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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684933/-dysphagia-from-a-gastroenterologist-s-perspective
#1
Marcus Hollenbach, Jürgen Feisthammel, Joachim Mössner, Albrecht Hoffmeister
Swallowing disorders (dysphagia) comprise a common cause of medical consultation and are defined as a subjective sensation of difficulty or abnormality of swallowing. In the initial step, a clear differentiation of dysphagia from odynophagia and globus sensation for further diagnostic procedures is mandatory. The careful questioning of patients symptoms and complaints is often helpful for the differentiation of oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is mainly caused by neurological disorders (cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, dementia) or local compression of malignancies, thyroid gland or lymph nodes...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684782/evaluation-of-normal-lung-tissue-complication-probability-in-gated-and-conventional-radiotherapy-using-the-4d-xcat-digital-phantom
#2
Sara Shahzadeh, Somayeh Gholami, Seyed Mahmood Reza Aghamiri, Hojjat Mahani, Mansoure Nabavi, Faraz Kalantari
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to investigate normal lung tissue complication probability in gated and conventional radiotherapy (RT) as a function of diaphragm motion, lesion size, and its location using 4D-XCAT digital phantom in a simulation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different time series of 3D-CT images were generated using the 4D-XCAT digital phantom. The binary data obtained from this phantom were then converted to the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) format using an in-house MATLAB-based program to be compatible with our treatment planning system (TPS)...
April 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684232/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-patients-with-autoimmune-disease
#3
Douglas B Johnson, Kathryn E Beckermann, Daniel Y Wang
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy across many cancer types in numerous clinical trials. However, because patients with preexisting autoimmune disease were excluded from these seminal trials, there are serious gaps in knowledge regarding the efficacy-and in particular the safety-of these transformative agents in patients with autoimmune disease. The safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in this population has been an important concern, since these agents unleash immune activation, a potentially dangerous situation for patients with already heightened and aberrant immune function...
April 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682625/review-of-management-options-for-pancreatic-pseudocysts
#4
REVIEW
Christos Agalianos, Ioannis Passas, Ioannis Sideris, Demetrios Davides, Christos Dervenis
Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs) present a challenging problem for physicians dealing with pancreatic disorders. Their management demands the co-operation of surgeons, radiologists and gastroenterologists. Historically, they have been treated either conservatively or surgically, with acceptable rates of complications and recurrence. However, recent advances in radiology and endoscopy, have leaded physicians to implement percutaneous and endoscopic drainage (ED) into their treatment algorithms. Moreover, laparoscopic surgery, with its advantages, has become an attractive alternative choice when surgical drainage (SD) is required...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682029/meningioma-consistency-correlation-between-magnetic-resonance-imaging-characteristics-operative-findings-and-histopathological-features
#5
Mahmoud Alyamany, Mohammad M Alshardan, Abdullah Abu Jamea, Nahid ElBakry, Lahbib Soualmi, Yasser Orz
Introduction: Intracranial meningiomas account for 30% of all primary intracranial tumors. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of the treatment for meningiomas. The magnetic resonance of intracranial meningiomas has been largely discussed in many reports of the radiological and neurosurgical literature. To date, a few studies have been attempted to differentiate the tumor characteristics of meningiomas based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between MRI signal characteristics of intracranial meningiomas and consistency of tumor using objective measures...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681970/-k-nearest-neighbor-algorithm-coupled-with-metabonomics-to-study-the-therapeutic-mechanism-of-sendeng-4-in-adjuvant-induced-rheumatoid-arthritis-rat
#6
Xiye Wang, Dan Li, Mingyang Jiang, Zhili Pei, Liang Xu
As a traditional Mongolian medicine, Sendeng-4 (SD) has been widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Inner Mongolia and exhibits a good curative effect. Unfortunately, due to geographical factors, it is difficult to popularize this drug throughout the whole country, and the mechanism of action of SD has been unclear. In this study, a serum metabolite profile analysis was performed to identify potential biomarkers associated with adjuvant-induced RA and investigate the mechanism of action of SD. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was performed for the metabonomics analysis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681203/the-immunotherapy-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#7
Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Yhojan Rodríguez, Paulina González, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Microorganisms such as Campylobacter jejuni, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza and Zika virus have been linked to the disease. The most common clinical variants are acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulins are the standard therapy for the disease. Areas covered: research to elucidate the pathophysiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome has led to the development of drugs directed towards new potential therapeutic targets...
