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Structural violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730065/exploring-structural-violence-in-the-context-of-disability-and-poverty-in-zimbabwe
#1
Jennifer T Muderedzi, Arne H Eide, Stine H Braathen, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others. OBJECTIVE: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725097/surviving-the-holocaust-socio-demographic-differences-among-amsterdam-jews
#2
Peter Tammes
This study determined the victimisation rate among Amsterdam Jews and socio-demographic differences in surviving the Holocaust. After linking a registration list of over 77,000 Jewish inhabitants in 1941 to post-war lists of Jewish victims and survivors, the victimisation rate lies between 74.3 and 75.3 %. Differences in survival chances and risk of being killed are examined by using multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. While male Jews had a reduced risk of death, in the end their survival chances hardly differed from females...
2017: European Journal of Population
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718998/disconnected-lives-women-with-intellectual-disabilities-in-conflict-with-the-law
#3
Kathryn Ann Levine, Jocelyn Proulx, Karen Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Women with intellectual/developmental disabilities in conflict with the law experience childhood trauma, substance abuse and intimate partner violence but continue to have difficulty accessing appropriate therapeutic services, both within correctional settings and upon discharge. The aim of this study is to explore women's service needs and to critically assess whether the available services are meeting their identified needs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 women with intellectual/developmental disabilities who were in the Special Needs Unit of a women's correctional centre from December 2014 to March 2015...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717863/global-mental-health-and-adolescent-anxiety-kin-care-and-struggle-in-new-mexico
#4
Janis H Jenkins, Annika Stone
While recent developments within the field of global mental health have illuminated the reality of serious mental health difficulties worldwide, particularly in low-income settings, research that focuses on children and adolescents remains underdeveloped. This is especially the case with respect to ethnographic studies of lived experience of adolescents diagnosed with serious mental health conditions. Drawing from an interdisciplinary study of adolescents in New Mexico who were afflicted with a broad range of disorders according to contemporary research diagnostic criteria, this article focuses on anxiety-related conditions with respect to subjective experience and social-ecological contexts of living with such conditions...
July 17, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714096/enactors-of-horizontal-violence-the-pathological-bully-the-self-justified-bully-and-the-unprofessional-co-worker
#5
Rosemary A Taylor, Steven S Taylor
AIM: To suggest an alternative approach to improving recognition of horizontal violence using enactor types identified in a study exploring nurses' perceptions of horizontal violence. BACKGROUND: Horizontal violence is an umbrella term used to describe a range of aggressive behaviors between nurse colleagues. It is suggested that nurses do not recognize the phenomenon when they witness or experience it, contributing to its perpetuation. DESIGN: This was a qualitative, descriptive study undertaken to inform theory development and the design of future interventions to address horizontal violence...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699562/which-green-way-description-of-the-intervention-for-mobilising-against-aedes-aegypti-under-difficult-security-conditions-in-southern-mexico
#6
REVIEW
Arcadio Morales-Perez, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, José Legorreta-Soberanis, Sergio Paredes-Solís, Alejandro Balanzar-Martínez, Felipe René Serrano-de Los Santos, Claudia Erika Ríos-Rivera, Jaime García-Leyva, Robert J Ledogar, Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson
BACKGROUND: Community mobilisation for prevention requires engagement with and buy in from those communities. In the Mexico state of Guerrero, unprecedented social violence related to the narcotics trade has eroded most community structures. A recent randomised controlled trial in 90 coastal communities achieved sufficient mobilisation to reduce conventional vector density indicators, self-reported dengue illness and serologically proved dengue virus infection. METHODS: The Camino Verde intervention was a participatory research protocol promoting local discussion of baseline evidence and co-design of vector control solutions...
