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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913219/tbx2-regulates-anterior-neural-specification-by-repressing-fgf-signaling-pathway
#1
Gun-Sik Cho, Dong-Seok Park, Sun-Cheol Choi, Jin-Kwan Han
During early embryogenesis, FGF signals regulate the antero-posterior (AP) patterning of the neural plate by promoting posterior cell fates. In particular, BMP signal-mediated attenuation of FGF pathway plays a critical role in the determination of the anterior neural region. Here we show that Tbx2, a T-box transcriptional repressor regulates anterior neural specification by suppressing FGF8 signaling pathway in Xenopus embryo. Tbx2 is expressed in the anterior edge of the neural plate in early neurulae. Overexpression and knockdown of Tbx2 induce expansion and reduction in the expression of anterior neural markers, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912032/pain-input-impairs-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-treatment-with-lidocaine
#2
Joel D Turtle, Misty M Strain, Miriam Aceves, Yung-Jen Huang, Joshua A Reynolds, Michelle A Hook, James W Grau
More than 90% of spinal cord injuries are caused by traumatic accidents and are often associated with other tissue damage (polytrauma) that can provide a source of continued pain input during recovery. In a clinically relevant spinal cord contusion injury model, prior work has shown that noxious stimulation at an intensity that engages pain (C) fibers soon after injury augments secondary injury and impairs functional recovery. Noxious input increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β and 18), cellular signals associated with cell death (caspase 3 and 8), and physiological signs of hemorrhage...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910818/histomorphometric-and-transcriptome-evaluation-of-early-healing-bone-treated-with-a-novel-human-particulate-dentin-powder
#3
Yu-Chih Huang, Wei-Zhen Lew, Sheng-Wei Feng, Wei-Yi Lai, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Haw-Ming Huang
Human particulate dentin (HPD) shows potential as an alternative bone grafting material. However, the mechanism of bone healing at the molecular level after grafting with HPD is unclear. This study assessed the histological and global gene expression of bone tissues grafted with HPD. The HPD was prepared to 250-500 µm in size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed to confirm the crystal structure, organic compound residues, and surface morphology, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909265/prevention-of-the-collapse-of-pial-collaterals-by-remote-ischemic-perconditioning-during-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Junqiang Ma, Yonglie Ma, Bin Dong, Mischa V Bandet, Ashfaq Shuaib, Ian R Winship
Collateral circulation is a key variable determining prognosis and response to recanalization therapy during acute ischemic stroke. Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) involves inducing peripheral ischemia (typically in the limbs) during stroke and may reduce perfusion deficits and brain damage due to cerebral ischemia. In this study, we directly investigated pial collateral flow augmentation due to RIPerC during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in rats. Blood flow through pial collaterals between the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and the MCA was assessed in male Sprague Dawley rats using in vivo laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) during distal MCAo...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908574/reconstruction-of-a-post-traumatic-maxillary-ridge-using-a-radial-forearm-free-flap-and-immediate-tissue-engineering-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-and-cortical-cancellous-bone-case-report
#5
James C Melville, Ramzey Tursun, J Marshall Green, Robert E Marx
The purpose of this article is to describe reconstruction of the maxillary alveolar ridge by use of a microvascular free flap combined with an immediate tissue-engineered bone graft. This novel surgical technique involved the use of a radial forearm free flap and immediate allogeneic avascular bone graft augmented with bone morphogenetic protein and bone marrow aspirate concentrate. A poly-d,l-lactic acid mesh was used a containment unit for the bone graft. The patient was successfully treated with a viable radial forearm free flap for soft tissue and regeneration of bone with adequate height and width, which allowed the placement of 3 dental implants with excellent arch coordination...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908370/graft-use-in-bulbar-urethroplasty
#6
REVIEW
Mya E Levy, Sean P Elliott
The gold standard for bulbar urethroplasty has been excision and primary anastomosis. Application of this approach is generally limited to strictures that are 2 cm or less in the bulbar urethra due to penile shortening. Strictures greater than 2 cm are successfully treated with augmentation urethroplasty wherein the narrowed segment is not excised but widened with the use of a skin flap or a tissue graft. Buccal mucosa is the most prevalent tissue for bulbar urethral stricture repair for strictures greater than 2 cm...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908367/use-of-alternative-techniques-and-grafts-in-urethroplasty
#7
REVIEW
Brendan Michael Browne, Alex J Vanni
The current management for complex urethral strictures commonly uses open reconstruction with buccal mucosa urethroplasty. However, there are multiple situations whereby buccal mucosa is inadequate (eg, pan-urethral stricture or prior buccal harvest) or inappropriate for utilization (eg, heavy tobacco use or oral radiation). Multiple options exist for use as alternatives or adjuncts to buccal mucosa in complex urethral strictures. This article reviews the current state of alternate techniques for urethral stricture treatment besides buccal mucosa, including injectable antifibrotic agents, augmentation urethroplasty with skin flaps, lingual mucosa, colonic mucosa, and new developments in tissue engineering for urethral graft material...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906068/novel-use-of-cranial-epidural-space-in-rabbits-as-an-animal-model-to-investigate-bone-volume-augmentation-potential-of-different-bone-graft-substitutes
