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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740474/pre-cueing-the-epistemic-role-of-early-vision-and-the-cognitive-impenetrability-of-early-vision
#1
Athanassios Raftopoulos
I have argued (Raftopoulos, 2009, 2014) that early vision is not directly affected by cognition since its processes do not draw on cognition as an informational resource; early vision processes do not operate over cognitive contents, which is the essence of the claim that perception is cognitively penetrated; early vision is cognitively impenetrable. Recently it has been argued that there are cognitive effects that affect early vision, such as the various pre-cueing effects guided by cognitively driven attention, which suggests that early vision is cognitively penetrated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738727/the-home-as-ethos-of-caring-a-concept-determination
#2
Yvonne Hilli, Katie Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Within nursing, the concepts of home and homelike have been used indiscriminately to describe characteristics of healthcare settings that resemble a home more than an institution. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the concept of home ( hem in Swedish). The main questions were as follows: What does the concept of home entail etymologically and semantically? Of what significance is the meaning of the concept to caring science and nursing? DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a qualitative design with a hermeneutical approach guided by Gadamer...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730671/many-faces-of-rationality-implications-of-the-great-rationality-debate-for-clinical-decision-making
#3
Benjamin Djulbegovic, Shira Elqayam
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#4
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717242/a-new-solution-concept-for-the-ultimatum-game-leading-to-the-golden-ratio
#5
Stefan Schuster
The Ultimatum Game is a paradigmatic two-player game. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some valuable good. A responder can accept the offer or reject it, implying that the two players receive nothing. The only subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is to only offer an infinitesimal amount and to accept this. However, this equilibrium is not in agreement with experimental observations, which show varying accepted offers around 40%. While some authors suggest that the fairest split of 50% vs. 50% would be explainable on theoretical grounds or by computer simulation, a few authors (including myself) have recently suggested that the Golden Ratio, about 0...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690054/fuzzy-evidential-network-and-its-application-as-medical-prognosis-and-diagnosis-models
#6
Amin Janghorbani, Mohammad Hassan Moradi
Uncertainty is one of the important facts of the medical knowledge. Medical prognosis and diagnosis, as the essential parts of medical knowledge, is affected by different aspects of uncertainty, which must be managed. In the previous studies, different theories such as Bayesian probability theory, evidence theory, and fuzzy set theory have been developed to represent and manage different aspects of uncertainty. Recently, hybrid frameworks are suggested to deal with various types of uncertainty in a single framework...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689133/the-european-politics-of-animal-experimentation-from-victorian-britain-to-stop-vivisection
#7
Pierre-Luc Germain, Luca Chiapperino, Giuseppe Testa
This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation...
July 6, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678937/world-health-organization-and-the-search-for-accountability-a-critical-analysis-of-the-new-framework-of-engagement-with-non-state-actors
#8
Danielle Hanna Rached, Deisy de Freitas Lima Ventura
The article probes the origins and content of the Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors (FENSA) of the World Health Organization (WHO), approved on May 28, 2016, at the 69th World Health Assembly, which established different rules of collaboration to four categories of actors: nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private sector entities, philanthropic foundations, and academic institutions. Applying the findings of International Legal Theory and based on extensive documentary research, we sought to determine whether FENSA is an appropriate accountability mechanism according to four functions of accountability: constitutional, democratic, epistemic, and populist...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658429/-when-paradigms-change-in-public-health-what-changes-in-history
#9
Guilherme Arantes Mello
This conceptual essay investigates the idea of paradigmatic rupture and its implications in historical interpretations of public/collective health, where the dimensions of politics and science intermingle. The polysemic and pre-conceptual nature of "paradigm" is clarified, taking account of the conceptual implications, while reaffirming their semantic usefulness. Essential and cumulative ruptures are discussed and applied to the confrontation of the epistemic rupture brought about by district health centers and the goals of the public health reform movement...
April 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658427/-history-of-ideas-history-of-social-sciences-and-the-sociology-of-knowledge
#10
Frederico Ágoas
This article seeks to determine the mutual influence between the sociology of knowledge and the history of ideas within the history of the social sciences. In addition, it intends to outline a preliminary research program for the area in question which integrates relevant contributions from the social sciences and history to contribute to the dialog between parallel research programs for connected development in the history of science and the history of the social sciences, as well as to pursue a sociology of knowledge which is attentive to the political and economic framework of epistemic practices on which it focuses, without reducing these practices to extrinsic discourses or to the subjective intentions of the causal agents...
April 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655160/generating-global-political-priority-for-urban-health-the-role-of-the-urban-health-epistemic-community
#11
Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Lani G Crane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641396/geneticization-in-mim-omim%C3%A2-exploring-historic-and-epistemic-drivers-of-contemporary-understandings-of-genetic-disease
#12
Rachel A Ankeny
Prior to the genomic sequencing era, the bible for those working in clinical genetics was McKusick's Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which appeared in multiple editions between the 1960s and the late 1990s. This catalogue was organized according to general patterns of inheritance and focused on phenotypes. Beginning in the mid-1980s, it was replaced by Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), a continuously updated catalogue documenting molecular relationships between genetic variation and phenotypic expression...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639739/philosophical-aesthetics-and-cognitive-science
#13
REVIEW
Aaron Meskin, Jon Robson, Anna Ichino, Kris Goffin, Annelies Monseré
Philosophical aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which explores issues having to do with art, beauty, and related phenomena. Philosophers have often been skeptical about the place of empirical investigation in aesthetics. However, in recent years many philosophical aestheticians have turned to cognitive science to enrich their understanding of their subject matter. Cognitive scientists have, in turn, been inspired by work in philosophical aesthetics. This essay focuses on a representative subset of the areas in which there has been fruitful dialog between philosophical aestheticians and cognitive scientists...
