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Structural violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921556/dating-and-sexual-violence-research-in-the-schools-balancing-protection-of-confidentiality-with-supporting-the-welfare-of-survivors
#1
Jill D Sharkey, Lauren A Reed, Erika D Felix
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920091/selecting-pure-emotion-materials-from-the-international-affective-picture-system-iaps-by-chinese-university-students-a-study-based-on-intensity-ratings-only
#2
Zhicha Xu, Rongsheng Zhu, Chanchan Shen, Bingren Zhang, Qianqian Gao, You Xu, Wei Wang
There is a need to use selected pictures with pure emotion as stimulation or treatment media for basic and clinical research. Pictures from the widely-used International Affective Picture System (IAPS) contain rich emotions, but no study has clearly stated that an emotion is exclusively expressed in its putative IAPS picture to date. We hypothesize that the IAPS images contain at least pure vectors of disgust, erotism (or erotica), fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions. Accordingly, we have selected 108 IAPS images, each with a specific emotion, and invited 219 male and 274 female university students to rate only the intensity of the emotion conveyed in each picture...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917188/assessing-the-factor-structure-of-the-childhood-trauma-questionnaire-and-cumulative-effect-of-abuse-and-neglect-on-mental-health-among-adolescents-in-conflict-affected-burundi
#3
Ruby Charak, J T V M de Jong, Lidewyde H Berckmoes, Herman Ndayisaba, Ria Reis
The present study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), highlight rates of abuse and neglect among Burundian adolescents, compare these rates with those found in high-income nations, and examine the cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect on depression and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 231 adolescents and youth (M=14.9, SD=1.99, 58.4% female) from five provinces of Burundi, a country in Central Africa affected by war and political violence...
September 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915992/-boys-should-have-the-courage-to-ask-a-girl-out-gender-norms-in-early-adolescent-romantic-relationships
#4
Sara De Meyer, Anna Kågesten, Kristin Mmari, Juliet McEachran, Elisa Chilet-Rosell, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Elena M Jerves, Candace Currie, Kristien Michielsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915888/stigmatization-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-by-pharmacists-in-tajikistan-sociocultural-context-and-implications-for-a-pharmacy-based-prevention-approach
#5
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905129/trauma-exposure-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-pregnant-peruvian-women
#6
Elizabeth J Levey, Bizu Gelaye, Karestan Koenen, Qiu-Yue Zhong, Archana Basu, Marta B Rondon, Sixto Sanchez, David C Henderson, Michelle A Williams
Women have a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, with a peak during the reproductive years. PTSD during pregnancy adversely impacts maternal and infant health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antepartum PTSD symptoms in a population of pregnant Peruvian women and to examine the impact of number of traumatic events and type of trauma experienced. The Traumatic Events Questionnaire was used to collect data about traumatic exposures. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess PTSD...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905048/social-determinants-of-health-violent-radicalization-and-terrorism-a-public-health-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Héctor E Alcalá, Mienah Zulfacar Sharif, Goleen Samari
Background: Terrorism-related deaths are at an all-time high as there were 32,685 and 29,376 terrorism-related deaths in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Terrorism is defined as the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims. Terrorism is detrimental for mental health, premature mortality, and economic losses and undermines the central tenets of public health to improve the health and well-being of populations. Despite the impact terrorism has on avoidable morbidity and mortality, population health research largely overlooks social determinants of terrorism and risk factors that contribute to terrorist activities...
2017: Health Equity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903628/what-motivates-serodiscordant-couples-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-within-their-relationships-findings-from-a-prep-implementation-study-in-kenya
#8
Rena C Patel, Anna M Leddy, Josephine Odoyo, Keerthana Anand, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Imeldah Wakhungu, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
With the planned scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings, gaining an understanding of what motivates serodiscordant couples to prevent HIV is critical. We conducted 44 semi-structured, in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (33 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-uninfected participants) enrolled in a prospective implementation study of oral antiretroviral-based prevention in Kisumu, Kenya. Transcripts were iteratively analysed using inductive content analysis...
September 14, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887140/envisioning-women-centered-hiv-care-perspectives-from-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada
#9
Nadia O'Brien, Saara Greene, Allison Carter, Johanna Lewis, Valerie Nicholson, Gladys Kwaramba, Brigitte Ménard, Elaina Kaufman, Nourane Ennabil, Neil Andersson, Mona Loutfy, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Angela Kaida
BACKGROUND: Women comprise nearly one-quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Canada. Compared with men, women living with HIV experience inequities in HIV care and health outcomes, prompting a need for gendered and tailored approaches to HIV care. METHOD: Peer and academic researchers from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study conducted focus groups to understand women's experience of seeking care, with the purpose of identifying key characteristics that define a women-centered approach to HIV care...
September 5, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882749/the-consequences-of-violence-against-nurses-working-in-the-emergency-department-a-qualitative-study
#10
H Hassankhani, N Parizad, J Gacki-Smith, A Rahmani, E Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) in healthcare organizations can lead to serious consequences that negatively affect nurses' lives and patient care. There is limited research on the deeper, underlying consequences of WPV for emergency nurses, particularly among emergency nurses in Iran. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory design was utilized. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen nurses working in emergency departments in five hospitals in west and east Azerbaijan of Iran...