April 23, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680874/utility-and-proposed-algorithm-of-csf-flow-cytometry-in-hematologic-malignancies
#8
Bernard Tawfik, Larry Brown, Frankling Fuda, Weina Chen, Shuang Niu, Joseph Sailors, Navid Sadeghi
In patients with hematologic malignancies, multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) offers greater sensitivity than cytology in detecting malignant cells in the initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen. However, the role of FCM in assessment of subsequent specimens is unclear. We developed an algorithm to reduce the number of low-yield FCM tests without significant impact on clinically meaningful results. Patients with hematologic malignancies were studied in a derivation cohort, and the following algorithm was developed: (1) cytology and FCM on all initial samples, (2) cytology on all subsequent samples, and (3) FCM on subsequent samples only if previous FCM was positive...
April 21, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680835/translating-person-specific-network-models-into-personalized-treatments-development-and-demonstration-of-the-dynamic-assessment-treatment-algorithm-for-individual-networks-data-in
#9
Julian A Rubel, Aaron J Fisher, Kristin Husen, Wolfgang Lutz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678987/protocol-for-a-phase-iii-non-inferiority-randomised-comparison-of-a-new-fibrinogen-concentrate-versus-cryoprecipitate-for-treating-acquired-hypofibrinogenaemia-in-bleeding-cardiac-surgical-patients-the-fibres-trial
#10
Keyvan Karkouti, Jeannie Callum, Vivek Rao, Nancy Heddle, Michael E Farkouh, Mark A Crowther, Damon C Scales
INTRODUCTION: Coagulopathic bleeding is a serious complication of cardiac surgery to which an important contributor is acquired hypofibrinogenaemia (plasma fibrinogen <1.5-2.0 g/L). The standard intervention for acquired hypofibrinogenaemia is cryoprecipitate, but purified fibrinogen concentrates are also available. There is little comparative data between the two therapies and randomised trials are needed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: FIBrinogen REplenishment in Surgery (FIBRES) is a multicentre, randomised (1:1), active-control, single-blinded, phase III trial in adult cardiac surgical patients experiencing clinically significant bleeding related to acquired hypofibrinogenaemia...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678394/-dermatologic-toxicities-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#11
REVIEW
V Sibaud, S Boulinguez, C Pagès, L Riffaud, L Lamant, C Chira, S Boyrie, E Vigarios, E Tournier, N Meyer
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4) represents a significant advance in the treatment of multiple cancers. Given their particular mechanism of action, which involves triggering CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation, they are associated with a specific safety profile. Their adverse events are primarily immune-related, and can affect practically all organs. In this context, dermatological toxicity is the most common, though it mostly remains mild to moderate and does not require discontinuation of treatment...
April 17, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678145/evaluation-of-pet-and-laparoscopy-in-staging-advanced-gastric-cancer-a-multicenter-prospective-study-plastic-study
#12
H J F Brenkman, E C Gertsen, E Vegt, R van Hillegersberg, M I van Berge Henegouwen, S S Gisbertz, M D P Luyer, G A P Nieuwenhuijzen, J J B van Lanschot, S M Lagarde, W O de Steur, H H Hartgrink, J H M B Stoot, K W E Hulsewe, E J Spillenaar Bilgen, M J van Det, E A Kouwenhoven, D L van der Peet, F Daams, J W van Sandick, N C T van Grieken, J Heisterkamp, B van Etten, J W Haveman, J P Pierie, F Jonker, A Y Thijssen, E J T Belt, P van Duijvendijk, E Wassenaar, H W M van Laarhoven, F J Wessels, N Haj Mohammad, H F van Stel, G W J Frederix, P D Siersema, J P Ruurda
BACKGROUND: Initial staging of gastric cancer consists of computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy. In locally advanced (cT3-4) gastric cancer, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (FDG-PET/CT or PET) and staging laparoscopy (SL) may have a role in staging, but evidence is scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of PET and SL in addition to initial staging in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study will include all patients with a surgically resectable, advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (cT3-4b, N0-3, M0), that are scheduled for treatment with curative intent after initial staging with gastroscopy and CT...
