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Obesity and breast cancer

Erin D Giles, Sonali Jindal, Elizabeth A Wellberg, Troy Schedin, Steven M Anderson, Ann D Thor, Dean P Edwards, Paul S MacLean, Pepper Schedin
BACKGROUND: Obesity and type II diabetes are linked to increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Patients treated with the antidiabetic drug metformin for diabetes or metabolic syndrome have reduced breast cancer risk, a greater pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant therapy, and improved breast cancer survival. We hypothesized that metformin may be especially effective when targeted to the menopausal transition, as this is a lifecycle window when weight gain and metabolic syndrome increase, and is also when the risk for obesity-related breast cancer increases...
June 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
E Pestine, A Stokes, L Trinquart
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for numerous cancer types, and may influence cancer treatment outcomes. Underrepresentation of obese patients in obesity-related cancer randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may affect generalizability of results. We aimed to assess the reporting of information about eligibility and enrollment of obese participants in obesity-related cancer RCTs. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of RCTs of 10 obesity-related cancer types (esophagus, colon/rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, postmenopausal breast, endometrium, ovary, kidney, and thyroid cancer)...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Elisabetta Venturelli, Annalisa Orenti, Aline S C Fabricio, Giulia Garrone, Roberto Agresti, Biagio Paolini, Chiara Bonini, Massimo Gion, Franco Berrino, Christine Desmedt, Danila Coradini, Elia Biganzoli
BACKGROUND: Despite the clear endocrine-metabolic relationship between androgenic activity and adiposity, the role of androgens in breast cancer prognosis according to patient's adiposity is scarcely explored. Here, we aimed at investigating the prognostic value of circulating testosterone in association with patient's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Circulating testosterone and BMI were evaluated at breast cancer diagnosis in 460 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal patients...
June 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Mónica Sierra-Martinez, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, José Rubén García-Sánchez, Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano, Carmen Palacios-Reyes, Patricia García Alonso-Themann, Liliana García-Ortiz, Laura Itzel Quintas-Granados, Octavio Daniel Reyes-Hernández
Context: Several factors contribute to the increase in breast cancer (BC) incidence, such as lifetime exposure to estrogen, early menarche and older ages at first birth, menopause, and the increased prevalence of postmenopausal obesity. In fact, there is an association between an increased BC risk and elevated estrogen levels, which may be involved in carcinogenesis via the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) encoded by the ESR1 gene. Interestingly, there is an antagonistic relationship between ERα and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in BC cells...
April 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Jacqueline Lammert, Sabine Grill, Marion Kiechle
Increasing rates of obesity, lack of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and frequent alcohol consumption are major lifestyle-related risk factors for breast cancer. In fact, it has been estimated that about one-third of breast cancer cases are attributable to factors women can change. Most research has focused on examining the impact of one single exposure on breast cancer risk while adjusting for other risk modifiers. Capitalizing on big data, major efforts have been made to evaluate the combined impact of well-established lifestyle factors on overall breast cancer risk...
April 2018: Breast Care
Al Maqsudur Rashid, Latha Ramalingam, Arwa Al-Jawadi, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Hanna Moussa
PURPOSE: Recently, new studies have brought to light the potential risks of low dose radiation (LDR) in cancer. In this review, we discuss in detail the detrimental effects of LDR in some model organisms and animal models, as well as potential risks to human beings from some routine medical screening procedures. Furthermore, cellular mechanisms by which LDR exerts its negative effects endoplasmic reticulum stress, epigenetic changes and microRNAs are also reviewed. A few studies are discussed that have reported some benefits of LDR through changes in energy metabolism...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Nagi B Kumar, Angelina Fink, Silvina Levis, Ping Xu, Roy Tamura, Jeffrey Krischer
Background: Cancer related fatigue (CRF), reported in about 90% of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and has a profound impact on physical function, psychological distress and quality of life. Although several etiological factors such as anemia, depression, chronic inflammation, neurological pathology and alterations in metabolism have been proposed, the mechanisms of CRF are largely unknown. Methods: We conducted a pilot, prospective, case-control study to estimate the magnitude of change in thyroid function in breast cancer patients from baseline to 24 months, compared to cancer-free, age-matched controls...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
Yihai Cao
Drugs that target angiogenesis are commonly used for treating various cancers, but their clinical benefits are limited. In a recent Science Translational Medicine article, Incio et al. (2018) provide mechanistic insight on the role of obesity in the development of anti-VEGF drug resistance in human patients and murine models of breast cancer.
June 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Jin A Yoon, Yong Beom Shin, Myung Jun Shin, Ra Yu Yun, Keun Young Kim, You Sun Song, Youngtae Bae, Seokwon Lee, Younglae Jung, Sang Hyun Lee
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the well-known initiating and aggravating factors of lymphedema. Body mass index (BMI) is typically used to define obesity, but in Asian populations, health risks are elevated at lower BMI levels, and abdominal fat may be a better obesity metric. Thus, we assessed the potential association between abdominal obesity and lymphedema severity in postoperative breast cancer patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three women with breast cancer-related lymphedema participated in this study...
