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Keiji Tasaka, Kousaku Matsubara, Shizuo Takamiya, Shin-Ichi Ishikawa, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami
BACKGROUND: Information on long-term follow-up of childhood-onset anorexia nervosa is scarce. This study aimed to show long-term (>10 years) course, outcome and prognostic factors for hospitalized childhood-onset anorexia nervosa-restricting type (ANR). METHODS: Forty-one ANR girls admitted to a single regional center participated. Median age at first admission was 13.3 (range: 8.6-15.6) years. The longitudinal clinical course was retrospectively determined for a median follow-up period of 17...
October 19, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
L Mo-Suwan, E McNeil, P Sangsupawanich, U Chittchang, C Choprapawon
AIM: The association between adiposity rebound and insulin resistance in middle childhood has seldom been studied. We examined the effect of body mass index (BMI) velocity and early adiposity rebound on the insulin resistance of prepubertal children. METHODS: BMI data from a longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort in Thailand were used. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from 12-hour fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin at 8...
October 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
May Ling D Halim, Diane N Ruble, Catherine S Tamis-LeMonda, Patrick E Shrout, David M Amodio
This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency)...
October 19, 2016: Child Development
Suzy L Wong
BACKGROUND: Grip strength is a measure of overall muscular strength and has been associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Normative data are used to interpret an individual's grip strength measurements, but Canadian reference values are not available for a wide age range. DATA AND METHODS: The data pertain to 11,108 respondents aged 6 to 79 to the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, whose right-hand and left-hand grip strength were measured with a handgrip dynamometer...
October 19, 2016: Health Reports
Rohan Chawla, Ravi Bypareddy, Koushik Tripathy, Satya Sudha Daggumili, Ankit Singh Tomar
Congenital retinal macrovessels (CRM) are rarely reported, aberrant, large branches of retinal vessels that can be both arteries and veins; however, they are more commonly veins that cross the horizontal raphe to either supply or drain the macula. In this brief report, the authors discuss optical coherence tomography angiography features of CRM in a 12-year-old male patient presenting with low visual acuity in the right eye since childhood. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such report published in the literature...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
L Paglia
Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth...
September 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Harlene Hayne, Katja Jaeger, Trine Sonne, Julien Gross
The visual recognition memory (VRM) paradigm has been widely used to measure memory during infancy and early childhood; it has also been used to study memory in human and nonhuman adults. Typically, participants are familiarized with stimuli that have no special significance to them. Under these conditions, greater attention to the novel stimulus during the test (i.e., novelty preference) is used as the primary index of memory. Here, we took a novel approach to the VRM paradigm and tested 1-, 2-, and 3-year olds using photos of meaningful stimuli that were drawn from the participants' own environment (e...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Karen Tustin, Harlene Hayne
In two experiments, 3-year-old children were tested using an operant train procedure based on one originally developed by Carolyn Rovee-Collier. Children's behavioral and verbal recall of the event was assessed after a 24 hr (Experiment 1) and a 1-year delay (Experiment 2). After the 1-year delay, their mothers' verbal recall of the same event was also assessed. After both delays, children exhibited excellent nonverbal memory. Children also exhibited verbal, episodic memory of the same event, but their verbal reports were lean relative to those of their mothers, suggesting that the memories may be more vulnerable to forgetting over the long term...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Geert-Jan Will, Eveline A Crone, Pol A C van Lier, Berna Güroğlu
Childhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of sharing decisions in a group of adolescents who had a stable accepted status (n = 27) and a group who had a chronic rejected status (n = 19) across six elementary school grades. Both groups of adolescents played three allocation games in which they could share money with strangers with varying costs and profits to them and the other person...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Duangporn Duangthip, Sherry Shiqian Gao, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and experience of early childhood caries among 5- to 6-year-old children in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science) to identify publications from the years 2006 to 2015. Additional hand searches of government reports and national studies were performed. Both primary and secondary data sources were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: International Dental Journal
E Teasdale, I Muller, M Santer
BACKGROUND: Childhood eczema is very common and can have substantial impact on quality of life. One of the main treatments is topical-corticosteroids, but these are often under-used by parents/carers for reasons that include concerns about safety. OBJECTIVES: To explore understandings and concerns about topical-corticosteroids amongst parents/carers of children with eczema who had posted messages in online forums. METHODS: A qualitative study of messages and their resultant discussions about topical-corticosteroids for childhood eczema posted by parents/carers on two UK-based discussion forums...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Ramon Vilallonga, José Manuel Moreno Villares, Diego Yeste Fernández, Raquel Sánchez Santos, Felipe Casanueva Freijo, Francisco Santolaya Ochando, Nuria Leal Hernando, Albert Lecube Torelló, Luis Antonio Castaño González, Albert Feliu, Gontrand Lopez-Nava, Dolores Frutos, Antonio J Torres Garcia, Juan Carlos Ruiz de Adana
PURPOSE: In recent years, the incidence of childhood obesity in Europe, and Spain in particular, has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery could play a major role in treating of adolescents with severe obesity. However, no specific guidelines for bariatric surgery currently exist in Spain. METHODS: The Board of the Spanish Society for Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Diseases (SECO) proposed a study of childhood obesity by using the Delphi method. This prospective study involved 60 experts from nine national societies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Raju Vaishya, Ahmad Tariq Azizi, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
Hugh Klein, Claire E Sterk, Kirk W Elifson
Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Venu Duddu, Abdulhakim Rhouma, Masood Qureshi, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Terry Drake, Altaf Sumra, Nusrat Husain
Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983)...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Marko Šimunović, Joško Božić, Lukrecija Milić, Ivana Unić, Veselin Škrabić
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Lorna Awo Renner, Deborah McGill
BACKGROUND: Developing countries such as Ghana have very poor childhood cancer survival rates. There is a need to determine reasons for late presentation and treatment abandonment which are major causes of poor survival. Understanding these issues could inform effective strategies for childhood cancer control in resource-constrained settings. AIM: To explore factors influencing parental decision-making for children with cancer in Ghana with regard to health seeking and retention in treatment, in order to provide information that will guide Public Health interventions for childhood cancer control...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
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