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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924205/risperidone-in-a-child-with-untractable-emergency-delirium-a-case-report
#1
Young Hee Shin, Seung Hyeon Lee, Dae Yoon Kim
A 6-year-old boy was scheduled for thoracic magnetic resonance imaging under deep sedation with midazolam 1.8 mg and propofol 100 µg/kg/min via intravenous injection. He showed emergence delirium in the post-anesthesia care unit. The staff attempted to calm him by administering flumazenil as an antidote for midazolam, propofol for further sedation, and meperidine. However, this was not successful. A psychiatrist recommended the use of antipsychotics. Administration of risperidone led to immediate resolution of the boy's symptoms and relaxed him...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918778/efficacy-of-oral-risperidone-haloperidol-or-placebo-for-symptoms-of-delirium-among-patients-in-palliative-care-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Meera R Agar, Peter G Lawlor, Stephen Quinn, Brian Draper, Gideon A Caplan, Debra Rowett, Christine Sanderson, Janet Hardy, Brian Le, Simon Eckermann, Nicola McCaffrey, Linda Devilee, Belinda Fazekas, Mark Hill, David C Currow
Importance: Antipsychotics are widely used for distressing symptoms of delirium, but efficacy has not been established in placebo-controlled trials in palliative care. Objective: To determine efficacy of risperidone or haloperidol relative to placebo in relieving target symptoms of delirium associated with distress among patients receiving palliative care. Design, Setting, and Participants: A double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-titrated randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 Australian inpatient hospice or hospital palliative care services between August 13, 2008, and April 2, 2014, among participants with life-limiting illness, delirium, and a delirium symptoms score (sum of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale behavioral, communication, and perceptual items) of 1 or more...
December 5, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910739/overview-on-therapeutic-applications-of-microparticulate-drug-delivery-systems
#3
Swarna Bale, Amit Khurana, A Shiva Shankar Reddy, Mandip Singh, Chandraiah Godugu
Research in novel drug delivery systems is being explored competitively in order to attain maximum therapeutic effect while minimizing the adverse effects. Despite several advancements in pharmaceutical formulations, one of the major challenges still persisting is sustained drug release. Microencapsulation enacts as an intelligent approach with a strong therapeutic impact and is in demand globally in medical technology due to its specific and attractive properties, including biocompatibility, stability, target specificity, uniform encapsulation, better compliance, and controlled and sustained release patterns that are responsible for diminishing the toxicity and dosage frequency...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906413/comparison-of-psychodrug-prescription-patterns-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bipolar-disorder-and-addiction
#4
Diego Barral, Fátima Barral, Nuria Cruz, Juan D Molina, Victoria Sánchez, Teresa Rosique
OBJECTIVE: To describe if there are differences in the prescription of psychodrug at discharge between bipolar disorder patients with or without addiction. METHODS: We review all the psychotropic drugs dispensed to inpatients of a brief hospitalization psychiatric unit diagnosed as having bipolar disorder at time of discharge. We recluted 225 patients over 18 years old on their last manic episode, between the year 2000 and 2010. We classify them according to the comorbid presence or not of a substance abuse or dependence disorder...
November 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903560/commonly-prescribed-drugs-associate-with-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-in-uk-biobank
#5
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Chi-Hun Kim, Laura Winchester, John Gallacher, Simon Lovestone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants aged 37-73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive test outcomes on verbal-numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895084/prescription-preferences-in-antipsychotics-and-attitude-towards-the-pharmaceutical-industry-in-belgium
#6
Stijn Cleymans, Manuel Morrens, Chris Bervoets
OBJECTIVES: The number of antipsychotic prescriptions are increasing rapidly worldwide, a trend which is mainly driven by the steep rise in second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) prescriptions. However, the success of SGA, compared with the older first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), cannot be explained by evidence. Several studies concluded on equal efficacy of FGA and SGA on positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Next to that, the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on prescription behaviour has drawn considerable interest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889833/factors-associated-with-expression-of-extrapyramidal-symptoms-in-users-of-atypical-antipsychotics
#7
Susana Barbosa Ribeiro, Aurigena Antunes de Araújo, Caroline Addison Xavier Medeiros, Katarina Melo Chaves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa Alves, Antonio Gouveia Oliveira, Rand Randall Martins
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in users of second-generation antipsychotics (SGA). METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study based on a random sample of subjects from three outpatient clinics. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 65 years, of both genders, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and under the use of a single SGA agent. Subjects who had received i.m. long-acting antipsychotics in the past were excluded...