May 30, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693711/comparison-of-methods-for-dealing-with-missing-values-in-the-epv-r
#7
David Paniagua, Pedro J Amor, Enrique Echeburúa, Francisco J Abad
BACKGROUND: The development of an effective instrument to assess the risk of partner violence is a topic of great social relevance. This study evaluates the scale of “Predicción del Riesgo de Violencia Grave Contra la Pareja” –Revisada– (EPV-R - Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale-Revised), a tool developed in Spain, which is facing the problem of how to treat the high rate of missing values, as is usual in this type of scale. METHOD: First, responses to the EPV-R in a sample of 1215 male abusers who were reported to the police were used to analyze the patterns of occurrence of missing values, as well as the factor structure...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692010/worksite-walkthrough-intervention-data-driven-prevention-of-workplace-violence-on-hospital-units
#8
Lydia E Hamblin, Lynnette Essenmacher, Mark Luborsky, Jim Russell, James Janisse, Mark Upfal, Judith Arnetz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the implementation of a data-driven, unit-based walkthrough intervention shown to be effective in reducing the risk of workplace violence in hospitals. METHODS: A structured worksite walkthrough was conducted on 21 hospital units. Unit-level workplace violence data were reviewed and a checklist of possible prevention strategies and an Action Plan form guided development of unit-specific intervention. Unit supervisor perceptions of the walkthrough and implemented prevention strategies were reported via questionnaires...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683372/a-systematic-review-of-risk-and-protective-factors-associated-with-family-related-violence-in-refugee-families
#9
Isabelle Timshel, Edith Montgomery, Nina Thorup Dalgaard
The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors...
July 3, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682194/interpersonal-and-structural-contexts-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-female-sex-workers-in-conflict-affected-northern-uganda
#10
Margaret Erickson, Shira M Goldenberg, Aditi Master, Godfrey Muzaaya, Monica Akello, Melissa Braschel, Josephine Birungi, Kate Shannon
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of violence against women, yet remains under-researched among sex workers in Sub-Saharan Africa. We explored interpersonal and structural determinants of recent IPV among female sex workers in northern Uganda. METHODS: This analysis drew on data from a community-based cross-sectional study (conducted May 2011-January 2012), involving 379 female sex workers in Gulu, northern Uganda. Using logistic regression and multivariable modeling, we examined correlates of recent male-perpetrated physical or sexual IPV...
July 6, 2017: Women & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669024/substance-use-disorders-violence-mental-health-and-hiv-differentiating-a-syndemic-factor-by-gender-and-sexuality
#11
Kiyomi Tsuyuki, Eileen V Pitpitan, Maria A Levi-Minzi, Lianne A Urada, Steven P Kurtz, Jamila K Stockman, Hilary L Surratt
This paper measures syndemic substance use disorder, violence, and mental health and compares the syndemic among HIV-infected heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and men who have sex with men (MSM). Data were from a sample of high needs substance-using, HIV-infected people in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 481). We used confirmatory factor analysis to measure a syndemic latent variable and applied measurement invariance models to identify group differences in the data structure of syndemic co-morbidities among heterosexual men, heterosexual women, and MSM...
July 1, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662638/how-life-stressors-influence-modifiable-lifestyle-factors-depressive-symptoms-and-physical-and-mental-health-among-vietnamese-older-women
#12
Tiet-Hanh Dao-Tran, Debra Anderson, Charrlotte Seib
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that exposure to life stressors can influence health through a number of pathways. However, knowledge about the patterns of life stressors and their contributions to health in different populations is limited. Vietnamese older women have attracted little research to date in this area. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used an interview-administered-questionnaire to collect data from 440 Vietnamese older women. Descriptive analysis was used to describe life stressors among Vietnamese older women...
June 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657474/-you-have-to-bow-right-here-heteronormative-scripts-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-women-s-same-sex-relationships
#13
Nadia Sanger, Ingrid Lynch
Intimate partner violence is increasingly recognised as occurring not only between heterosexual partners but also in same-sex relationships. Heterogendered relationship norms have been identified as intersecting with other social inequalities to create and sustain power differentials between partners - and fuel violence - yet remain largely unexplored in relation to women's same-sex relationships. Building on existing feminist research we explore the use of gendered scripts in South African lesbian and bisexual women's accounts of relationship norms and practices...
