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Stephen Kelly, Malcolm I Heywood
Algorithms that learn through environmental interaction and delayed rewards, or reinforcement learning, increasingly face the challenge of scaling to dynamic, highdimensional, and partially observable environments. Significant attention is being paid to frameworks from deep learning, which scale to high-dimensional data by decomposing the task through multi-layered neural networks. While effective, the representation is complex and computationally demanding. In this work we propose a framework based on Genetic Programming which adaptively complexifies policies through interaction with the task...
June 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Natalia Kowalczyk, Feng Shi, Mikolaj Magnuski, Maciek Skorko, Pawel Dobrowolski, Bartosz Kossowski, Artur Marchewka, Maksymilian Bielecki, Malgorzata Kossut, Aneta Brzezicka
Experienced video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognition when compared to non-players. However, very little is known about the relation between video game experience and structural brain plasticity. To address this issue, a direct comparison of the white matter brain structure in RTS (real time strategy) video game players (VGPs) and non-players (NVGPs) was performed. We hypothesized that RTS experience can enhance connectivity within and between occipital and parietal regions, as these regions are likely to be involved in the spatial and visual abilities that are trained while playing RTS games...
June 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Richard Huskey, Britney Craighead, Michael B Miller, René Weber
Cognitive control is a framework for understanding the neuropsychological processes that underlie the successful completion of everyday tasks. Only recently has research in this area investigated motivational contributions to control allocation. An important gap in our understanding is the way in which intrinsic rewards associated with a task motivate the sustained allocation of control. To address this issue, we draw on flow theory, which predicts that a balance between task difficulty and individual ability results in the highest levels of intrinsic reward...
June 19, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Marco Beato, Mikael Jamil, Gavin Devereux
The Video Tracking multiple cameras system (VTS) is a technology that records two-dimensional position data (x and y) at high sampling rates (over 25 Hz). The VTS is of great interest because it can record external load variables as well as collect technical and tactical parameters. Performance analysis is mainly focused on physical demands, yet less attention has been afforded to technical and tactical factors. Digital.Stadium® VTS is a performance analysis device widely used at national and international levels (i...
June 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Milan N A van der Kuil, Johanna M A Visser-Meily, Andrea W M Evers, Ineke J M van der Ham
Acquired brain injury patients often report navigation impairments. A cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been designed in the form of a serious game. The aim of the serious game is to aid patients in the development of compensatory navigation strategies by providing exercises in 3D virtual environments on their home computers. The objective of this study was to assess the usability of three critical gaming attributes: movement control in 3D virtual environments, instruction modality and feedback timing. Thirty acquired brain injury patients performed three tasks in which objective measures of usability were obtained...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Julia Föcker, Daniel Cole, Anton L Beer, Daphne Bavelier
OBJECTIVES: The ability to resist distraction and focus on-task-relevant information while being responsive to changes in the environment is fundamental to goal-directed behavior. Such attentional control abilities are regulated by a constant interplay between previously characterized bottom-up and top-down attentional networks. Here we ask about the neural changes within these two attentional networks that may mediate enhanced attentional control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this question, we contrasted action video game players (AVGPs) and nonvideo game players (NVGPs) in a Posner-cueing paradigm, building on studies documenting enhanced attentional control in AVGPs...
June 19, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, Jesus Loza, Daniel Senif, Scott C Anderson, David B Camarillo
Previous research has sought to quantify head impact exposure using wearable kinematic sensors. However, many sensors suffer from poor accuracy in estimating impact kinematics and count, motivating the need for additional independent impact exposure quantification for comparison. Here, we equipped seven collegiate American football players with instrumented mouthguards, and video recorded practices and games to compare video-based and sensor-based exposure rates and impact location distributions. Over 50 player-hours, we identified 271 helmet contact periods in video, while the instrumented mouthguard sensor recorded 2,032 discrete head impacts...
