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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546784/doing-laboratory-ethnography-reflections-on-method-in-scientific-workplaces
#1
Neil Stephens, Jamie Lewis
Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat...
April 2017: Qualitative Research: QR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#2
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524088/a-hybrid-generalized-hidden-markov-model-based-condition-monitoring-approach-for-rolling-bearings
#3
Jie Liu, Youmin Hu, Bo Wu, Yan Wang, Fengyun Xie
The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD)...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515574/autistic-heterogeneity-linking-uncertainties-and-indeterminacies
#4
Gregory Hollin
Autism is a highly uncertain entity and little is said about it with any degree of certainty. Scientists must, and do, work through these uncertainties in the course of their work. Scientists explain uncertainty in autism research through discussion of epistemological uncertainties which suggest that diverse methods and techniques make results hard to reconcile, ontological uncertainties which suggest doubt over taxonomic coherence, but also through reference to autism's indeterminacy which suggests that the condition is inherently heterogeneous...
April 3, 2017: Science As Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497720/neuroscience-and-ethics
#5
S Matthew Liao
A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument...
March 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497524/changing-minds-children-s-inferences-about-third-party-belief-revision
#6
Rachel W Magid, Phyllis Yan, Max H Siegel, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Laura E Schulz
By the age of 5, children explicitly represent that agents can have both true and false beliefs based on epistemic access to information (e.g., Wellman, Cross, & Watson, 2001). Children also begin to understand that agents can view identical evidence and draw different inferences from it (e.g., Carpendale & Chandler, 1996). However, much less is known about when, and under what conditions, children expect other agents to change their minds. Here, inspired by formal ideal observer models of learning, we investigate children's expectations of the dynamics that underlie third parties' belief revision...
May 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497196/an-objective-view-of-biological-diversity-how-history-and-epistemology-shaped-current-treatment
#7
Anderson A Eduardo, Ricardo Carmo
The concept of biological diversity has inspired important discussions throughout the history of ecology. Although its meaning and usefulness have been questioned, it is currently one of the key artifacts of ecology. One way to try to understand why such a concept has undergone so many discussions is to examine its emergence and history from the epistemology perspective. In the present work, we investigated how the emergence of mechanical objectivity (as an epistemic virtue) and trained judgment affected how ecologists address the concept of biological diversity...
May 11, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#8
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453300/psychiatry-sex-and-science-the-making-of-adolescent-motherhood-in-southern-brazil
#9
Dominique P Béhague
Research linking teen motherhood to psychoneurodevelopmental causes and pathologies has proliferated in the past two decades. In Brazil, a psychodevelopmental project of teen motherhood has gained traction despite many experts' long-standing commitment to psychodynamic psychiatry and social epidemiology, generating epistemic tension rather than substitution. Drawing on historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, I explore how this project materialized through the co-production of epistemic struggles, remedial interventions, and ontological politics...
April 28, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440999/-epistemic-injustice-during-the-medical-education-process-in-the-hospital-context
#10
Carolina Consejo-Y Chapela, Carlos Alfonso Viesca-Treviño
BACKGROUND: The educational model adopted by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine is constructivist; it is a model based on competence development. It aims to provide learning environments that incorporate real activities (it helps the students to develop social negotiation skills, as part of their integral learning; it encourages them to take a critical and reflexive approach; and it is also a student-centered model). However, many challenges arise when this model is implemented in the context of hospital environments...
May 2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416414/deep-temporal-models-and-active-inference
#11
REVIEW
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414970/understanding-deceptive-intentions-behind-pointing-gestures-in-12-15-month-old-infants
#12
Diána Á Varró-Horváth, Krisztina Dorn, Beatrix Lábadi
We examined the comprehension of deceptive intentions revealed in searching task in infancy, on the theoretical basis of natural pedagogy and epistemic trust. The main findings showed that 12-15-month-old infants are able to discriminate the reliable and the deceptive actions of adults, but they do not generalize their previous experience in connection with a novel person, who is treated as a new reliable source of information.