April 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677990/screen-dr-software-architecture-for-the-diabetic-retinopathy-screening
#13
Micael Pedrosa, Jorge Miguel Silva, Sérgio Matos, Carlos Costa
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes that may lead to blindness if not treated. However, since DR evolves without any symptoms in the initial stages, early detection and treatment can only be achieved through routine checks. This article presents the collaborative platform of the SCREEN-DR project that promotes partnership between physicians and researchers in the scope of a regional DR screening program. The role of researchers is to create classification algorithms to evaluate image quality, discard non-pathological cases, locate possible lesions and grade DR severity...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677985/medical-data-analytics-is-not-a-simple-task
#14
František Babič, Michal Vadovský, Ján Paralič
Data analytics represents a new chance for medical diagnosis and treatment to make it more effective and successful. This expectation is not so easy to achieve as it may look like at a first glance. The medical experts, doctors or general practitioners have their own vocabulary, they use specific terms and type of speaking. On the other side, data analysts have to understand the task and to select the right algorithms. The applicability of the results depends on the effectiveness of the interactions between those two worlds...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677944/applications-of-machine-learning-in-fatty-live-disease-prediction
#15
Md Mohaimenul Islam, Chieh-Chen Wu, Tahmina Nasrin Poly, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is considered the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease worldwide. The prediction of fatty liver disease is an important factor for effective treatment and reduce serious health consequences. We, therefore construct a prediction model based on machine learning algorithms. A dataset was developed with ten attributes that included 994 liver patients in which 533 patients were females and others were male. Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Logistic Regression (RF) data mining technique with 10-fold cross-validation was used in the proposed model for the prediction of fatty liver disease...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677440/phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-deep-learning-video-microscopy
#16
Hui Yu, Wenwen Jing, Rafael Iriya, Yunze Yang, Karan Syal, Manni Mo, Thomas E Grys, Shelley E Haydel, Shaopeng Wang, Nongjian Tao
Timely determination of antimicrobial susceptibility for a bacterial infection enables precision prescription, shortens treatment time and helps minimize the spread of antibiotic resistant infections. Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods often take several days and thus impede these clinical and health benefits. Here, we present an AST method by imaging freely moving bacterial cells in urine in real time and analyzing the videos with a deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm determines if an antibiotic inhibits a bacterial cell by learning multiple phenotypic features of the cell without the need for defining and quantifying each feature...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677360/distinctive-analysis-of-macular-superficial-capillaries-and-large-vessels-using-optical-coherence-tomographic-angiography-in-healthy-and-diabetic-eyes
#17
Jianqin Lei, Enhui Yi, Yan Suo, Cheng Chen, Xiayu Xu, Wenxiang Ding, Nizar Saleh Abdelfattah, Xiaojuan Fan, Huiqin Lu
Purpose: To quantify and evaluate macular superficial capillaries and large vessels separately using an optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA)-based automatic segmentation algorithm. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all eyes were scanned using an OCTA device with 3 × 3 mm cube centered on the fovea. Retinal large vessels (arterioles/venules) were automatically segmented from superficial vasculature en-face images. All images were normalized, binarized, and skeletonized for quantification...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676944/integration-of-clinical-variables-for-the-prediction-of-late-distant-recurrence-in-patients-with-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-treated-with-5-years-of-endocrine-therapy-cts5
#18
Mitch Dowsett, Ivana Sestak, Meredith M Regan, Andrew Dodson, Giuseppe Viale, Beat Thürlimann, Marco Colleoni, Jack Cuzick
Purpose Estimating risk of late distant recurrence (DR) is an important goal for managing women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer after 5 years of endocrine treatment without recurrence. We developed and validated a simple clinicopathologic tool (Clinical Treatment Score post-5 years [CTS5]) to estimate residual risk of DR after 5 years of endocrine treatment. Patients and Methods The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) data set (N = 4,735) was used to create a prognostic score for post-5-year risk of DR...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676689/intravenous-acetaminophen-for-postoperative-supratentorial-craniotomy-pain-a-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Walavan Sivakumar, Michael Jensen, Julie Martinez, Michael Tanana, Nancy Duncan, Robert Hoesch, Jay K Riva-Cambrin, Craig Kilburg, Safdar Ansari, Paul A House
OBJECTIVE Acute pain control after cranial surgery is challenging. Prior research has shown that patients experience inadequate pain control post-craniotomy. The use of oral medications is sometimes delayed because of postoperative nausea, and the use of narcotics can impair the evaluation of brain function and thus are used judiciously. Few nonnarcotic intravenous (IV) analgesics exist. The authors present the results of the first prospective study evaluating the use of IV acetaminophen in patients after elective craniotomy...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676463/evaluation-of-machine-log-files-mc-based-treatment-planning-and-delivery-qa-as-compared-to-arccheck-qa
#20
Carl W Stanhope, Douglas G Drake, Jian Liang, Markus Alber, Matthias Söhn, Charbel Habib, Virgil Willcut, Di Yan
PURPOSE: A treatment planning/delivery QA tool using linac log files (LF) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation is investigated as a standalone alternative to phantom-based patient-specific QA (ArcCHECK (AC)). METHODS: Delivering a variety of fields onto MapCHECK2 and ArcCHECK, diode sensitivity dependence on dose rate (in-field) and energy (primarily out-of-field) was quantified. AC and LF QAs were analyzed w.r.t. delivery complexity by delivering 12x12cm static fields/arcs comprised of varying numbers of abutting sub-fields onto ArcCHECK...
April 20, 2018: Medical Physics
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