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Lucie Vebrová, Andre van Nieuwenhuijzen, Vojtěch Kolář, David S Boukal
BACKGROUND: Chironomids, a major invertebrate taxon in many standing freshwaters, rely on adult flight to reach new suitable sites, yet the impact of weather conditions on their flight activity is little understood. We investigated diel and seasonal flight activity patterns of aquatic and terrestrial chironomids in a reclaimed sandpit area and analysed how weather conditions and seasonality influenced their total abundance and species composition. RESULTS: Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and air pressure significantly affected total flight activity of both groups, but not in the same way...
June 19, 2018: BMC Ecology
Erin M Leonard, Ryan Belowitz, Pieter Agema, Michael J O'Donnell
Chironomids are often one of the dominant organisms in significantly polluted freshwater. Many invertebrate studies have characterized whole organism mechanisms of toxicity, for example, assessing cadmium (Cd) uptake via calcium (Ca) channels. However, with the use of the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique (SIET) and the use of an innovative Cd-selective microelectrode, we analyze this relationship at the organ level using a realistic concentration of Cd and Ca in the hemolymph (blood). Generally, Cd fluxes follow the same directional pattern as Ca, although Ca fluxes are ∼5x higher than those of Cd...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Huli Yu, Huajun Huang, Junya Liang, Jianping Deng
Using biomacromolecule-based nanorods as a chiral source is a creative way to fabricate broadband chiroptically active nanoarchitectures. Herein, right-handedly twisted cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) nanorods, serving simultaneously as a chiral template and a building block, were combined with CuO for constructing composite nanoflowers that showed broadband chiroptical activity. Through calcination, the CuO/CNC nanoflowers can transform into chiral CuO with a flower-like architecture. The established preparation technology is expected to provide various novel broadband chiroptically active nanoarchitectures originating from CNCs and metal oxides...
June 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Casey M Rebholz, Alice H Lichtenstein, Zihe Zheng, Lawrence J Appel, Josef Coresh
Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern is recommended for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Assessment of dietary intake has been limited to subjective measures and a few biomarkers from 24-h urine collections. Objective: The aim of the study was to use metabolomics to identify serum compounds that are associated with adherence to the DASH dietary pattern. Design: We conducted untargeted metabolomic profiling in serum specimens collected at the end of 8 wk following the DASH diet (n = 110), the fruit and vegetables diet (n = 111), or a control diet (n = 108) in a multicenter, randomized clinical feeding study (n = 329)...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Richard K Shields, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski
QUESTIONS: What is the economic value of a physiotherapy career relative to other healthcare professions? Is the graduate debt reported for physiotherapy manageable according to recommended salary-weighted debt service ratio benchmarks? DESIGN: Net present value (NPV) is an economic modelling approach that compares costs and benefits of an investment such as healthcare education. An economic analysis using the NPV approach was conducted and reported in US dollars for the Doctor of Physical Therapy degree...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
Tulaci Bhakti, Fernando Goulart, Cristiano Schetini de Azevedo, Yasmine Antonini
Consequences of habitat fragmentation for species occurrence are amongst the most important issues in landscape and conservation ecology. Empirical and theoretical studies have demonstrated that the total amount of habitat, patch size and connectivity have nonlinear effects on species survival on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, population models need to incorporate multiple scales, which can be extremely valuable to prioritizing conservation efforts in these changing landscapes. We tested how the amount and configuration of habitat affect understory bird species occurrence using fine to broad-scale habitat features...
2018: PloS One
Anna Laura Capriotti, Carmela Maria Montone, Michela Antonelli, Chiara Cavaliere, Francesco Gasparrini, Giorgia La Barbera, Susy Piovesana, Aldo Laganà
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans. In food, selenium can be present in both inorganic and organic forms, the latter mainly being selenomethionine, Se-methyl-selenocysteine and selenocystine. Selenoamino acids spe-ciation rarely involves the chirality of selenoamino acids. In this work, a 5-cm long CHIROBIOTIC TAG chromato-graphic column was used for enantioresolution of selenoamino acids (D- and L-selenomethionine, Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine, D-, L- and meso-selenocystine); in the optimized conditions, the complete resolution of the analytes was achieved within 15 min by using a very polar aqueous mobile phase (gradient elution by methanol:acetonitrile:H2O, 45:45:10 (v/v/v) with 10 mmol L-1 ammonium formate and 0...
