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Structural violence

Anna M Leddy, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Carol R Underwood
Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania...
March 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
M Elizabeth Snow, Katherine Tweedie, Ann Pederson
BACKGROUND: Recently, patient engagement has been identified as a promising strategy for supporting healthcare planning. However, the context and structure of universalistic, "one-size-fits-all" approaches often used for patient engagement may not enable diverse patients to participate in decision-making about programs intended to meet their needs. Specifically, standard patient engagement approaches are gender-blind and might not facilitate the engagement of those marginalized by, for example, substance use, low income, experiences of violence, homelessness, and/or mental health challenges-highly gendered health and social experiences...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Udi Sommer
Where connections between demography and politics are examined in the literature, it is largely in the context of the effects of male aspects of demography on phenomena such as political violence. This project aims to place the study of demographic variables' influence on politics, particularly on democracy, squarely within the scope of political and social sciences, and to focus on the effects of woman-related demographics-namely, fertility rate. I test the hypothesis that demographic variables-female-related predictors, in particular-have an independent effect on political structure...
March 14, 2018: Demography
Wanderlei Abadio de Oliveira, Jorge Luiz da Silva, Iara Falleiros Braga, Claudio Romualdo, Simona Carla Silvia Caravita, Marta Angélica Iossi Silva
This study unveils the meaning attributed by students to bullying and contributes to the approach of student health. The objective was to identify the dimensions of the conceptions of students regarding bullying. A total of 55 students from 11 public schools participated by answering semi-structured interviews. Dimensional analysis was used to treat data and a matrix was constructed with the dimensions identified. The Grounded Theory was adopted as the methodological and theoretical framework. The adolescents were aware of the main dimensions of bullying but explained it descriptively and from individual perspectives...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Jihane Ben Farhat, Karl Blanchet, Pia Juul Bjertrup, Apostolos Veizis, Clément Perrin, Rebecca M Coulborn, Philippe Mayaud, Sandra Cohuet
BACKGROUND: Since 2015, Europe has been facing an unprecedented arrival of refugees and migrants: more than one million people entered via land and sea routes. During their travels, refugees and migrants often face harsh conditions, forced detention, and violence in transit countries. However, there is a lack of epidemiological quantitative evidence on their experiences and the mental health problems they face during their displacement. We aimed to document the types of violence experienced by migrants and refugees during their journey and while settled in Greece, and to measure the prevalence of anxiety disorders and access to legal information and procedures...
March 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
Petr Victorovich Morozov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite being a pressing problem, the influence of urbanization on mental health is still underestimated in Russia. Although few studies on the topic in recent years were available, viewpoints of the expert community in Russia will be presented. Intensive urbanization impacts on the living conditions of the majority of the country's population being associated with mass migration of the population, a change in the structure of employment, the restructuring of family relations, and the need to adapt to unaccustomed living conditions...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Niels Okkels, Christina Blanner Kristiansen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Norman Sartorius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Cary L Klemmer, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
Psychological processes may mediate the relationship between minority stress and mental health though limited data exist showing this pathway among trans women. Trans women's degree of satisfaction with their body is associated with mental health outcomes. This study used a model of minority stress to explore for indirect effects on the association between transphobia-based victimization and anxiety and depression through one's degree of body satisfaction. Analysis also explored for racial differences. Transgender women ( N = 233) were recruited in 2013 using respondent-driven sampling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Julie M Woulfe, Lisa A Goodman
Intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., physical, sexual, or psychological abuse by a current or former partner) remains a public health concern with devastating personal and societal costs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are also vulnerable to a dimension of IPV called identity abuse (IA); that is, abuse tactics that leverage systemic oppression to harm an individual. Yet, we know little about its relative prevalence in subgroups of the LGBTQ community. This study developed and evaluated a measure of IA, and explored its prevalence in a sample of 734 sexual minority adults...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
María-Jesús Cava, Sofía Buelga, Inés Tomás
Peer victimization and dating violence victimization have serious negative effects on adolescents' health, and they seem to be related. However, the mediating processes in this relationship have not been sufficiently analyzed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between peer victimization and dating violence victimization, considering the possible mediator role of loneliness, depressed mood, and life satisfaction. These relationships are analyzed in boys and girls, and in early and middle adolescence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ryan C Shorey, Paula J Fite, Joseph R Cohen, Gregory L Stuart, Jeff R Temple
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to examine the stability of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration from adolescence to emerging adulthood among sexual minorities. METHODS: Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (N = 135; 71.1% female; mean age = 15.02, standard deviation=.77; 34.1% African-American/black, 26.7% white, 22.2% Hispanic) from southeast Texas were assessed annually for 6 years on their IPV perpetration...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Belén Sanz-Barbero, Patricia López Pereira, Gregorio Barrio, Carmen Vives-Cases
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young women is a source of increasing concern. The prevalence of IPV has not been analysed in Europe as a whole. The objective was to assess the prevalence and main characteristics of experiencing physical and/or sexual and psychological-only IPV among young women in the European Union and to identify individual and contextual associated risk factors. METHODS: We analysed a cross-sectional subsample of 5976 ever-partnered women aged 18-29 years from the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights Violence Against Women Survey, 2012...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Malcolm Harris, Tara Brantley, Douglas Hammond, Sabah Kalamchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic profile of Native American patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHIs) and to explore the validation of the craniofacial crumple zone. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study of 2131 maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2014, of which 173 (8%) had concomitant CHIs. RESULTS: Of the study patients, 133 (77%) were males (mean age 40...
