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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641396/geneticization-in-mim-omim%C3%A2-exploring-historic-and-epistemic-drivers-of-contemporary-understandings-of-genetic-disease
#1
Rachel A Ankeny
Prior to the genomic sequencing era, the bible for those working in clinical genetics was McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which appeared in multiple editions between the 1960s and the late 1990s. This catalogue was organized according to general patterns of inheritance and focused on phenotypes. Beginning in the mid-1980s, it was replaced by Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), a continuously updated catalogue documenting molecular relationships between genetic variation and phenotypic expression...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622010/-are-you-in-or-are-you-out-moral-appeals-to-the-public-in-organ-donation-poster-campaigns-a-multimodal-and-ethical-analysis
#2
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604289/a-suitable-soil-plague-s-urban-breeding-grounds-at-the-dawn-of-the-third-pandemic
#3
Christos Lynteris
A pressing question during the first half-decade of the third plague pandemic (1894-9) was what was a 'suitable soil' for the disease. The question related to plague's perceived ability to disappear from a given city only to reappear at some future point; a phenomenon that became central to scientific investigations of the disease. However, rather than this simply having a metaphorical meaning, the debate around plague's 'suitable soil' actually concerned the material reality of the soil itself. The prevalence of plague in the working-class neighbourhood of Taipingshan during the first major outbreak of the pandemic, in 1894 in Hong Kong, led to an extensive debate regarding the ability of the soil to harbour and even spread the disease...
July 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597223/the-irrelevance-of-the-risk-uncertainty-distinction
#4
Dominic Roser
Precautionary Principles are often said to be appropriate for decision-making in contexts of uncertainty such as climate policy. Contexts of uncertainty are contrasted to contexts of risk depending on whether we have probabilities or not. Against this view, I argue that the risk-uncertainty distinction is practically irrelevant. I start by noting that the history of the distinction between risk and uncertainty is more varied than is sometimes assumed. In order to examine the distinction, I unpack the idea of having probabilities, in particular by distinguishing three interpretations of probability: objective, epistemic, and subjective probability...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584653/known-unknowns-and-unknown-unknowns-in-suicide-risk-assessment-evidence-from-meta-analyses-of-aleatory-and-epistemic-uncertainty
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Large, Cherrie Galletly, Nicholas Myles, Christopher James Ryan, Hannah Myles
Suicide risk assessment aims to reduce uncertainty in order to focus treatment and supervision on those who are judged to be more likely to die by suicide. In this article we consider recent meta-analytic research that highlights the difference between uncertainty about suicide due to chance factors (aleatory uncertainty) and uncertainty that results from lack of knowledge (epistemic uncertainty). We conclude that much of the uncertainty about suicide is aleatory rather than epistemic, and discuss the implications for clinicians...
June 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582532/generating-global-political-priority-for-urban-health-the-role-of-the-urban-health-epistemic-community
#6
Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Lani G Crane
Over the past decade there has been much discussion of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization in the developing world; yet the health of the urban poor, and especially those residing in low- and middle-income countries, continues to receive little political priority in most developing countries and at the global level. This research applies social science scholarship and a public policy analytical framework to assess the factors that have challenged efforts to make health in urban poor settings a priority...
June 3, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582467/measuring-aesthetic-emotions-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-new-assessment-tool
#7
Ines Schindler, Georg Hosoya, Winfried Menninghaus, Ursula Beermann, Valentin Wagner, Michael Eid, Klaus R Scherer
Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580834/evaluation-of-the-epistemic-state-of-the-speaker-author
#8
Charles Clifton, Lyn Frazier
Language users are sensitive to their language's grammatical requirements, the plausibility of the situation described, and the information shared by speaker and listener. We propose that they are also sensitive to whether an author is likely to be in a state of knowledge that actually supports the assertion being made. Failure to be in such a state reduces the naturalness of the assertion. Consistent with this proposal, sentences with a disjoined noun phrase are judged to be less natural than their conjunctive counterparts (Clifton & Frazier, 2016), presumably because the author of a disjunctive sentence must know that an event took place but not know which of two individuals was the agent...
