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Esther Letícia Amorim Ribeiro, Tácio de Mendonça Lima, Marcio Eduardo Bergamini Vieira, Sílvia Storpirtis, Patricia Melo Aguiar
PURPOSE: To conduct an overview to summarize the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, for articles published until March 31, 2017. We included systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy, and/or the safety of aripiprazole, for patients with schizophrenia...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Amanda da Silva, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are glial cells that are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system functions, modulating neurotransmitters, providing metabolic, trophic and antioxidant support, and producing a wide range of cytokines to modulate the inflammatory response. These cells can be targets for antipsychotics, medications used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, several studies have shown that antipsychotics are able to modulate peripheral cytokine release, but their effects on astroglial inflammatory response need to be further investigated...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Alireza Ghajar, Faezeh Gholamian, Maryam Tabatabei-Motlagh, Mohsen Afarideh, Farzin Rezaei, Maryam Ghazizadeh-Hashemi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of citicoline add-on therapy in treatment of negative symptoms in patients with stable schizophrenia. METHODS: In a double-blind and placebo-controlled study, patients with stable schizophrenia (DSM-5) were randomized to receive either 2,500 mg/day citicoline or placebo in addition to risperidone for 8 weeks. The patients were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS), and Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS)...
June 14, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Herbert Y Meltzer, Min Young Sim, Adam Anderson, Christopher Cannistraci, Karu Jayathilake, Daniel Barrett Share, Myung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic spectrum disorder (PSD) links the syndromes of bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, and schizophrenia, often viewed as unique disorders. AIMS: Application of the PSD concept to a single patient rather than across groups of patients and demonstration of a remarkable remission of schizophrenia phenotype with recovery of gray matter in specific brain regions. RESULTS: We report a woman who experienced discrete, nonoverlapping periods of each of the above syndromes, in the order noted, over a 30-year period, followed by abrupt ending of psychosis and full remission lasting at least 7 years...
July 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ginger E Nicol, Michael D Yingling, Karen S Flavin, Julia A Schweiger, Bruce W Patterson, Kenneth B Schechtman, John W Newcomer
Importance: Antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat nonpsychotic disruptive behavioral disorders in youths. Objective: To characterize the metabolic effects of first exposure to antipsychotics in youths using criterion standard assessments of body composition and insulin sensitivity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial recruited antipsychotic-naive youths aged 6 to 18 years in the St Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area who were diagnosed with 1 or more psychiatric disorders and clinically significant aggression and in whom antipsychotic treatment was considered...
June 13, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Somaye Arabzadeh, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi, Mehdi Hamedi, Abolfazl Ehyaii, Ali Ghaleiha, Arefeh Zeinoddini, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Objective: Although the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is still uncertain, a variety of predisposing mechanisms have been implicated including inflammatory cascades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of acetaminophen as a cyclooxygenase inhibitor in treating patients with schizophrenia. Method : A double-blind clinical trial was performed on 52 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Patients received risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) plus either acetaminophen (975mg/day) or placebo. Psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at the onset of the trial, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post therapy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Rukma Parthvi, Teekaram Persaud, Su Yun Chung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Adriano Aquino, Guilherme L Alexandrino, Paul C Guest, Fabio Augusto, Alexandre F Gomes, Michael Murgu, Johann Steiner, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
This is the first study to identify lipidomic markers in plasma associated with response of acutely ill schizophrenia patients in response to specific antipsychotic treatments. The study population included 54 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for 6 weeks. Treatment led to significant improvement in positive and negative symptoms for 34 patients with little or no improvement for 20 patients. In addition, 37 patients showed an increase in body mass index after the 6 week treatment period, consistent with effects on metabolism and the association of such effects with symptom improvement...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lauren J Carlson, Gina C Bao, Sonya Besagar, Jacob B Leary, Hannah L Radabaugh, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Several preclinical studies have reported that daily administration of the antipsychotic drug (APD) risperidone (RISP) impedes recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is not known whether intermittent dosing would produce similar deleterious effects. The relevance of providing APDs intermittently is that not all patients in rehabilitation require daily treatments to manage TBI-induced agitation. Hence, the goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that intermittent (vs. daily) administration of RISP would be less disturbing to motor and cognitive recovery after TBI...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maju Mathews, Huiling Pei, Adam Savitz, Isaac Nuamah, David Hough, Larry Alphs, Srihari Gopal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Paliperidone palmitate 3-monthly (PP3M) injectable formulation offers an advantage of improved medication adherence and lower relapse risk in patients with schizophrenia. This post hoc analysis compared outcomes following PP3M versus paliperidone palmitate 1-monthly (PP1M) treatment in patients with schizophrenia treated/untreated with oral risperidone/paliperidone (RIS/PALI). METHODS: Patients were treated with PP1M (50, 75, 100, or 150 mg equivalent [eq...