June 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Bethany L Reinhart, Karen A Kidd, R Allen Curry, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Scott A Pavey
Although estuaries are critical habitats for many aquatic species, the spatial trends of toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in biota from fresh to marine waters are poorly understood. Our objective was to determine if MeHg concentrations in biota changed along a salinity gradient in an estuary. Fourspine Stickleback (Apeltes quadracus), invertebrates (snails, amphipods, and chironomids), sediments, and water were collected from ten sites along the Saint John River estuary, New Brunswick, Canada in 2015 and 2016, with salinities ranging from 0...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Sofia Marques Silva, Carlos Eduardo Agne, Alexandre Aleixo, Sandro L Bonatto
Chiroxiphia and Antilophia manakins are recognized as closely related genera. Nonetheless, Chiroxiphia has been recovered as paraphyletic in some studies with limited taxonomic coverage. This genus currently comprises five species, although this arrangement is still unsettled. Chiroxiphia pareola is the most widespread species, with four recognized subspecies, but their taxonomic status are also uncertain. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships amongst the majority of Chiroxiphia and Antilophia taxa are unknown...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Sabrina Gmuca, Rui Xiao, Pamela F Weiss, David D Sherry, Andrea M Knight, Jeffrey S Gerber
Objective: Thirty percent of adults with fibromyalgia receive an opioid, but the prevalence of opioid prescribing in pediatric chronic musculoskeletal pain is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with opioid exposure and polypharmacy among children with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study using health care claims data from 2000 to 2013, the index date was the first ICD-9 code 729...
June 13, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Anjan Bedi, Linda J W Shimon, Ori Gidron
Twisting linear acenes out of planarity affects their electronic and optical properties, and induces chirality. However, it is difficult to isolate the effect of twisting from the substituent effect. Moreover, many twistacenes (twisted acenes) readily racemize in solution. Here, we introduce a series of twistacenes having an anthracene backbone diagonally tethered by an n-alkyl bridge, which induces a twist of various angles. This allows us to systematically monitor the effect of twisting on electronic and optical properties...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Livia O Loureiro, Burton K Lim, Mark D Engstrom
Molossus is one of the most diverse genera of free-tailed bats in the pantropical family Molossidae and occurs though all the Neotropics. Nevertheless, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this group is poorly understood. Here, we present the data on evolutionary relationships of Molossus based on DNA barcodes of COI gene from 346 specimens of Molossus and its sister genus Promops and another New World molossid Eumops . Of these specimens, 50 are new sequences and 296 were obtained from GenBank. In addition, the nuclear gene beta fibrinogen was sequenced from a subset of 35 specimens...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Veronika V Golygina, Iya I Kiknadze
A revision of mapping of main and alternative banding sequences in chromosome III (EF) has been made for 14 species of the Chironomus plumosus group. In total, new versions of mapping are presented for 18 banding sequences of arm E and 18 banding sequences of arm F. A new way of tracing the origins of banding sequences in chromosome III of the Ch. plumosus group in comparison with basic banding sequences of the genus Chironomus is suggested. The presented data indicate that h'pluE2 in arm E and p'borF2 in arm F are the closest to banding sequences of Ch...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Zoe Domínguez, Rocío López-Rodríguez, Eleuterio Álvarez, Sergio Abbate, Giovanna Longhi, Uwe Pischel, Abel Ros
Three helicenes based on a borylated arylisoquinoline skeleton have been prepared in their enantiopure forms and characterized with respect to their photophysical properties, including the use of chiroptical spectroscopies. The dyes show varying charge-transfer character and efficient emission (quantum yields between 0.13 and 0.30, in toluene), which is governed by the electron-donor substitution (p-MeO-phenyl, p-Me2N-phenyl) at the helicene. Marked differences in the emission wavelength and Stokes shift are observed, with the dimethylamino-substituted derivative emitting most red-shifted (maximum at ca...