June 28, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652821/hiv-risk-and-barriers-to-care-for-african-born-immigrant-women-a-sociocultural-outlook
#14
Olihe N Okoro, Shanasha O Whitson
BACKGROUND: Data from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2015 show that African-born (AB) women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In 2015, these women accounted for more than half (54%) of all new cases of HIV reported among females in Minnesota and 34% of all known female cases in the state. This study was a needs assessment for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in vulnerable subgroups within the AB population and adequacy of HIV care for AB persons...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640664/%C3%A2-somos-iguales-using-a-structural-violence-framework-to-understand-gender-and-health-inequities-from-an-intersectional-perspective-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#15
Geordan D Shannon, Angelica Motta, Carlos F Cáceres, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Diana Bowie, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639803/determining-when-to-conduct-a-violence-risk-assessment-development-and-initial-validation-of-the-fordham-risk-screening-tool-frst
#16
Barry Rosenfeld, Melodie Foellmi, Ali Khadivi, Charity Wijetunga, Jacqueline Howe, Alicia Nijdam-Jones, Shana Grover, Merrill Rotter
Techniques to assess violence risk are increasingly common, but no systematic approach exists to help clinicians decide which psychiatric patients are most in need of a violence risk assessment. The Fordham Risk Screening Tool (FRST) was designed to fill this void, providing a structured, systematic approach to screening psychiatric patients and determining the need for further, more thorough violence risk assessment. The FRST was administered to a sample of 210 consecutive admissions to the civil psychiatric units of an urban medical center, 159 of whom were subsequently evaluated using the Historical Clinical Risk Management-20, version 3, to determine violence risk...
June 22, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637140/intimate-partner-violence-in-women-with-disabilities-perception-of-healthcare-and-attitudes-of-health-professionals
#17
Isabel Ruiz-Pérez, Guadalupe Pastor-Moreno, Vicenta Escribà-Agüir, Gracia Maroto-Navarro
PURPOSE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social problem and public health issue, but we still have a relatively small amount of data about partner violence in women with disabilities. The main objective of this study was to understand the experiences of women with disabilities who are or have been abused by their partners and to explore the knowledge, views and training requirements of primary care professionals. METHOD: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with women with disabilities who had experienced IPV (n = 14), and focus groups with healthcare professionals (n = 16)...
February 23, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636746/evaluation-of-the-parent-report-inventory-of-callous-unemotional-traits-in-a-sample-of-children-recruited-from-intimate-partner-violence-services-a-multidimensional-rasch-analysis
#18
Shelby Elaine McDonald, Lin Ma, Kathy E Green, Stephanie A Hitti, Anna M Cody, Courtney Donovan, James Herbert Williams, Frank R Ascione
OBJECTIVE: Our study applied multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) to compare structural models of the parent-report version of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits (ICU; English and North American Spanish translations). METHOD: A total of 291 maternal caregivers were recruited from community-based domestic violence services and reported on their children (77.9% ethnic minority; 47% female), who ranged in age from 7 to 12 years (mean = 9.07, standard deviation = 1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636572/mood-symptoms-in-stabilized-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-bipolar-type-with-predominant-psychotic-features
#19
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Dina Popovic, Mariela Mosheva, Melina Siamouli, Katerina Moutou, Xenia Gonda
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are traditionally distinguished on the basis of progressive deterioration and long-term outcome, but a more dimensional approach is warranted. There are limited data on the occurrence of manic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to search for patterns in the clinical symptomatology, which may suggest the presence of one or several mood disorders under the label of schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Hundred-seventy-five patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-5 were included in the study...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627921/risk-factors-for-concurrent-suicidal-ideation-and-violent-impulses-in-military-veterans
#20
Eric B Elbogen, H Ryan Wagner, Nathan A Kimbrel, Mira Brancu, Jennifer Naylor, Robert Graziano, Eric Crawford
Suicide and violence are significant problems in a subset of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. This study investigates how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and resilience in veterans are associated with suicidal ideation and violent impulses while controlling for known covariates of both adverse outcomes. Structured clinical interviews were conducted of N = 2,543 Iraq/Afghanistan-era U.S. veterans. Compared with veterans denying suicidal ideation or violent impulses (n = 1,927), veterans endorsing both (n = 171) were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD, report childhood abuse, combat exposure, physical pain symptoms, and drug misuse, and less likely to endorse self-direction/life purpose...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Assessment
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