September 4, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880395/predictors-of-depressive-symptoms-among-psychiatric-nurses-who-suffered-from-workplace-violence
#11
Hsiu-Fen Hsieh, Hsiu-Hung Wang, Shu-Hua Shen, Yu-Chi Li
AIMS: We examined the possible factors that contributed to or prevented developing depressive symptoms among psychiatric nurses who suffered from workplace violence under Hill's ABC-X Model. BACKGROUND: Workplace violence-related depressive symptoms are some of the major causes leading to impaired quality of life of victims and a heavy burden on society. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. METHOD: All participants were recruited from psychiatric wards of six hospitals in Taiwan...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873087/women-s-and-men-s-reports-of-past-year-prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-rape-and-women-s-risk-factors-for-intimate-partner-violence-a-multicountry-cross-sectional-study-in-asia-and-the-pacific
#12
Rachel Jewkes, Emma Fulu, Ruchira Tabassam Naved, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle, Regine Haardörfer, Claudia Garcia-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869880/psychometric-properties-of-the-adverse-childhood-experiences-abuse-short-form-ace-asf-among-romanian-high-school-students
#13
Franziska Meinck, Alina Paula Cosma, Christopher Mikton, Adriana Baban
Child abuse is a major public health problem. In order to establish the prevalence of abuse exposure among children, measures need to be age-appropriate, sensitive, reliable and valid. This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire Abuse Short Form (ACE-ASF). The ACE-ASF is an 8-item, retrospective self-report questionnaire measuring lifetime physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Data from a nationally representative sample of 15-year-old, school-going adolescents (n=1733, 55...
September 1, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869064/multiple-correspondence-analysis-as-a-strategy-to-explore-the-association-between-categories-of-qualitative-variables-related-to-oral-maxillofacial-trauma-and-violent-crimes-at-the-community-level
#14
Í de Macedo Bernardino, L M Santos, A V P Ferreira, T L M de Almeida Lima, L M da Nóbrega, S d'Avila
The main objective of this study was to show the applicability of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) in the detection and representation of underlying structures in large datasets used to investigate oral-maxillofacial lesions. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving the analysis of the medical-forensic and social records of 992 people who experienced oral-maxillofacial trauma resulting from non-fatal violent crimes that occurred in the community. Based on the MCA results, two distinct victim profiles were identified...
August 28, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853517/hiv-violence-blame-and-shame-pathways-of-risk-to-internalized-hiv-stigma-among-south-african-adolescents-living-with-hiv
#15
Marija Pantelic, Mark Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck
INTRODUCTION: Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, a survey using total population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852274/structural-violence-on-women-an-impediment-to-women-empowerment
#16
Parul Sinha, Uma Gupta, Jyotsna Singh, Anand Srivastava
Violence on women has been present in our society since times immemorial. The ethics, the values, the morals, the culture of the society has been framed in such a way or we can say structured in such a way so as to promote exploitation of this segment which is in reality the root of the society. The concept of STRUCTURAL VIOLENCE was introduced by Johan Galtung in 1969. It refers to a form of violence wherein some http://www.studylecturenotes.com/social-sciences/sociology/370-social-institution-definitions-a-structure-of-social-institution social institution may harm people by preventing them from meeting their basic needs...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851912/association-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-genetic-variants-and-amygdala-morphology-in-violent-offenders-with-antisocial-personality-disorder-and-high-psychopathic-traits
#17
Nathan J Kolla, Raihaan Patel, Jeffrey H Meyer, M Mallar Chakravarty
Violent offending is elevated among individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and high psychopathic traits (PP). Morphological abnormalities of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are present in violent offenders, which may relate to the violence enacted by ASPD + PP. Among healthy males, monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) genetic variants linked to low in vitro transcription (MAOA-L) are associated with structural abnormalities of the amygdala and OFC. However, it is currently unknown whether amygdala and OFC morphology in ASPD relate to MAO-A genetic polymorphisms...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846989/social-disorganization-and-homicide-mortality-rate-trajectories-in-brazil-between-1991-and-2010
#18
Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres, Amy Nivette
Since the 1990s, researchers have noted declining trends in crime and violence, particularly homicide, in Western countries. Studies have explored national and sub-national trends using latent trajectory analysis techniques and identified several factors associated with declining and/or increasing trajectories. Social disorganization (SD) has been consistently linked to increases in homicide rates over time, explaining at least some of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide. Similar studies have not yet been carried out in Latin America's cities...
August 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846515/should-clinicians-medicate-against-structural-violence-potential-iatrogenic-risks-and-the-need-for-social-interventions
#19
Lauren E Hock, Niranjan S Karnik
This paper examines how a child psychiatrist might approach treatment of aggression in foster care youth. We argue that a multimodal approach is best. Physicians should weigh not only the iatrogenic risks of off-label antipsychotic medications but also the possible consequences of failing to treat complicating social factors at hand. Advocates must address structural violence and failures of imagination in their efforts to improve mental health equity among vulnerable youth.
August 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844360/marital-violence-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-women-in-post-revolution-egypt
#20
Seema Vyas
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between past year physical or sexual partner violence against women and women's self-report of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms in post-revolution Egypt; and to examine the effects of men's and women's risky sexual behavioural characteristics and structural dimensions of poverty and gender inequality on this relationship. STUDY DESIGN: This study uses the nationally representative cross-sectional demographic and health survey data conducted in 2014...
October 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
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