June 5, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569380/the-role-of-speaker-knowledge-in-children-s-pragmatic-inferences
#9
Anna Papafragou, Carlyn Friedberg, Matthew L Cohen
During communication, conversational partners should offer as much information as is required and relevant. For instance, the statement "Some Xs Y" is infelicitous if one knows that all Xs Y. Do children understand the link between speaker knowledge and utterance strength? In Experiment 1, 5-year-olds (N = 32) but not 4-year-olds (N = 32) reliably connected statements of different logical strength (e.g., "The girl colored all/some of the star") to observers who were fully or partially informed. Four-year-olds' performance improved when observer knowledge could be assessed more easily (Experiment 2a, N = 25) but remained the same in a nonlinguistic version of Experiment 1 that preserved the epistemic requirements of the original study (Experiment 2b, N = 26)...
June 1, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555958/industrial-safety-and-utopia-insights-from-the-fukushima-daiichi-accident
#10
Sébastien Travadel, Franck Guarnieri, Aurélien Portelli
Feedback from industrial accidents is provided by various state or even international, institutions, and lessons learned can be controversial. However, there has been little research into organizational learning at the international level. This article helps to fill the gap through an in-depth review of official reports of the Fukushima Daiichi accident published shortly after the event. We present a new method to analyze the arguments contained in these voluminous documents. Taking an intertextual perspective, the method focuses on the accident narratives, their rationale, and links between "facts," "causes," and "recommendations...
May 29, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546784/doing-laboratory-ethnography-reflections-on-method-in-scientific-workplaces
#11
Neil Stephens, Jamie Lewis
Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat...
April 2017: Qualitative Research: QR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#12
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524088/a-hybrid-generalized-hidden-markov-model-based-condition-monitoring-approach-for-rolling-bearings
#13
Jie Liu, Youmin Hu, Bo Wu, Yan Wang, Fengyun Xie
The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD)...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515574/autistic-heterogeneity-linking-uncertainties-and-indeterminacies
#14
Gregory Hollin
Autism is a highly uncertain entity and little is said about it with any degree of certainty. Scientists must, and do, work through these uncertainties in the course of their work. Scientists explain uncertainty in autism research through discussion of epistemological uncertainties which suggest that diverse methods and techniques make results hard to reconcile, ontological uncertainties which suggest doubt over taxonomic coherence, but also through reference to autism's indeterminacy which suggests that the condition is inherently heterogeneous...
April 3, 2017: Science As Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#15
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497524/changing-minds-children-s-inferences-about-third-party-belief-revision
#16
Rachel W Magid, Phyllis Yan, Max H Siegel, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Laura E Schulz
By the age of 5, children explicitly represent that agents can have both true and false beliefs based on epistemic access to information (e.g., Wellman, Cross, & Watson, 2001). Children also begin to understand that agents can view identical evidence and draw different inferences from it (e.g., Carpendale & Chandler, 1996). However, much less is known about when, and under what conditions, children expect other agents to change their minds. Here, inspired by formal ideal observer models of learning, we investigate children's expectations of the dynamics that underlie third parties' belief revision...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497196/an-objective-view-of-biological-diversity-how-history-and-epistemology-shaped-current-treatment
#17
Anderson A Eduardo, Ricardo Carmo
The concept of biological diversity has inspired important discussions throughout the history of ecology. Although its meaning and usefulness have been questioned, it is currently one of the key artifacts of ecology. One way to try to understand why such a concept has undergone so many discussions is to examine its emergence and history from the epistemology perspective. In the present work, we investigated how the emergence of mechanical objectivity (as an epistemic virtue) and trained judgment affected how ecologists address the concept of biological diversity...
May 11, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#18
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453300/psychiatry-sex-and-science-the-making-of-adolescent-motherhood-in-southern-brazil
#19
Dominique P Béhague
Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts' long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epistemic struggles, remedial interventions, and ontological politics...
April 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#20
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
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