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Transrectal ultrasonography

Alberto Mansur Ghetti, Luiz Gustavo Bruno Siqueira, Eduardo Kenji Nunes Arashiro, Miller Pereira Palhao, Felipe Zandonadi Brandao, Joao Henrique Moreira Viana
BACKGROUND: Removal of the follicular content by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) may fail to induce immediate atresia and loss of function, resulting in the occurrence of residual follicles (RF). The aims of this study were to characterize the blood flow in RF and to determine the effects of the treatment with estradiol benzoate on RF fate. Lactating, cyclic Holstein-Gir crossbred cows were used. In Experiment 1, follicular wave emergence (D0) was synchronized in cows (n = 10) and follicular growth was then monitored by transrectal ultrasonography from D0 to D8, followed by TVFA of the largest follicle present on the ovaries 24 h later...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
A B Murphy, Y A Nyame, K Batai, R Kalu, A Khan, P Gogana, M Dixon, V Macias, A Kajdacsy-Balla, C M P Hollowell, W J Catalona, R Kittles
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrate vitamin D is inversely correlated with BPH and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence. We aim to clarify the associations of vitamin D with prostate volume. METHODS: This is an observational study investigating the associations of serum PSA, PSA density and prostate volume with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) in PCa patients and men with negative biopsies seen in outpatient urology clinics in Chicago, IL, USA. There were 571 men (40-79 years old) with elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal examination with available prostate volume recorded from initial biopsy...
October 11, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Robert Wijma, Matias L Stangaferro, Manasi M Kamat, Sreelakshmi Vasudevan, Troy L Ott, Julio O Giordano
Objectives were to identify cows with embryo mortality (EM) around the period of corpus luteum (CL) maintenance by Interferon tau (IFNT) and characterize ovarian function in cows that underwent EM. Lactating Holstein cows received AI (Day = 0) with semen or extender only. From Day 14 to 42 transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily to monitor ovarian dynamics and uterine contents whereas blood was collected every 48 h to determine ISG15 and MX2 mRNA abundance in blood mononuclear cells (Day 14 to 22 only) and determination of hormone concentrations...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
S T Nelson, C S Haadem, A Nødtvedt, A Hessle, A D Martin
A prospective cohort study was performed in the purebred Hereford herd at Götala Beef and Lamb Research Centre, Sweden. The study's first objective was to assess the ability of an automatic activity monitoring system (AAMS) to detect estrus in beef suckler cows, and its second objective was to estimate the time from estrus to ovulation. The study sample (n = 38) consisted of 14 Hereford heifers and 24 Hereford cows. Standardized visual observation of estrus was performed for 20 minutes thrice daily, and animal activity was recorded with an AAMS system, Heatime (SCR Engineers Ltd...
September 7, 2016: Theriogenology
Ali Gürağaç, Zafer Demirer, Bilal Fırat Alp, Emin Aydur
CONTEXT: Prostatic cysts are uncommon. These cysts are usually asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally during ultrasonographic examination. On rare occasions, they may cause drastic symptoms. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of severely symptomatic anteriorly located prostatic cyst arising from the bladder neck in a 30-year-old man presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms, without clinical evidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS), computed tomography (CT) and cystourethroscopy demonstrated a projecting prostatic cyst that occupied the bladder neck at the precise twelve o'clock position...
September 26, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Amine Slaoui, Souhail Regragui, Abdelouahad Lasri, Tarik Karmouni, Khalid El Khader, Abdellatif Koutani, Ahmed Ibn Attya
BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations of the seminal vesicle are uncommon, and most of them are cystic malformations. If an insult occurs between the 4th and the 13 h gestational week, the embryogenesis of the kidney, ureter, seminal vesicle, and vas deferens could be altered. Cysts of the seminal vesicle may appear with a mass effect, dysuria, epididymitis, or obstruction of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Approximately two thirds of them are associated with ipsilateral renal agenesis, because both the ureteral buds and seminal vesicles originate from the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct...