June 7, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Shin Ono, Takuro Sugai, Yutaro Suzuki, Manabu Yamazaki, Kazutaka Shimoda, Takao Mori, Yuji Ozeki, Hiroshi Matsuda, Norio Sugawara, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Kurefu Okamoto, Toyoaki Sagae, Toshiyuki Someya
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have an increased prevalence of metabolic disturbances compared with the general population. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in Japanese schizophrenia patients medicated with olanzapine, risperidone, or aripiprazole monotherapy. METHODS: This study was a post-hoc analysis of a nationwide survey, which included 433 Japanese outpatients with schizophrenia and 674 inpatients...
June 8, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
David Perez-Cruzado, Antonio Cuesta-Vargas, Elisa Vera-Garcia, Fermín Mayoral-Cleries
Anti-psychotic medication has emerged as the primary medical treatment for people with severe mental illness, despite the great risks involved in the use of this medication. In addition, this population suffers from problems of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor physical fitness, which is aggravated by the use of this type of medication. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the most commonly used antipsychotics in this population (Olanzapine and Risperidone) on physical activity and the physical fitness of people with severe mental illness...
May 23, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Paul A Fuchs, Lindsey Miller, Max Schiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nermin Eissa, Mohammed Al-Houqani, Adel Sadeq, Shreesh K Ojha, Astrid Sasse, Bassem Sadek
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental brain disorder characterized by two core behavioral symptoms, namely impairments in social communication and restricted/repetitive behavior. The molecular mechanisms underlying ASD are not well understood. Recent genetic as well as non-genetic animal models contributed significantly in understanding the pathophysiology of ASD, as they establish autism-like behavior in mice and rats. Among the genetic causes, several chromosomal mutations including duplications or deletions could be possible causative factors of ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Wilbert S Aronow, Tatyana A Shamliyan
Background: Drug-induced QT prolongation is associated with higher risk of cardiac arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on QT interval in children and adults with mental disorders. Methods: We conducted random-effects direct frequentist meta-analyses of aggregate data from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and appraised the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
April 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Xiuxia Yuan, Peifen Zhang, Yaping Wang, Yafei Liu, Xue Li, Bachoo Upshant Kumar, Gangrui Hei, Luxian Lv, Xu-Feng Huang, Xiaoduo Fan, Xueqin Song
OBJECTIVE: This study was to examine the alterations in metabolic parameters, anti-oxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and microbiota after 24-week risperidone treatment in drug naïve, normal weight, first episode schizophrenia patients; the study further examined the relationship between metabolic changes and changes in microbiota. METHODS: Forty-one patients completed the 24-week study and 41 controls were enrolled in this study...
May 30, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Mahesh Kamate, Nishant Mittal, Deepa Metgud
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic options for management of choreoathetoid cerebral palsy, which is a permanent disorder, are very limited. Available medications either have significant side effects or are unsuitable for long-term use. Risperidone has shown promise in the management of chorea and has been found to be safe in children less than five years. METHODS: Children with choreoathetoid cerebral palsy were enrolled after parental consent and given risperidone for six-month period along with standard care...
April 20, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Mona Khalaj, Amene Saghazadeh, Elham Shirazi, Mohammad-Reza Shalbafan, Kaveh Alavi, Mitera Hakim Shooshtari, Fatemeh Yousefi Laksari, Maryamalsadat Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Inflammation as well as glutamate excitotoxicity have been proposed to participate in the propagation of autism. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid proven to prevent glutamatergic toxicity and inhibit inflammatory responses simultaneously. The present randomized, parallel group, double-blind placebo-controlled trial is the first study depicted to probe the efficacy of co-treatment with risperidone and PEA over 10 weeks in children with autism. Seventy children (aged 4-12 years) with autism and moderate to severe symptoms of irritability were randomly assigned to two treatment regimens...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Chakrapani Balijepalli, Eric Druyts, Michael J Zoratti, Ping Wu, Salmaan Kanji, Kiran Rabheru, Kevin Yan, Kristian Thorlund
Background: Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Rama Melkote, Arun Singh, An Vermeulen, Bart Remmerie, Adam Savitz
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic blood levels (ABLs) may help identify patients at risk for treatment failure. Reference ranges (RR) for plasma concentrations of ABLs that account for between-patient variability were developed for risperidone and olanzapine based on population pharmacokinetic models. The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) collected clinical outcomes and ABLs, allowing testing of the relationship of ABLs with outcomes. METHODS: ABLs from 694 patients who were randomized to olanzapine or risperidone were compared to the 80% RRs and were assessed as below or within/above the RR...
May 24, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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