#8
Ivan Valdivia-Gandur, Wilfried Engelke, Víctor Beltrán, Eduardo Borie, Ramón Fuentes, María Cristina Manzanares-Céspedes
BACKGROUND: The success of bone augmentation to a major degree depends on the biomechanics and biological conditions of the surrounding tissues. Therefore, an animal model is needed providing anatomical sites with similar mechanical pressures for comparing its influence on different biomaterials for bone regeneration. The present report describes the new bone formation associated to biomaterial in a bursa created in the epidural space, between dura mater and cranial calvaria, under the constant pressure of cerebrospinal fluid...
December 1, 2016: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904154/circadian-rhythm-of-blood-pressure-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-kidney
#9
REVIEW
Naro Ohashi, Shinsuke Isobe, Sayaka Ishigaki, Hideo Yasuda
Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a critical role in the pathophysiology of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) and renal injury, independent of circulating RAS. Although it is clear that the circulating RAS has a circadian rhythm, reports of a circadian rhythm in tissue-specific RAS are limited. Clinical studies evaluating intrarenal RAS activity by urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) levels have indicated that urinary AGT levels were equally low during both the daytime and nighttime in individuals without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and that urinary AGT levels were higher during the daytime than at nighttime in patients with CKD...
December 1, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902825/association-between-the-amount-of-vaginal-mesh-used-with-mesh-erosions-and-repeated-surgery-after-repairing-pelvic-organ-prolapse-and-stress-urinary-incontinence
#10
Bilal Chughtai, Matthew D Barber, Jialin Mao, James C Forde, Sharon-Lise T Normand, Art Sedrakyan
Importance: Mesh, a synthetic graft, has been used in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to augment and strengthen weakened tissue. Polypropylene mesh has come under scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration. Objective: To examine the rates of mesh complications and invasive reintervention after the placement of vaginal mesh for POP repair or SUI surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was an observational cohort study at inpatient and ambulatory surgery settings in New York State...
November 30, 2016: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901481/human-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-recapitulate-key-aspects-of-cancer-cachexia
#11
Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Andrea E Delitto, Rachel L Nosacka, Fernanda G Rocha, Bayli B DiVita, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Shannon M Wallet, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900338/the-bridge-enhanced-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair-bear-procedure-an-early-feasibility-cohort-study
#12
Martha M Murray, Brett M Flutie, Leslie A Kalish, Kirsten Ecklund, Braden C Fleming, Benedikt L Proffen, Lyle J Micheli
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. HYPOTHESIS: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture)...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899977/nahco3-enhances-the-antitumor-activities-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells
#13
Ya Hong Yuan, Chun Fang Zhou, Jiang Yuan, Li Liu, Xing Rong Guo, Xiao Li Wang, Yan Ding, Xiao Nan Wang, Dong Sheng Li, Han Jun Tu
The extracellular pH is lower inside solid tumors than in normal tissue. The acidic environment inhibits the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes in vitro and promotes tumor cell invasion. In the present study, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate how NaHCO3 would affect the antitumor activities of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. For the in vitro experiments, HepG2 cells were cultured at pH 6.5 and 7.4 in the presence of CIK cells or CIK cell-conditioned medium (CMCIK)...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899068/title-role-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-progression-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-pilot-study-in-patients-at-different-stages-of-the-disease
#14
S Majeed, P Singh, N Sharma, S Sharma
BACKGROUND: TBM (Tuberculous meningitis) is severe form of tuberculosis causing death of one third of the affected individuals or leaving two-third of the survivors disabled. MMP-9 (Matrix metalloproteinase-9) is produced by the central nervous system in a variety of inflammatory conditions and has a role in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and blood-brain barrier. METHODS: In this study, the levels of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1), were screened using zymography and reverse zymography in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of tuberculous meningitis patients at different stages of the disease...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897089/anti-aging-effect-of-metformin-on-brain-in-naturally-aged-and-accelerated-senescence-model-of-rat
#15
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Metformin, a biguanide, is a widely used anti-diabetic drug which inhibits gluconeogenesis and is used to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Through activation of AMPK pathway, metformin also mimics caloric restriction health benefits. Aging causes substantial molecular to morphological changes in brain, the brain cells being more susceptible towards oxidative stress mediated damages due to the presence of high lipid content and higher oxygen consumption. Wistar rats (naturally aged and D Galactose induced rat model) were supplemented with metformin (300 mg/kg b...
