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Xue-Yuan Li, Wei-Wei Men, Hua Zhu, Jian-Feng Lei, Fu-Xing Zuo, Zhan-Jing Wang, Zhao-Hui Zhu, Xin-Jie Bao, Ren-Zhi Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Otto Mauro Dos Santos-Rosa, Henrique Simonsen Lunardelli, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro-Junior
Background: The pyogenic liver abscess has an incidence of 1.1/1,000 habitants. Mortality can reach 100%. The use of less invasive procedures diminish morbidity and hospital stay. Aim: Identify risk factors in patients who underwent percutaneous drainage guided by ultrasound as treatment. Method: Were analyzed 10 patients submitted to the method. Epidemiological characteristics, laboratory markers and imaging exams (ultrasound and CT) were evaluated...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Diane E Griffin
Measles is an acute systemic viral infection with immune system interactions that play essential roles in multiple stages of infection and disease. Measles virus (MeV) infection does not induce type 1 interferons, but leads to production of cytokines and chemokines associated with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signaling and activation of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. This restricted response allows extensive virus replication and spread during a clinically silent latent period of 10-14 days...
October 12, 2016: Viruses
Joachim Cordes, Andreas Bechdolf, Christina Engelke, Kai G Kahl, Chakrapani Balijepalli, Christian Lösch, Joachim Klosterkötter, Michael Wagner, Wolfgang Maier, Andreas Heinz, Walter de Millas, Wolfgang Gaebel, Georg Winterer, Birgit Janssen, Christian Schmidt-Kraepelin, Frank Schneider, Martin Lambert, Georg Juckel, Thomas Wobrock, Michael Riedel, Susanne Moebus
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is one of the most common factors underlying the high rate of mortality observed in patients with schizophrenia. Recent research on this topic revealed that many of the patients studied were, in fact, in a medicated state. As such, it is unclear whether MetS is causally associated with the disorder itself or the medication used to treat it. In this study, patients with a clinically high risk of expressing first episode psychosis (CHR) were examined regarding the prevalence of MetS...
October 14, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Alberto Ascherio, Michael A Schwarzschild
Since 2006, several longitudinal studies have assessed environmental or behavioural factors that seem to modify the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Increased risk of Parkinson's disease has been associated with exposure to pesticides, consumption of dairy products, history of melanoma, and traumatic brain injury, whereas a reduced risk has been reported in association with smoking, caffeine consumption, higher serum urate concentrations, physical activity, and use of ibuprofen and other common medications...
November 2016: Lancet Neurology
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
M Lambert, V Niehaus, C Correll
This review aims to describe the importance of i) detecting individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (schizophrenia) or bipolar disorder, especially in children and adolescents, in order to enable early intervention, and ii) evaluating different intervention strategies, especially pharmacotherapy, during the subsyndromal or "prodromal" stages of these severe and often debilitating disorders. The different approaches regarding the psychotic and bipolar clinical high-risk state are discussed, including reasons and evidence for early (pharmacological) intervention and risks of treatment vs...
October 13, 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
Zora Kikinis, Kang Ik K Cho, Ioana L Coman, Petya D Radoeva, Sylvain Bouix, Yingying Tang, Ryan Eckbo, Nikos Makris, Jun Soo Kwon, Marek Kubicki, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Martha E Shenton, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is considered to be a promising cohort to explore biomarkers of schizophrenia risk based on a 30 % probability of developing schizophrenia in adulthood. In this study, we investigated abnormalities in the microstructure of white matter in adolescents with 22q11DS and their specificity to prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia. METHODS: Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 50 subjects with 22q11DS (9 with and 41 without prodromal psychotic symptoms), and 47 matched healthy controls (mean age 18 +/-2 years)...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Wei Li, Tao Wang, Shifu Xiao
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), so identification of the related risk factors can be helpful. Although the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these modest changes in cognition is well established, whether T2DM will promote the transformation of MCI into AD is not a unified conclusion. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the relationship between T2DM and MCI in the elderly population living in the community in Shanghai, People's Republic of China...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
P H Lee, J T Baker, A J Holmes, N Jahanshad, T Ge, J-Y Jung, Y Cruz, D S Manoach, D P Hibar, J Faskowitz, K L McMahon, G I de Zubicaray, N H Martin, M J Wright, D Öngür, R Buckner, J Roffman, P M Thompson, J W Smoller
Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic etiology. Widespread cortical gray matter loss has been observed in patients and prodromal samples. However, it remains unresolved whether schizophrenia-associated cortical structure variations arise due to disease etiology or secondary to the illness. Here we address this question using a partitioning-based heritability analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and neuroimaging data from 1750 healthy individuals...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Stefanie Lerche, Kathrin Brockmann, Andrea Pilotto, Isabel Wurster, Ulrike Sünkel, Markus A Hobert, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Claudia Schulte, Erik Stoops, Hugo Vanderstichele, Victor Herbst, Britta Brix, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Florian G Metzger, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg
BACKGROUND: Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) are common in older people and are associated with an increased risk of different neurodegenerative diseases. This study prospectively evaluates the longitudinal course of cognitive performance in older individuals with MPS. METHODS: From the TREND study, 480 individuals neurologically healthy at baseline, aged between 50 and 80 years, with complete follow-up data for three assessments within a mean of 43.8 months, were included in this analysis...