January 31, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Cate M Cameron, Patrick J O'Leary, Ali Lakhani, Jodie M Osborne, Luana de Souza, Kristen Hope, Mohammad S Naimi, Hassan Khan, Qazi S Jawad, Sabir Majidi
Violence against children (VAC) is a significant international problem and, in Afghanistan, is particularly complex given the country has suffered armed conflict and extreme poverty for more than 30 years. The aim of this study was to examine the level of knowledge and observation of VAC by community leaders, professional groups, and business owners in three Afghan districts. A survey of community and religious leaders; health, socio-legal, and education professionals; and business owners from Kabul, Jalalabad, and Torkham ( n = 182) was conducted...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Katherine Bain, Carla Durbach
Much research details the psychological risks to individuals exposed as children to intimate partner violence (IPV). However, resilience has been a neglected area of study within this population. This article details adaptive responses in six participants exposed to IPV in childhood. Adult attachment interviews (AAI) and follow-up semi-structured interviews analyzed using an interpretive thematic analysis revealed common themes relating to psychological defenses and adaptive strategies. Despite exposure to IPV in childhood, these six women were found to have secure attachment states of mind...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Cristiane S Paula, Jair J Mari, Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin, Euripedes C Miguel, Isabela Fortes, Natalia Barroso, Luis Augusto Rohde, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities...
March 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Seth Donal Hannah
Drawing on participant-observation and semi-structured interviews, this paper examines the local forms of clinical practice in a 26-bed acute psychiatric inpatient unit located within a private psychiatric hospital in the Northeastern United States. It focuses on how clinicians, staff, and management understand and utilize the concepts of culture, race, and ethnicity in their daily work, finding that a humanistic approach to care that that treats patients as "individuals" was dominant. Clinicians and staff categorized patients using descriptive, behavior based categories including language, propensity for violence, and whether patients are "from the streets...
March 5, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Edith Van't Hof, Katie S Dawson, Alison Schafer, Anna Chiumento, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Marit Sijbrandij, Richard A Bryant, Dorothy Anjuri, Phiona Koyiet, Lincoln Ndogoni, Jeannette Ulate, Mark van Ommeren
Background: Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief multicomponent intervention incorporating behavioral strategies delivered by lay health workers. The effectiveness of PM+ has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in Kenya and Pakistan. When developing interventions for large-scale implementation it is considered essential to evaluate their feasibility and acceptability in addition to their efficacy. This paper discusses a qualitative evaluation of PM+ for women affected by adversity in Kenya...
2018: Global Mental Health
Md Manirul Islam, Nasim Jahan, Md Delwar Hossain
Background: Violence affects 15-75% of women across the globe and has a significant impact on their health, well-being, and rights. While quantitative research links it to poor mental health, there is a lack of qualitative enquiry in how women experience it, and how it is related to the mental disorders in Bangladesh. This information is important in understanding the situation and structuring a locally appropriate and culturally sensitive program. Methods: We adopted a phenomenological approach and conducted 16 in-depth interviews, three informal interviews, one focus group discussion, and one key informant interview...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
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