November 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884434/relative-risks-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-people-prescribed-olanzapine-risperidone-and-quetiapine
#8
Dpj Osborn, L Marston, I Nazareth, M B King, I Petersen, K Walters
: Antipsychotics may confer long term benefits and risks, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Several studies using routine clinical data have reported associations between antipsychotics and CVD but potential confounding factors and unclear classification of drug exposure limits their interpretation. METHOD: We used data from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database to determine relative risks of (CVD) comparing similar groups of people only prescribed olanzapine versus either risperidone or quetiapine...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879654/early-antipsychotic-treatment-in-juvenile-rats-elicits-long-term-alterations-to-the-dopamine-neurotransmitter-system
#9
Michael De Santis, Jiamei Lian, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng
Prescription of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to children has substantially increased in recent years. Whilst current investigations into potential long-term effects have uncovered some alterations to adult behaviours, further investigations into potential changes to neurotransmitter systems are required. The current study investigated potential long-term changes to the adult dopamine (DA) system following aripiprazole, olanzapine and risperidone treatment in female and male juvenile rats. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated-TH (p-TH), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and D₁ and D₂ receptors were measured via Western blot and/or receptor autoradiography...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875914/second-generation-antipsychotics-in-real-life-paediatric-patients-adverse-drug-reactions-and-clinical-outcomes-of-drug-switch
#10
Concetta Rafaniello, Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Carmen Ferrajolo, Silvana Bertella, Liberata Sportiello, Carla Carnovale, Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Dario Cattaneo, Marta Gentili, Renata Rizzo, Antonio Pascotto, Elisa Mani, Laura Villa, Maria Pia Riccio, Serena Sperandeo, Renato Bernardini, Carmela Bravaccio, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Molteni, Francesco Rossi, Sonia Radice, Annalisa Capuano
OBJECTIVE: Gap in knowledge on benefit/risk ratio of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) in the paediatric population represents a challenge for the scientific community. This study aims to analyse all suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to SGA observed during the study period; compare the safety profiles of risperidone and aripiprazole; evaluate the effect of switching from risperidone to aripiprazole or to a first generation antipsychotic (FGA). METHODS: Prospective analysis of spontaneously reported ADRs concerning 184 paediatric outpatients between 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873285/prescription-drug-use-and-polypharmacy-among-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#11
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Claire StPeter, Susannah Poe, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Mayank Ajmera
BACKGROUND: A lack of gold standard treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), no clear ASD management guidelines, and lack of evidence-based pharmacological interventions other than aripiprazole and risperidone elevate the risk of off-label prescribing and adverse effects among individuals with ASD, more so among adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the types of prescription drug use, rates of polypharmacy, and characteristics associated with polypharmacy among adults with and without ASD in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a three-state Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2008)...
December 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#12
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871032/level-of-serum-thioredoxin-and-correlation-with-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-clozapine-and-other-atypical-antipsychotics
#13
Alper Bas, Gozde Gultekin, Said Incir, Tuba Ocek Bas, Murat Emul, Alaatin Duran
Thioredoxin is a serum antioxidant that has been investigated in the etiology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study is investigating the relationship between serum thioredoxin levels and cognitive functions in acute psychotic episode and remission state patients with schizophrenia; and examining whether there were differences between patients using clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics; including risperidone, olanzapine and amisulpride. This research was performed in schizophrenia patients hospitalized with acute psychotic episode (n=57), reevaluated patients after the initiation of treatment (mean 16 weeks) (n=46), and healthy controls (n=41)...