June 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637426/bioinformatics-indispensable-yet-hidden-in-plain-sight
#14
Andrew Bartlett, Bart Penders, Jamie Lewis
BACKGROUND: Bioinformatics has multitudinous identities, organisational alignments and disciplinary links. This variety allows bioinformaticians and bioinformatic work to contribute to much (if not most) of life science research in profound ways. The multitude of bioinformatic work also translates into a multitude of credit-distribution arrangements, apparently dismissing that work. RESULTS: We report on the epistemic and social arrangements that characterise the relationship between bioinformatics and life science...
June 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622010/-are-you-in-or-are-you-out-moral-appeals-to-the-public-in-organ-donation-poster-campaigns-a-multimodal-and-ethical-analysis
#15
Solveig L Hansen, Marthe I Eisner, Larissa Pfaller, Silke Schicktanz
Organ transplantation is a well-established practice in modern medicine. However, many countries, especially those with an opt-in regulation, face the problem of low donation numbers. Respective public campaigns attempt to increase the number of donors by swaying public opinion with the use of carefully selected bits of information. Germany serves as a case study for an opt-in country investing approximately €7.5 million/year in the distribution of respective campaigns. To address diverse populations, large-scale posters in various public spaces still display a multitude of moral messages for organ donation...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604289/a-suitable-soil-plague-s-urban-breeding-grounds-at-the-dawn-of-the-third-pandemic
#16
Christos Lynteris
A pressing question during the first half-decade of the third plague pandemic (1894-9) was what was a 'suitable soil' for the disease. The question related to plague's perceived ability to disappear from a given city only to reappear at some future point; a phenomenon that became central to scientific investigations of the disease. However, rather than this simply having a metaphorical meaning, the debate around plague's 'suitable soil' actually concerned the material reality of the soil itself. The prevalence of plague in the working-class neighbourhood of Taipingshan during the first major outbreak of the pandemic, in 1894 in Hong Kong, led to an extensive debate regarding the ability of the soil to harbour and even spread the disease...
July 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597223/the-irrelevance-of-the-risk-uncertainty-distinction
#17
Dominic Roser
Precautionary Principles are often said to be appropriate for decision-making in contexts of uncertainty such as climate policy. Contexts of uncertainty are contrasted to contexts of risk depending on whether we have probabilities or not. Against this view, I argue that the risk-uncertainty distinction is practically irrelevant. I start by noting that the history of the distinction between risk and uncertainty is more varied than is sometimes assumed. In order to examine the distinction, I unpack the idea of having probabilities, in particular by distinguishing three interpretations of probability: objective, epistemic, and subjective probability...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584653/known-unknowns-and-unknown-unknowns-in-suicide-risk-assessment-evidence-from-meta-analyses-of-aleatory-and-epistemic-uncertainty
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Large, Cherrie Galletly, Nicholas Myles, Christopher James Ryan, Hannah Myles
Suicide risk assessment aims to reduce uncertainty in order to focus treatment and supervision on those who are judged to be more likely to die by suicide. In this article we consider recent meta-analytic research that highlights the difference between uncertainty about suicide due to chance factors (aleatory uncertainty) and uncertainty that results from lack of knowledge (epistemic uncertainty). We conclude that much of the uncertainty about suicide is aleatory rather than epistemic, and discuss the implications for clinicians...
June 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582532/generating-global-political-priority-for-urban-health-the-role-of-the-urban-health-epistemic-community
#19
Yusra Ribhi Shawar, Lani G Crane
Over the past decade there has been much discussion of the challenges posed by rapid urbanization in the developing world; yet the health of the urban poor, and especially those residing in low- and middle-income countries, continues to receive little political priority in most developing countries and at the global level. This research applies social science scholarship and a public policy analytical framework to assess the factors that have challenged efforts to make health in urban poor settings a priority...
June 3, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582467/measuring-aesthetic-emotions-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-new-assessment-tool
#20
Ines Schindler, Georg Hosoya, Winfried Menninghaus, Ursula Beermann, Valentin Wagner, Michael Eid, Klaus R Scherer
Aesthetic perception and judgement are not merely cognitive processes, but also involve feelings. Therefore, the empirical study of these experiences requires conceptualization and measurement of aesthetic emotions. Despite the long-standing interest in such emotions, we still lack an assessment tool to capture the broad range of emotions that occur in response to the perceived aesthetic appeal of stimuli. Elicitors of aesthetic emotions are not limited to the arts in the strict sense, but extend to design, built environments, and nature...
2017: PloS One
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