June 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Gilberto Sabino-Santos, Felipe Gonçalves Motta Maia, Ronaldo Bragança Martins, Talita Bianca Gagliardi, William Marciel de Souza, Renata Lara Muylaert, Luciano Kleber de Souza Luna, Danilo Machado Melo, Ricardo de Souza Cardoso, Natalia da Silva Barbosa, Marjorie Cornejo Pontelli, Priscila Rosse Mamani-Zapana, Thallyta Maria Vieira, Norma Maria Melo, Colleen B Jonsson, Douglas Goodin, Jorge Salazar-Bravo, Luis Lamberti Pinto daSilva, Eurico Arruda, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo
Bats (Order: Chiroptera) harbor a high diversity of emerging pathogens presumably because their ability to fly and social behavior favor the maintenance, evolution, and dissemination of these pathogens. Until 2012, there was only one report of the presence of Hantavirus in bats. Historically, it was thought that these viruses were harbored primarily by rodent and insectivore small mammals. Recently, new species of hantaviruses have been identified in bats from Africa and Asia continents expanding the potential reservoirs and range of these viruses...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Le Chang, Oscar Baseggio, Luca Sementa, Daojian Cheng, Giovanna Fronzoni, Daniele Toffoli, Edoardo Aprà, Mauro Stener, Alessandro Fortunelli
We introduce Individual Component Maps of Rotatory Strength (ICM-RS) and Rotatory Strength Density (RSD) plots as analysis tools of chiro-optical linear response spectra deriving from time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations. ICM-RS and RSD allow one to visualize the origin of chiro-optical response in momentum or real space, including signed contributions and therefore highlighting cancellation terms that are ubiquitous in chirality phenomena, and should be especially useful in analyzing the spectra of complex systems...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Khamsing Vongphayloth, Bounsavane Douangboubpha, Daosavanh Sanamxay, Vilakhan Xayaphet, Richard G Robbins, Dmitry A Apanaskevich, Ian W Sutherland, Paul T Brey
Between May and June 2015, 512 bats, six rodents, and six tree-shrews were examined for ectoparasites in Vientiane and Khammouane Provinces, Laos. Thirty-seven ticks (33 females and four males) identified as Ixodes granulatus Supino were collected from four individuals of the Northern tree-shrew, Tupaia belangeri (Wagner) (Scandentia:Tupaiidae), and one female of Ixodes vespertilionis Koch was collected from one individual of the Intermediate Leaf-nosed Bat, Hipposideros larvatus (Horsfield) (Chiroptera:Hipposideridae)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Zhuo Wang, Li-Peng Zhou, Tong-Han Zhao, Li-Xuan Cai, Xiao-Qing Guo, Peng-Fei Duan, Qing-Fu Sun
Multinuclear lanthanide-containing supramolecular cages have received increasing attention recently because of their unique electroptical and magnetic properties. Here we report the hierarchical self-assembly and chiroptical studies of a group of 4d-4f heterometallic cages synthesized from a preformed dimetalloligand [(bpy)2 Pd2 12 ]2+ (2) (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine) and a variety of trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln = NdIII , EuIII , YbIII ). The programmable self-assembly process leading to the trigonal bipyramidal cages formulated as {Ln2 [(bpy)2 Pd2 12 ]3 }12+ (3) has been confirmed by one- and two-dimensional NMR, electro-spray-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectroscopy, and in one typical case by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies...
June 13, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Julia Mayans, Mercè Font-Bardia, Albert Escuer
New chiral FeIII4 star-shaped complexes have been synthesized starting from enantiomerically pure Schiff bases and chiroptically and magnetically characterized. The structural and magnetic properties of the complete family of 40 Fe4 complexes reported in the literature have been analyzed in the search for synthetic and magnetostructural correlations.
June 13, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jane Elizabeth Frawley, Erica McIntyre, David Sibbritt, Jon Wardle, Janet Schloss, Romy Lauche, Jon Adams
INTRODUCTION: Complementary medicine (CM) use has been found to influence the uptake of conventional cancer treatment. This study examines associations between CM use and cancer screening rates. METHODS: Women aged 62 to 67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding their use of cancer screening initiatives. Associations between cancer screening behavior and visits to CM practitioners were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 9151 women, 9049 (98...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
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