April 14, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413687/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-1-borderline-personality-disorder-as-a-limitation-of-resilience
#13
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
This paper sets out a recent transition in our thinking in relation to psychopathology associated with personality disorder, in an approach that integrates our thinking about attachment, mentalizing (understanding ourselves and others in terms of intentional mental states) and epistemic trust (openness to the reception of social communication that is personally relevant and of generalizable significance) with recent findings on the structure of both adult and child psychopathology and resilience. In this paper - the first of two parts - we review evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or p factor underlies vulnerability for psychopathology...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405338/what-we-have-changed-our-minds-about-part-2-borderline-personality-disorder-epistemic-trust-and-the-developmental-significance-of-social-communication
#14
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten, Elizabeth Allison, Chloe Campbell
In Part 1 of this paper, we discussed emerging evidence suggesting that a general psychopathology or 'p' factor underlying the various forms of psychopathology should be conceptualized in terms of the absence of resilience, that is, the absence of positive reappraisal mechanisms when faced with adversity. These impairments in the capacity for positive reappraisal seem to provide a comprehensive explanation for the association between the p factor and comorbidity, future caseness, and the 'hard-to-reach' character of many patients with severe personality pathology, most notably borderline personality disorder (BPD)...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401817/contesting-facts-about-wind-farms-in-australia-and-the-legitimacy-of-adverse-health-effects
#15
Shannon Clark, Linda Courtenay Botterill
The development of wind energy in Australia has been subject to ongoing public debate and has been characterised by concerns over the health impacts of wind turbines. Using discursive psychology, we examine 'wind turbine syndrome' as a contested illness and analyse how people build and undermine divergent arguments about wind-farm health effects. This article explores two facets of the dispute. First, we consider how participants construct 'facts' about the health effects of wind farms. We examine rhetorical resources used to construct wind farms as harmful or benign...
February 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401814/public-discourse-on-mental-health-and-psychiatry-representations-in-swedish-newspapers
#16
Robert Ohlsson
Mass media plays a central role in shaping public discourse on health and illness. In order to examine media representations of mental health and expert knowledge in this field, two major Swedish daily newspapers from the year 2009 were qualitatively analysed. Drawing on the theory of social representations, the analysis focused on how issues concerning mental health and different perspectives are represented. The results show how the concept of mental illness is used in different and often taken-for-granted ways and how the distinction between normal and pathological is a central underlying question...
January 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400962/epistemic-injustice-in-psychiatry
#17
EDITORIAL
Paul Crichton, Havi Carel, Ian James Kidd
It has been argued that those who suffer from medical conditions are more vulnerable to epistemic injustice (a harm done to a person in their capacity as an epistemic subject) than healthy people. This editorial claims that people with mental disorders are even more vulnerable to epistemic injustice than those with somatic illnesses. Two kinds of contributory factors are outlined, global and specific. Some suggestions are made to counteract the effects of these factors, for instance, we suggest that physicians should participate in groups where the subjective experience of patients is explored, and learn to become more aware of their own unconscious prejudices towards psychiatric patients...
April 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389261/an-engineering-paradigm-in-the-biomedical-sciences-knowledge-as-epistemic-tool
#18
REVIEW
Mieke Boon
In order to deal with the complexity of biological systems and attempts to generate applicable results, current biomedical sciences are adopting concepts and methods from the engineering sciences. Philosophers of science have interpreted this as the emergence of an engineering paradigm, in particular in systems biology and synthetic biology. This article aims at the articulation of the supposed engineering paradigm by contrast with the physics paradigm that supported the rise of biochemistry and molecular biology...
April 4, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384624/the-wild-type-as-concept-and-in-experimental-practice-a-history-of-its-role-in-classical-genetics-and-evolutionary-theory
#19
Tarquin Holmes
Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c...
April 3, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376776/the-ecouter-methodology-for-stakeholder-engagement-in-translational-research
#20
Madeleine J Murtagh, Joel T Minion, Andrew Turner, Rebecca C Wilson, Mwenza Blell, Cynthia Ochieng, Barnaby Murtagh, Stephanie Roberts, Oliver W Butters, Paul R Burton
BACKGROUND: Because no single person or group holds knowledge about all aspects of research, mechanisms are needed to support knowledge exchange and engagement. Expertise in the research setting necessarily includes scientific and methodological expertise, but also expertise gained through the experience of participating in research and/or being a recipient of research outcomes (as a patient or member of the public). Engagement is, by its nature, reciprocal and relational: the process of engaging research participants, patients, citizens and others (the many 'publics' of engagement) brings them closer to the research but also brings the research closer to them...
April 4, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
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