October 10, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Lauren E Salminen, Thomas E Conturo, Jacob D Bolzenius, Ryan P Cabeen, Erbil Akbudak, Robert H Paul
Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan...
April 2016: Technology and Innovation
Silvina R Mastaglia, Gabriel Aguilar, Beatriz Oliveri
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely used drugs to treat osteoporosis. However, recent reports associated to long-term BPs use with atypical low-impact fractures and prodromal pain. It is estimated that 26% of the cases of atypical fractures associated with the long-term use of BPs show delayed healing or nonunion. Teriparatide [PTH1-34] (TPTD) is an anabolic drug shown to be effective in stimulating bone formation. The aim was to describe the course of a right diaphyseal femoral fracture sustained by a patient on long-term BPs treatment...
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Jennifer Ashley Ciarochi, Vince D Calhoun, Spencer Lourens, Jeffrey D Long, Hans J Johnson, H Jeremy Bockholt, Jingyu Liu, Sergey M Plis, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an abnormally expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat in the HTT gene. Age and CAG-expansion number are related to age at diagnosis and can be used to index disease progression. However, observed onset-age variability suggests that other factors also modulate progression. Indexing prodromal (pre-diagnosis) progression may highlight therapeutic targets by isolating the earliest-affected factors. We present the largest prodromal HD application of the univariate method voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the first application of the multivariate method source-based morphometry (SBM) to, respectively, compare gray matter concentration (GMC) and capture co-occurring GMC patterns in control and prodromal participants...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Kristen A Woodberry, Larry J Seidman, Caitlin Bryant, Jean Addington, Carrie E Bearden, Kristin S Cadenhead, Tyrone D Cannon, Barbara A Cornblatt, Thomas H McGlashan, Daniel H Mathalon, Diana O Perkins, Ming T Tsuang, Elaine F Walker, Scott W Woods
Early intervention for psychotic disorders, a growing international priority, typically targets help-seeking populations with emerging psychotic ("positive") symptoms. We assessed the nature of and degree to which treatment of individuals at high risk for psychosis preceded or followed the onset of positive symptoms. The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study-2 collected psychosocial treatment histories for 745 (98%) of 764 high-risk participants (M age = 18.9, 57% male, 57.5% Caucasian, 19.1% Hispanic) recruited from 8 North American communities...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Antonio Chuh, Rüdiger Panzer, Ann-Christine Rosenthal, Ehrhardt Proksch, Werner Kempf, Vijay Zawar, Helmuth Fickenscher, Regina Fölster-Holst
Eruptive pseudoangiomatosis is a distinct exanthem thought to be caused by viruses. The usual rash configu-ration is erythematous papules and macules. An association with echovirus infection has been reported. We present here one adult and one child with this exanthem, supported by clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Both patients presented with prodromal symptoms, widespread angioma-like macules in annular configuration, blanchable telangiectasia, followed by spontaneous remission in 6-8 weeks...
October 4, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Marcelo Kreiner, Ramón Álvarez, Virginia Michelis, Anders Waldenström, Annika Isberg
We recently found craniofacial pain to be the sole symptom of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 4% of patients. We hypothesized that this scenario is also true for symptoms of prodromal (pre-infarction) angina. We studied 326 consecutive patients who experienced myocardial ischemia. Intra-individual variability analyses with respect to ECG findings and pain characteristics were performed for those 150 patients who experienced at least one recurrent ischemic episode. AMI patients (n=113) were categorized into two subgroups: "abrupt onset" (n=81) and "prodromal angina" (n=32)...
April 2016: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Maj Vinberg
This study investigated a high-risk sample in order to elucidate risk factors for affective disorder. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with and without a co-twin with a history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Two risk groups were identified: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected)...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Daphné Génier Marchand, Jacques Montplaisir, Ronald B Postuma, Shady Rahayel, Jean-François Gagnon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Long-term studies in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have shown a high rate of conversion into synucleinopathies. We aimed to prospectively follow up a large cohort of RBD patients to identify cognitive markers for early detection of prodromal dementia. METHODS: Seventy-six idiopathic RBD patients underwent polysomnography and a complete neuropsychological and neurological assessment and were then followed for a mean of 3.6 years. Cognitive characteristics at baseline were compared between patients who remained disease-free and those who developed a synucleinopathy, and between those who developed dementia first and those who developed parkinsonism first...
September 26, 2016: Sleep
Philippe Foubert, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Andreina Gonzalez, Felipe Berard, Waylon Weber, Diana Zafra, Zeni Alfonso, Sherry Zhao, Mayer Tenenhaus, John K Fraser
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to develop an approach that models the cutaneous healing that occurs in a patient with full thickness thermal burn injury complicated by total body radiation exposure sufficient to induce sub-lethal prodromal symptoms. An assessment of the effects of an autologous cell therapy on wound healing on thermal burn injury with concomitant radiation exposure was used to validate the utility of the model. METHODS: Göttingen minipigs were subjected to a 1...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
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