie van Baalen, Annamaria Carusi, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Lorenzo Baravalle, Davide Vecchi
In this paper we aim to amend the traditional analogy at the heart of evolutionary epistemologies. We shall first argue, contrary to what has been frequently done, that both hypothesis generation and the processes of generation of genetic and phenotypic change are often directed as well as environmentally conditioned. Secondly, we shall argue that environmental influence does not affect trial generation directly but that environmental information is processed by the epistemic agent and by the biological organism respectively...
September 29, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
David Ludwig
Current controversies about knowledge integration reflect conflicting ideas of what it means to "take Indigenous knowledge seriously". While there is increased interest in integrating Indigenous and Western scientific knowledge in various disciplines such as anthropology and ethnobiology, integration projects are often accused of recognizing Indigenous knowledge only insofar as it is useful for Western scientists. The aim of this article is to use tools from philosophy of science to develop a model of both successful integration and integration failures...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Ellen G Engelhardt, Arwen H Pieterse, Paul K J Han, Nanny van Duijn-Bakker, Frans Cluitmans, Ed Maartense, Monique M E M Bos, Nir I Weijl, Cornelis J A Punt, Patricia Quarles van Ufford-Mannesse, Harm Sleeboom, Johanneke E A Portielje, Koos J M van der Hoeven, F J Sherida Woei-A-Jin, Judith R Kroep, Hanneke C J M de Haes, Ellen M A Smets, Anne M Stiggelbout
BACKGROUND: Treatment decision making is often guided by evidence-based probabilities, which may be presented to patients during consultations. These probabilities are intrinsically imperfect and embody 2 types of uncertainties: aleatory uncertainty arising from the unpredictability of future events and epistemic uncertainty arising from limitations in the reliability and accuracy of probability estimates. Risk communication experts have recommended disclosing uncertainty. We examined whether uncertainty was discussed during cancer consultations and whether and how patients perceived uncertainty...
September 28, 2016: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Konrad Werner
I shall propose metaphilosophy of mind as the philosophy of mind investigating mind. That is to say, I pose the question of how knowledge of mind provided by cognitive science, broadly construed, is constrained by the epistemic position of the knower, i.e. by the very fact that it is undertaken by a mind. Here I would like to propose a minimal framework, based on two distinctions: (i) the standard one between empirical and conceptual analysis; (ii) a new one, between the internal questions of mind and the boundary questions of mind...
September 24, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Cristiano Castelfranchi
A theory of the Value/Utility of information and knowledge (K) is not really there. This would require a theory of the centrality of Goals in minds, and of the role of K relative to Goals and their dynamics. K value is a notion relative to Goal value. Inf/K is precisely a resource, a means and the value of means depends on the value of their possible functions and uses. The claim of this paper is that Ks have a Value and Utility, they can be more or less 'precious'; they have a cost and imply some risks; they can be not only useful but negative and dangerous...
2016: SpringerPlus
Georg Spielthenner
This essay concerns itself with the methodology of practical ethics. There are a variety of methods employed in ethics. Although none have been firmly established as dominant, it is generally agreed that casuistry, or the case-based method, is one important strategy commonly used for resolving ethical issues. Casuists compare the case under consideration to a relevantly similar (analogous) precedent case in which judgements have already been made, and they use these earlier judgements to determine the proper resolution of the present case...
October 2016: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Kristina Gupta
This article explores the relationship between contemporary asexual lives and compulsory sexuality, or the privileging of sexuality and the marginalizing of nonsexuality. Drawing on 30 in-depth interviews, I identify four ways the asexually identified individuals in this study saw themselves as affected by compulsory sexuality: pathologization, isolation, unwanted sex and relationship conflict, and the denial of epistemic authority. I also identify five ways these asexually identified individuals disrupted compulsory sexuality: adopting a language of difference and a capacity to describe asexuality; deemphasizing the importance of sexuality in human life; developing new types of nonsexual relationships; constituting asexuality as a sexual orientation or identity; and engaging in community building and outreach...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Claudia Garcia-Rojas
The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
Yoram Bar-Tal, Sivia Barnoy
Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is an efficient means of prevention, low rates of vaccination are reported periodically. The study aimed to examine factors affecting acceptance of nurses' recommendations to take or avoid influenza vaccination. Study design was quasi-experimental with a 2 × 2 between subjects design: two variables were manipulated and two were not. The research variables were expertise (of nurses and respondents), type of recommendation (to vaccinate or not) and respondents' a-priori intention to vaccinate...
September 9, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Tushabe Wa Tushabe
Drawing on lessons from the experiences of women who exchange same-sex erotic energies, this article suggests that advocates of same-sex human rights should take into account epistemic erasures colonized people experience when activism and policies regarding sexual freedom ignore various linguistic and community structures that create spaces for diverse ways of knowing and being. Since the late 1990s, the discourse on homosexuality in Uganda has motivated important debates concerning human values of sovereignty, rights, and family, and has expanded freedoms of sexual expression while at the same time conditioning these freedoms to be experienced in colonial ways of self-knowledge...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
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