2018: PloS One
Stefanie Braig, Jon Genuneit, Viola Walter, Stephanie Brandt, Martin Wabitsch, Lutz Goldbeck, Hermann Brenner, Dietrich Rothenbacher
Screen time is a central activity of children’s daily life and jeopardizes mental health. However, results appear inconclusive and are often based on small cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the temporal sequence of the association between screen time and self-esteem taking into account further indirect effects through family or friendship relationship. In our population-based birth cohort study (baseline November 2000⁻November 2001, Ulm, Germany), these relationships were explored in n = 519 11- and 13-year-old children and their parents who both provided information on children’s screen time: time spent watching television or videos (TV), time spent on computers, video game consoles, mobile devices, or cell phones; so called “other screen time”, and children’s self-esteem (KINDL-R)...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Sonia L Robinson, Constanza Marín, Henry Oliveros, Mercedes Mora-Plazas, Blair J Richards, Betsy Lozoff, Eduardo Villamor
Background: Iron deficiency (ID) in infancy is related to subsequent behavior problems. The effects of micronutrient status in middle childhood are uncertain. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers in middle childhood with externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence. Methods: We assessed whether ID (ferritin <15 µg/L), anemia (hemoglobin <12.7 g/dL), or blood concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and B-12, and folate at ages 5-12 y were associated with externalizing or internalizing behavior problems in adolescence in 1042 schoolchildren from Bogotá, Colombia...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
James Arnaez, Georgia Frey, Donetta Cothran, Margaret Lion, Andrea Chomistek
BACKGROUND: Video and hobby gaming are immensely popular among adults; however, associations between gaming and health have primarily been investigated in children and adolescents. Furthermore, most research has focused on electronic gaming, despite traditional hobby gaming gaining prominence. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the number of platforms used, platform preference, and gaming time are associated with obesity, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cardiovascular risk factors in an adult gaming population...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Melvyn Zhang, JiangBo Ying, Guo Song, Daniel Ss Fung, Helen Smith
BACKGROUND: Cognitive biases refer to automatic attentional and interpretational tendencies, which could be retained by cognitive bias modification interventions. Cristea et al and Jones et al have published reviews (in 2016 and 2017 respectively) on the effectiveness of such interventions. The advancement of technologies such as electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) has led to them being harnessed for the delivery of cognitive bias modification. To date, at least eight studies have demonstrated the feasibility of mobile technologies for the delivery of cognitive bias modification...
June 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Sina Karbasizadeh, Masih Jani, Mahtab Keshvari
AIM: To determine the relationship between the parent-child relationship, self-control and demographic characteristics and the desire to play video games among male university students at one university in Iran. METHOD: This was a correlational, descriptive, applied study. A total of 103 male students were selected randomly as a study sample from the population of male students at Isfahan University in Iran. Data collection tools used were the Video Games Questionnaire, Tanji's Self-Control Scale, Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire, and Demographic Questionnaire...
June 12, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
Giulia Perugia, Roos van Berkel, Marta Díaz-Boladeras, Andreu Català-Mallofré, Matthias Rauterberg, Emilia Barakova
Engagement in activities is of crucial importance for people with dementia. State of the art assessment techniques rely exclusively on behavior observation to measure engagement in dementia. These techniques are either too general to grasp how engagement is naturally expressed through behavior or too complex to be traced back to an overall engagement state. We carried out a longitudinal study to develop a coding system of engagement-related behavior that could tackle these issues and to create an evidence-based model of engagement to make meaning of such a coding system...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Christine L Mathews, Holly E R Morrell, Jon E Molle
BACKGROUND: Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. OBJECTIVES: The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. METHODS: Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Helge Molde, Bjørn Holmøy, Aleksander Garvik Merkesdal, Torbjørn Torsheim, Rune Aune Mentzoni, Daniel Hanns, Dominic Sagoe, Ståle Pallesen
The scope and variety of video games and monetary gambling opportunities are expanding rapidly. In many ways, these forms of entertainment are converging on digital and online video games and gambling sites. However, little is known about the relationship between video gaming and gambling. The present study explored the possibility of a directional relationship between measures of problem gaming and problem gambling, while also controlling for the influence of sex and age. In contrast to most previous investigations which are based on cross-sectional designs and non-representative samples, the present study utilized a longitudinal design conducted over 2 years (2013, 2015) and comprising 4601 participants (males 47...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Maite Garaigordobil, Vanesa Martínez-Valderrey
Bullying and cyberbullying have serious consequences for all those involved, especially the victims, and its prevalence is high throughout all the years of schooling, which emphasizes the importance of prevention. This article describes an intervention proposal, made up of a program (Cyberprogram 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2014a) and a videogame (Cooperative Cybereduca 2.0 Garaigordobil and Martínez-Valderrey, 2016b) which aims to prevent and reduce cyberbullying during adolescence and which has been validated experimentally...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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