2016: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Talisa Ross, Kamran Ahmed, Nicholas Raison, Ben Challacombe, Prokar Dasgupta
INTRODUCTION: Prostate specific antigen is a marker for prostate cancer and a key diagnostic tool, yet when to refer patients with a borderline PSA is currently unclear. This review describes how to assess a patient with borderline PSA and provides an algorithm for management. METHODS: Current literature on reference values, factors affecting PSA, indications for referral, non-invasive investigations and the role of MRI were reviewed. Medline and EMBASE were searched using MeSH terms...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
S Tadtayev, A Hussein, L Carpenter, N Vasdev, G Boustead
Introduction The diagnostic yield of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy is influenced by many patient and procedure specific factors. However, the role of operator specific factors remains inadequately defined. This study investigated the association of diagnostic outcome of TRUS guided biopsy with operator skill level. Methods This study looked at a consecutive cohort of 690 men undergoing their first extended pattern TRUS guided prostate biopsy by 27 operators over a 24-month period in a single institution...
September 23, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
P M Bartlewski, J Sohal, V Paravinja, T Baby, M E F Oliveira, M Murawski, T Schwarz, D A Zieba, D H Keisler
Ovarian antral follicles in the ewe grow in an orderly succession, producing 3 to 4 waves per estrous cycle. In prolific sheep, some large antral follicles from the second-to-last wave of the estrous cycle are added to the ovulatory follicles emerging just before estrus to give a higher ovulation rate; it is feasible that regression of these follicles is prevented by an increase in serum concentrations of FSH or LH pulsatility at proestrus. Prolific sheep tend to have a shorter luteal phase than nonprolific ewes and there is a great deal of evidence that luteal progesterone (P4), in addition to regulating LH release, may govern the secretion of FSH heralding the emergence of follicular waves...
June 29, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
S U Jeh, S Yoon, D H Seo, S W Lee, C Lee, S M Choi, S C Kam, J S Hwa, K H Chung, J S Hyun
Recent studies have focused on the relationship between nocturia and serum testosterone because testosterone is thought to be an important factor of prostate growth. However, it remains unclear whether altered serum concentrations of testosterone is associated with an increased risk of nocturia because patients who were taking diuretics or who had a large prostate, which may precipitate nocturia, were not excluded from most previous studies. We analyzed the clinical records of 596 non-benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) male patients to explore the relationship between serum total testosterone and nocturia...
September 16, 2016: Andrology
T C Geppert, A M Meyer, G A Perry, P J Gunn
In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, amount of excess CP effects on reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of excess metabolizable protein (MP) supplementation from a moderately abundant rumen undegradable protein (RUP) source (corn gluten meal: 62% RUP) on ovarian function and circulating amino acid (AA) concentrations in beef cows consuming low quality forage...
September 9, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
T C Geppert, A M Meyer, G A Perry, P J Gunn
In the dairy industry, excess dietary CP is consistently correlated with decreased conception rates. However, the source from which excess CP is derived and how it affects reproductive function in beef cattle is largely undefined. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding excess metabolizable protein (MP) from feedstuffs differing in rumen degradability on ovulatory follicular dynamics, subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development, steroid hormone production and circulating amino acids (AA) in beef cows...
September 9, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ismaeel Aghaways, Shyaw M Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Ipsilateral renal agenesis associated with seminal vesicular cysts is an uncommon finding. Zinner syndrome is a rare variant of wolffian duct anomalies with a triad of seminal vesicle cyst, ipsilateral renal agenesis, and male fertility problems due to ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO). CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old man with 6 years history of primary infertility presented with left-side lower abdominal pain. A palpable cystic mass was found on digital rectal examination...
