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Prenatal hydronephrosis

Mile Petrovski
Regular ultrasound examinations carried out in the second trimester of pregnancy help in detecting many anomalies in the fetal urinary tract. Their percentage ranges from 1% to 3% of all controlled pregnancies. There is a wide spectrum of anomalies that affect the urinary tract, but the most significant are: uretero/hydronephrosis (unilateral or bilateral), kidney agenesis, dysplastic kidney, polycystic and multicystic kidneys, anomalies of ascent, anomalies of kidney rotation or fusion, bladder exstrophy, posterior urethra valve etc...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
Sergio Landa-Juárez, Alejandra Guerra-Rivas, Ramón Salgado-Sangri, Ana María Castillo-Fernandez, Hermilo de la Cruz-Yañez, Carlos Garcia-Hernandez
BACKGROUND: An alternative treatment for obstructive and refluxing obstructive megaureter with ureterovesical junction maintenance through laparoscopy is proposed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The series consists of 8 cases, all of them studied because of prenatal hydronephrosis or febrile urinary tract infection. Seven were diagnosed with obstructive megaureter and one with obstructive refluxing megaureter. The procedure consisted in incising the stenotic portion of the ureter longitudinally and maintaining its posterior wall attached to the bladder, the anterior wall of the ureter was anastomosed transversally to the bladder mucosa in order to liberate the obstruction...
November 11, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Ashley C Wiestma, Patricia S Cho, Michael V Hollis, Joseph Badway, Richard N Yu
INTRODUCTION: In pediatric urology, partial nephrectomy is used primarily to remove a non-functioning renal moiety in a duplicated system. There are few data on infants undergoing this procedure. As such, we present a robot-assisted laparoscopic lower pole partial nephrectomy in an infant. METHODS: Our patient was an 11-month-old (10.7 kg) male with a history of prenatal hydronephrosis, who was diagnosed postnatally with a duplicated right collecting system and severe hydroureteronephrosis of the right lower collecting system...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Lei Zhang, Chao Liu, Yan Li, Chao Sun, Xiang Li
BACKGROUND Hydronephrosis is a common congenital condition. The detection of fetal hydronephrosis by ultrasound presents a treatment dilemma. This study aims to examine postnatal follow-up and treatment for hydronephrosis diagnosed prenatally. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study of 210 infants with hydronephrosis diagnosed at the Qilu Hospital (Shangdong, China) between January 2005 and January 2013. The patient cohort was divided into four groups based on prenatal ultrasound examinations using the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) classification system...
November 6, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mandy Rickard, Armando J Lorenzo, Luis H Braga
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential value of an objective assessment, renal parenchyma-to-hydronephrosis area ratio (PHAR), as an early predictor of surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial sagittal renal ultrasound images of patients prospectively entered into a prenatal hydronephrosis (PHN) database from January 2008-2016 with baseline SFU grades III and IV PHN, without vesicoureteral reflux, were evaluated using NIH-sponsored image-processing software. PHAR, APd, SFU grade and urinary tract dilation (UTD) risk categories were contrasted with nuclear scan data (differential renal function [DRF] and drainage time [t ½]), and analyzed for predictive value in determining the decision to proceed with surgery by drawing receiver operator characteristic curves...
October 3, 2016: Urology
C Scala, S McDonnell, F Murphy, U Leone Roberti Maggiore, A Khalil, A Bhide, B Thilaganthan, A T Papageorghiou
OBJECTIVES: To establish the diagnostic accuracy of obstetric ultrasound at a tertiary fetal medicine centre in the prenatal detection of unilateral and bilateral MCDK in fetuses where this condition was suspected; and to undertake a systematic review of the literature on this topic. METHODS: Retrospective observational study of all cases with an antenatal diagnosis of either unilateral or bilateral MCDK referred to a regional tertiary fetal medicine unit between 1997 and 2015...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Luis H Braga, Melissa McGrath, Forough Farrokhyar, Kizanee Jegatheeswaran, Armando J Lorenzo
INTRODUCTION: There is limited comparative data on the predictive value of the two most commonly employed classification systems (SFU hydronephrosis[HN] grades and urinary tract dilation[UTD] risk groups) in regards to future risk for surgical intervention and the development of fUTI. Herein we explore this topic in infants with isolated HN. METHODS: After screening 938 patients with prenatal HN (2009-2016), we selected patients with UPJO-like HN(n=322). HN grades were prospectively collected at baseline, surgery and last follow-up...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Urology
Yu Kanzaki, Eiji Kondoh, Kaoru Kawasaki, Haruta Mogami, Yoshitsugu Chigusa, Ikuo Konishi
AIM: There are an increasing number of reports of pregnancy following liver transplantation, but many questions remain regarding preconception counseling and management of the pregnancy. The aim of this study was to report pregnancy outcomes in women who had undergone liver transplants and to gain insight into these issues. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of liver transplant recipients who had received prenatal care at Kyoto University Hospital between January 2001 and December 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Selwan B Abdullah, Kelly R Dietz, Tara L Holm
BACKGROUND: Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used tool in prenatal diagnosis; however, there is a lack of studies evaluating incidental findings observed in the mother. OBJECTIVE: This study describes and quantifies incidental findings observed in the mother during fetal MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all fetal MRI studies at the University of Minnesota Medical Center from February 2008 to September 2014. Two pediatric radiologists retrospectively conducted a consensus evaluation...