November 29, 2016: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896935/sandcastle-worm-inspired-blood-resistant-bone-graft-binder-using-a-sticky-mussel-protein-for-augmented-in-vivo-bone-regeneration
#16
Hyo Jeong Kim, Bong-Hyuk Choi, Sang Ho Jun, Hyung Joon Cha
Xenogenic bone substitutes are commonly used during orthopedic reconstructive procedures to assist bone regeneration. However, huge amounts of blood accompanied with massive bone loss usually increase the difficulty of placing the xenograft into the bony defect. Additionally, the lack of an organic matrix leads to a decrease in the mechanical strength of the bone-grafted site. For effective bone grafting, this study aims at developing a mussel adhesion-employed bone graft binder with great blood-resistance and enhanced mechanical properties...
November 29, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896212/effect-of-slow-forced-eruption-on-the-vertical-levels-of-the-interproximal-bone-and-papilla-and-the-width-of-the-alveolar-ridge
#17
Eun-Young Kwon, Ju-Youn Lee, Jeomil Choi
OBJECTIVE: Forced eruption has been proposed for the reconstruction of deficient bone and soft tissue. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the alveolar ridge width and the vertical levels of the interproximal bone and papilla following forced eruption. METHODS: Patients whose hopeless maxillary anterior teeth were expected to undergo severe bone resorption and soft tissue recession upon extraction were recruited. In addition, patients whose maxillary anterior teeth required forced eruption for restoration due to tooth fracture or dental caries were included...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895786/sprouty4-mrna-variants-and-protein-expressions-in-breast-and-lung-derived-cells
#18
Angelina Doriguzzi, Jihen Salhi, Hedwig Sutterlüty-Fall
Sprouty proteins are modulators of mitogen-induced signalling processes and are therefore hypothesized to affect malignant diseases. As a member of the Sprouty family, Sprouty4 has been previously shown to function as a tumour suppressor in lung and breast cancer. The present study analysed the expression of two known Sprouty4 splice variants in cells established from malignant and normal lung and breast tissues using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. The results indicated that the expression of the two messenger RNA (mRNA) variants was reduced in the cells derived from malignant tissue in comparison to the normal counterparts...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895501/a-fish-based-method-for-assessment-of-her-2-amplification-status-in-breast-cancer-circulating-tumor-cells-following-cellsearch-isolation
#19
Henrik Frithiof, Kristina Aaltonen, Lisa Rydén
INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2) proto-oncogene occurs in 10%-15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893635/orthognathic-surgery-with-simultaneous-autologous-fat-transfer-for-correction-of-facial-asymmetry
#20
Yu-Ching Wang, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Betty Chien-Jung Pai, Hui-Ling Chen, Yueh-Tse Lee, Yen-Chang Hsiao, Chun-Shin Chang, Yu-Fang Liao, Philip Kuo-Ting Chen, Yu-Ray Chen
BACKGROUND: Most patients treated with orthognathic surgery for facial asymmetry would value improvement in residual soft tissue asymmetry. Autologous fat transfer is widely used to augment facial soft tissue. We assessed the effect of combining orthognathic surgery with autologous fat transfer for treating patients with facial asymmetry. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 15 consecutive adults underwent combined orthognathic surgery and autologous fat transfer between January 2013 and December 2015...
November 21, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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