2016: J Endourol Case Rep
A Grahofer, H Nathues, C Gurtner
The present report describes a case of multicystic degeneration of the Cowper's gland in a 1.3-year-old purebred Large White intact boar with reduced fertility in Switzerland. Based on the case history, a general physical examination, an andrological investigation and a transrectal ultrasonography combined with a subsequent thorough pathological examination including histology a multicystic degeneration of the Cowper's gland were diagnosed. The case indicates that cystic degeneration of the bulbourethral gland should be contemplated in the differential diagnoses of andrological disorders even though it has not been described in pigs so far...
August 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Takahisa Suzuki, Atsushi Otsuka, Seiichiro Ozono
OBJECTIVES: To examine which parameters obtained from transrectal ultrasonography are accurate predictors of urodynamically-confirmed bladder outlet obstruction in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. METHODS: The records of 350 patients with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia were reviewed. Baseline parameters were international prostate symptom score, quality of life score, postvoid residual urine volume, prostate-specific antigen, and data obtained from uroflowmetry and transrectal ultrasonography...
August 21, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
E R Carvalho, T Martins, G C Lamb, J L M Vasconcelos
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of concentrations of P4 during a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol and 48 hours temporary calf removal (CR; i.e., calves were temporally weaned for 48 hours) or treatment with 300 IU of eCG on ovulation time in suckled beef cows. One hundred and fourteen Nellore cows were estrous synchronized by receiving an intravaginal P4 releasing device containing 1.9 g of P4 (CIDR) plus 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate on Day 0, 12.5-mg dinoprost tromethamine on Day 7, and CIDR removal plus 0...
July 25, 2016: Theriogenology
Rodrigo Carrasco, Jaswant Singh, Gregg P Adams
BACKGROUND: Ovulation-inducing factor in semen (OIF/NGF) influences ovulation and CL form and function in camelids and, remarkably, in cows. To test the hypothesis that the luteotrophic effect of OIF/NGF is mediated by an increase in trkA receptors in the ovulatory follicle and early CL, a study was designed to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of trkA in ovarian follicles and CL at known stages of the bovine estrous cycle. METHODS: Sexually mature cattle (n = 14) were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography to determine the day of ovulation (Day 0), and assigned randomly to be unilaterally ovariectomized on Day 2, 4, 6 or in the pre-ovulatory period just before or after exogenous LH treatment...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Thais Caldara Mussi, Rodrigo Gobbo Garcia, Marcos Roberto Gomes Queiroz, Gustavo Caserta Lemos, Ronaldo Hueb Baroni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of transrectal ultrasonography (US) bi¬opsy with imaging fusion using multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa), with an emphasis on clini¬cally significant tumors according to histological criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 189 consecutive US/MRI fusion biopsies were per¬formed obtaining systematic and guided samples of suspicious areas on mpMRI using a 3 Tesla magnet without endorectal coil...
September 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Vahudin Zugor, Reinhard Kühn, Karl Engelhard, Sandor Poth, Marija Maja Bernat, Daniel Porres, Apostolos P Labanaris
BACKGROUND/AIM: The diagnosis of anterior prostate cancer (APC) is troublesome due to its anatomical location. Patients with an APC often require multiple sets of biopsies until diagnosis is made. The objective of this study is to examine if endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (e-MRI) of the prostate could improve the detection of APC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 412 patients records with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels >4 ng/ml or a suspicious finding on digital rectal examination (DRE)) who underwent conventional e-MRI (e-cMRI) and functional e-MRI (e-fMRI) of the prostate and subsequent prostate biopsy from April 2004 to July 2010 was conducted...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
Liang Li, Chaozhao Liang
BACKGROUND Congenital absence of the vas deferens is an important cause of obstructive azoospermia, and the lack of an imaging diagnostic test is a critical problem. The aim of this study is to discuss the use of ultrasonography in congenital absence of vas deferens, including dysplasia of the epididymis and the seminal vesical. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five fresh spermatic cord specimens were detected by ultrasonography (US) to evaluate the image of the spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens. Fifty normal males had scrotal US to confirm whether the normal spermatic cord segment of the vas deferens can be detected and to measure the internal and external diameter on the long axis view...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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