August 23, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Wei Liu, Liujuan Zhang, Rui Ma, Rongde Wu
BACKGROUND: Duplex kidney is a common congenital anomaly of the urinary tract, while ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in lower unit of duplex kidney is rare. Surgical treatment can be challenging in such cases. The aim was to report our experience in managements of UPJO in lower moiety of duplex kidney. METHODS: Among the pediatric patients with duplex system from 2007-2013, 7 children were diagnosed with UPJO in lower moiety. Their medical records were retrospectively analyzed, mainly focused on anatomic aspects and operation details...
August 18, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Osama M Sarhan, Khalid Albedaiwi, Badr Al Harbi, Abdulhakim Al Otay, Mustafa Al Ghanbar, Ziad Nakshabandi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for postnatal evaluation and the long-term consequences in patients with prenatal diagnosis of unilateral renal agenesis (URA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the records of all patients with prenatal diagnosis of URA between 2004 and 2013 was done. We included all patients who underwent postnatal evaluation with renal bladder ultrasound (RBUS), dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, and a voiding cystourethrogram. Long-term follow-up included physical examination and assessment of contralateral renal growth...
July 12, 2016: Urology
Bahattin Aydogdu, Gulay Tireli, Oyhan Demirali, Unal Guvenc, Cemile Besik, Serdar Sander, Aysel Kiyak
OBJECTIVE: This study summarises the outcomes of 149 patients who underwent surgery for antenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis. METHODS: The medical records of such patients over a 23-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Age at the time of operation, preoperative and postoperative mean pelvic diameter on ultrasound, split renal function, washout patterns on scintigraphy, and early and late complications were recorded. RESULTS: The mean preoperative follow-up period was five months (range: 1-66 months)...
May 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
L H Braga, B Easterbrook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Zachary N Gordon, Daryl J McLeod, Christina B Ching, Daniel B Herz, D Gregory Bates, Brian Becknell, Seth A Alpert
INTRODUCTION: Postnatal evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) often includes a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for VUR assessment. Despite limited supporting data, VCUG is currently recommended if postnatal renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) reveals moderate/severe hydronephrosis (HN) or hydroureter (HU). Recent studies have shown VUR is more accurately diagnosed by using certain sonographic findings as criteria for obtaining VCUG. Uroepithelial thickening (UET) of the renal pelvis is a finding associated with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (HGVUR); however, the clinical significance of UET with PNH has not been studied...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Pankaj Dangle, Omar Ayyash, Jathin Bandari, Audry Kang, Heidi A Stephany, Glenn M Cannon, Francis X Schneck, Michael C Ost
OBJECTIVE: To study the individual patient-related risk factors in those undergoing open corrective VUR surgery in a contemporary series. The management of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains controversial and the indications for open surgery has evolved from that of surgeon and patient preference to criteria involving breakthrough urinary tract infections (UTIs) and grade of VUR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed and patients undergoing open surgical repair for dilating VUR (grade III-V) from 2005-2014 were included...
June 16, 2016: Urology
Ismail Masarwa, Zaher Bahouth, Sarel Halachmi
A 5 day old baby, with known left hydronephrosis which discovered by prenatal US presented with gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Laboratory work up demonstrated abnormal renal function and metabolic acidosis combined with hyperkalemia. Radiology tests showed bilateral hydronephrosis with huge left renal pelvis crossing the midline and causing deviation of the gut laterally. This acute presentation beside inability to receive oral feeding made us prefer immediate left renal drainage with pyelostomy in order to restore renal function, relieve the pressure effect of the huge renal pelvis and stabilize the baby...
September 2016: Urology Case Reports
Simin Sadeghi-Bojd, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Alireza Ansari-Moghadam, Somaye Rashidi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Goran Roić, Andrea Cvitković Roić, Iva Palcić, Tonći Grmoja, Ana Tripalo Batos
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies in children and can be associated with reflux nephropathy (RN). Some patients with RN develop chronic kidney disease, hypertension and a small number of patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Early detection of children with these clinical characteristics should be the goal of clinical, biochemical, and radiological evaluation of patients presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis or febrile urinary tract infection. The goals of imaging procedure in general are to confirm the diagnosis suspected with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, to aid treatment and allow prognosis...
January 2016: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Rebecca S Zee, Katherine W Herbst, Christina Kim, Patrick H McKenna, Tom Bentley, Christopher S Cooper, C D Anthony Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) are not clearly defined. Our study aim was to describe incidence and identify factors associated with UTI among a cohort of children diagnosed with PNH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with confirmed PNH from four medical centers were prospectively enrolled in the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) hydronephrosis registry between 9/2008 and 10/2015. Exclusion criteria included enrollment because of UTI, associated congenital anomalies, and less than 1-month follow-up...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Nevena Manevska, Sinisa Stojanoski, Venjamin Majstorov, Daniela Pop-Gjorcheva, Nikolina Zdraveska, Dafina Kuzmanovska
BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and (99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic (99m)Tc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis...
March 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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