June 5, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Noemie Travier, Genevieve Buckland, Joan J Vendrell, Sonia Fernandez-Veledo, Immaculada Peiró, Sonia Del Barco, Sonia Pernas, Esther Zamora, Meritxell Bellet, Mireia Margeli, Beatriz Cirauqui, Montserrat Muñoz, Ignasi Tusquets, Angels Arcusa, Casimiro Javierre, Ferran Moreno, Ana Rodriguez, Antonio Agudo
Adiposity and physical activity are modifiable factors that could be important determinants of breast cancer (BC) prognosis through their effects on endogenous reproductive hormones, chronic inflammation and metabolic changes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate whether offering lifestyle interventions to BC survivors could affect the levels of certain biomarkers involved in these mechanisms. We designed a pre-post intervention study offering diet and exercise sessions over 12 weeks to 42 overweight/obese BC survivors...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Zainab Taha, Sakina E Eltom
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among Arab women in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The incidence of breast cancer has substantially increased in recent years among this women population, especially those younger than 50, and the incidence is expected to double by 2030. Considerable experimental evidence supports the potential role of dietary habits and lifestyle in cancer etiology and cancer prevention. In this review we examined the literature for evidence to link dietary choices and the rise in incidence and mortality of breast cancer among women in EMR...
2018: BioResearch Open Access
A Heetun, R I Cutress, E R Copson
High BMI is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women but poorer outcomes in all age groups. The underlying mechanism is likely to be multi-factorial. Patients with a high BMI may present later due to body habitus. Some studies have also indicated an increased incidence of biologically adverse features, including a higher frequency of oestrogen receptor (ER negative) tumours, in obese patients. Obese patients have a higher frequency of surgical complications, potentially delaying systemic therapies, and reports suggest that chemotherapy and endocrine therapy are less effective in patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Elizabeth Cespedes Feliciano, Wendy Y Chen
Although obesity has now been widely accepted to be an important risk factor for cancer survival, the associations between BMI and cancer mortality have not been consistently linear. Although morbid obesity has clearly been associated with worse survival, some studies have suggested a U-shaped association with no adverse association with overweight or lower levels of obesity. This 'obesity paradox' may be due to the fact that BMI likely incompletely captures key measures of body composition, including distribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Edward Giovannucci
Higher physical activity levels have been associated with about 10% to 25% reductions in up to 13 cancers. In isolation, these results are suggestive but not compelling enough to conclude causal associations, except for colon and breast cancer. However, knowledge on the relationships between obesity and cancer, between physical activity and overall and visceral adiposity, and between physical activity and obesity-related mediators of cancer risk can inform the epidemiology of physical activity and cancer. Excluding primarily smoking-related malignancies, for which residual confounding by smoking may occur, all 13 cancers associated with lower physical activity are also obesity-related...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Agatha Wisse, Helga Tryggvadottir, Maria Simonsson, Karolin Isaksson, Carsten Rose, Christian Ingvar, Helena Jernström
Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide, but the extent in breast cancer patients is unknown. The two aims were to study secular trends in preoperative body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and breast volume and their impacts on clinical outcome. BMI, waist circumference, and breast volume were measured preoperatively in 24-99-year-old primary breast cancer patients (n = 640) in Sweden 2002-2016. The measurements were analyzed alone and combined in relation to recurrence and overall survival (OS)...
May 26, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Manoj Sonavane, Peter Sykora, Joel F Andrews, Robert W Sobol, Natalie R Gassman
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used heavily in the production of polycarbonate plastics, thermal receipt paper, and epoxies. Ubiquitous exposure to BPA has been linked to obesity, diabetes, breast and reproductive system cancers. Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents has also been shown in cancer cell models. Here, we investigated BPA's ability to confer resistance to camptothecin (CPT) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). MEFs are sensitive to CPT; however, co-exposure of BPA with CPT improved cell survival. Co-exposure significantly reduced Top1-DNA adducts, decreasing chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand break formation...
May 25, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Ruth E Patterson, Catherine R Marinac, Dorothy D Sears, Jacqueline Kerr, Sheri J Hartman, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Adriana Villaseñor, Shirley W Flatt, Suneeta Godbole, Hongying Li, Gail A Laughlin, Jesica Oratowski-Coleman, Barbara A Parker, Loki Natarajan
Background: This study investigated the effects of metformin and weight loss on biomarkers associated with breast cancer prognosis. Methods: Overweight/obese postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (n = 333) were randomly assigned to metformin vs placebo and to a weight loss intervention vs control (ie, usual care). The 2 × 2 factorial design allows a single randomized trial to investigate the effect of two factors and interactions between them. Outcomes were changes in fasting insulin, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), estradiol, testosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ana Elisa Lohmann, Isabel Pimentel, Pamela J Goodwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Yaser Mansoori, Mohammad Bagher Tabei, Alireza Askari, Pantea Izadi, Abdolreza Daraei, Milad Bastami, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Behnam Mansoori, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a major class of the human transcriptome which play crucial roles in the key biological processes of both normal and malignant breast cells. Although the aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been well-documented in breast cancer (BC), little is currently known about the association between their expression levels in the breast tissue of healthy women and BC risk factors, especially the reproductive or demographic characteristics that are among the most well-known BC risk modifiers...
May 21, 2018: Breast Journal
Luwam Zewenghiel, Henrik Lindman, Antonis Valachis
BAKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with metastatic hormone receptor breast cancer (HR+BC) as well as to identify if the potential difference in efficacy was associated with Fulvestrant only or both aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and Fulvestrant. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of postmenopausal women with HR+metastatic breast cancer that have received endocrine therapy including Fulvestrant as a metastatic treatment strategy at the Departments of Oncology in Eskilstuna and Uppsala, Sweden, between 2008 and 2016 were identified...
May 18, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
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