November 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867948/supra-therapeutic-plasma-concentrations-of-haloperidol-induce-moderate-inhibition-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-interleukin-8-release-in-human-monocytes
#14
Herbert Bosshart
BACKGROUND: The clinical use of antipsychotics and mood-stabilizing drugs with proven efficacy is largely determined by the occurrence of treatment-emergent adverse events and routine clinical chemistry and haematology data, which together define the safety and tolerability profile of these psychopharmaceuticals. Whereas the effects of mood-stabilizing drugs on functional properties of blood cells have been poorly investigated, the effects of antipsychotics have received more attention...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866695/does-formulation-matter-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-oral-versus-long-acting-antipsychotic-studies
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Irene Bighelli, Ryuhei So, Toshi A Furukawa, Corrado Barbui
Recently, many authors highlighted the potential advantages of a broader prescription of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) based on various assumptions, including favorable pharmacokinetic features. In this systematic review, data from randomized controlled trials comparing LAIs versus the oral formulation of the same antipsychotic were meta-analyzed in order to ascertain whether the route of administration may be associated with a different efficacy and tolerability profile. Of 21 included studies, 18 contributed to the meta-analysis, providing data for risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, zuclopenthixol, fluphenazine and haloperidol...
November 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863801/long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-for-the-prevention-of-relapse-in-patients-with-recent-onset-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Taro Kishi, Kazuto Oya, Nakao Iwata
This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the advantages of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI-APs) over oral antipsychotics (OAPs) with regard to efficacy and safety for patients with recent-onset psychotic disorders. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. We identified five RCTs (1022 patients, mean study duration=18±7.59 months) that compared LAI-APs (paliperidone or risperidone) with OAPs. Pooled LAI-APs did not outperform OAPs in terms of the preventing of relapse (N=3, n=875)...
November 3, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861195/risperidone-associated-rhabdomyolysis-without-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Mei Ling Look, Yang Liang Boo, Pek Woon Chin, Fan Kee Hoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855483/prediction-of-relapse-after-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-hallucinations
#18
Anjali N Patel, Seonjoo Lee, Howard F Andrews, Gregory H Pelton, Susan K Schultz, David L Sultzer, Jacobo Mintzer, Danilo de la Pena, Sanjay Gupta, Sylvia Colon, Corbett Schimming, Bruce Levin, D P Devanand
OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer's disease, antipsychotic medications are often used for a period, with relief of symptoms, and then discontinued, after which relapse may occur. The authors sought to determine which neuropsychiatric symptoms predict relapse. METHOD: In the Antipsychotic Discontinuation in Alzheimer's Disease trial, 180 patients with Alzheimer's disease and symptoms of agitation or psychosis were treated with risperidone for 16 weeks, after which patients who responded (N=110) were randomly assigned to continue risperidone for 32 weeks, to continue risperidone for 16 weeks followed by switch to placebo for 16 weeks, or to receive placebo for 32 weeks...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853909/not-all-drug-induced-parkinsonism-are-the-same-the-effect-of-drug-class-on-motor-phenotype
#19
Renato P Munhoz, Delcio Bertucci Filho, Hélio A G Teive
Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) is classically described as acute/subacute, bilateral symmetric syndrome in which tremor is infrequent compared to Parkinson's disease. Most DIP cases are caused by classic (CN) and second-generation neuroleptics (SN), and calcium channel blockers (CCB). We evaluated potentially distinctive demographic and clinical features in DIP among different drug classes. This was a prospective study of reversible DIP related to single selected drugs on each class. Baseline assessment included demographic, clinical data, and scales for staging, severity of motor signs of parkinsonism, tremor, and other involuntary movements...
November 16, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842941/the-impact-of-second-generation-antipsychotics-on-insight-in-schizophrenia-results-from-14-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#20
Taina Mattila, Maarten Koeter, Tamar Wohlfarth, Jitschak Storosum, Wim van den Brink, Eske Derks, Hubertus Leufkens, Damiaan Denys
Despite the negative impact of lack of insight on the prognosis, general functioning and treatment adherence, the effect of antipsychotic medication on insight has been investigated only in small samples and uncontrolled studies. In this study we examine whether previously reported effects of antipsychotics on insight from uncontrolled studies can be confirmed in a database including 14 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The database contained placebo-controlled RCTs of five second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs: olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone and sertindole) and included a total of 4243 patients with schizophrenia...
November 11, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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