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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145189/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#1
Claudio L Bassetti, Panagiotis Bargiotas
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a brain disorder, characterized by the dream enactment during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep due to a lack of physiologic muscle atonia and increased muscle twitching. Schenk was the first to describe this disorder in 1986; however, few authors reported in the 1970-1980s loss of physiological muscle atonia combined with dream enactment in the course of brainstem disorders and as a consequence of alcoholism and antidepressant treatment. RBD affects less than 1% of the adult population, but can be found in up to 25-50% of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, multisystem atrophy, and dementia with Lewy body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142100/abnormal-visual-gain-control-and-excitotoxicity-in-early-onset-parkinson-s-disease-drosophila-models
#2
Marc Mason Himmelberg, Ryan J H West, Christopher J H Elliott, Alex R Wade
The excitotoxic theory of Parkinson's disease (PD) hypothesises that a pathophysiological degeneration of dopaminergic neurons stems from neural hyperactivity at early stages of disease, leading to mitochondrial stress and cell death. Recent research has harnessed the visual system of Drosophila PD models to probe this hypothesis. Here, we investigate whether abnormal visual sensitivity and excitotoxicity occur in early-onset PD Drosophila models DJ-1Δ72, DJ1-Δ93, and PINK15. We used an electroretinogram to record steady state visually evoked potentials driven by temporal contrast stimuli...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134611/exploring-white-matter-microstructure-and-olfaction-dysfunction-in-early-parkinson-disease-diffusion-mri-reveals-new-insight
#3
Soheila Sobhani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Alireza Vafaei Sadr
Olfaction dysfunction is considered as a robust marker of prodromal Parkinson disease (PD). Measurement of olfaction function as a screening test is unsatisfactory due to long lead time interval and low specificity for detection of PD. Use of imaging markers might yield more accurate predictive values and provide bases for combined use of imaging and clinical markers for early PD. Diffusion MRI connectometry was conducted on 85 de novo PD patients in and 36 healthy controls to find: first, white matter tracts with significant difference in quantitative anisotropy between PD groups with various degrees of olfaction dysfunction and second, second fibers with correlation with University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) score in each group using a multiple regression analysis considering age, sex, GDS and MoCA score...
November 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133888/neuronal-hyperactivity-due-to-loss-of-inhibitory-tone-in-apoe4-mice-lacking-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#4
Tal Nuriel, Sergio L Angulo, Usman Khan, Archana Ashok, Qiuying Chen, Helen Y Figueroa, Sheina Emrani, Li Liu, Mathieu Herman, Geoffrey Barrett, Valerie Savage, Luna Buitrago, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Christine Fung, Eliana Goldberg, Steven S Gross, S Abid Hussaini, Herman Moreno, Scott A Small, Karen E Duff
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the dominant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason APOE4 is associated with increased AD risk remains a source of debate. Neuronal hyperactivity is an early phenotype in both AD mouse models and in human AD, which may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we have identified an APOE4-associated hyperactivity phenotype in the brains of aged APOE mice using four complimentary techniques-fMRI, in vitro electrophysiology, in vivo electrophysiology, and metabolomics-with the most prominent hyperactivity occurring in the entorhinal cortex...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#5
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127768/diabetic-ketoacidosis-hyperuricemia-and-encephalopathy-intractable-to-regular-dose-insulin
#6
Jillian Gregory, Sonali Basu
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children less than 1 year of age is a rare occurrence. Typical presentation includes a prodrome of weight loss and polyuria with subsequent presentation to medical care when acidosis becomes symptomatic. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an unusual case of a previously healthy infant with a 3 days' history of constipation, presenting acutely with abdominal pain, lethargy, and dehydration. On initial evaluation, our patient had profound encephalopathy, with marked tachypnea and work of breathing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126955/white-matter-changes-correlates-of-peripheral-neuroinflammation-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Maryam Haghashomar, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Shima Shahjouei, Soheila Sobhnai, Maryam Rahmani
Neuroinflammatory pathology has long been identified to contribute to the pathology of Parkinson disease. Early microstructural changes in white matter tracts might give a clue for earlier detection of PD. We investigated through diffusion MRI connectometry the structural correlates of white matter tracts of 81 patients with PD with whole blood neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), controlling for age and sex. Diffusion data were reconstructed in the MNI space using q-space diffeomorphic reconstruction to obtain the spin distribution function...
November 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125488/comparison-between-fcsrt-and-lassi-l-to-detect-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Jordi A Matias-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Rosie E Curiel, María Valles-Salgado, Teresa Rognoni, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, José Luis Carreras, David A Loewenstein, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is the most accurate test for the diagnosis of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, a novel cognitive test, the Loewenstein-Acevedo Scale for Semantic Interference and Learning (LASSI-L), has been developed in order to provide an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of the FCSRT and the LASSI-L for the diagnosis of AD in its preclinical and prodromal stages using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a reference...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124109/the-effect-of-diagnostic-criteria-on-outcome-measures-in-preclinical-and-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-trial-design
#9
Daniela Bertens, Betty M Tijms, Lisa Vermunt, Niels D Prins, Philip Scheltens, Pieter Jelle Visser
Introduction: We investigated the influence of different inclusion criteria for preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) on changes in biomarkers and cognitive markers and on trial sample size estimates. Methods: We selected 522 cognitively normal subjects and 872 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study. Compared inclusion criteria were (1) preclinical or prodromal AD (amyloid marker abnormal); (2) preclinical or prodromal AD stage-1 (amyloid marker abnormal, injury marker normal); and (3) preclinical or prodromal AD stage-2 (amyloid and injury markers abnormal)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123250/parkinson-disease-what-goes-around-comes-around-cognitive-impairment-as-prodromal-parkinsonism
#10
Yaroslau Compta, Maria J Martí
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#11
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120904/efavirenz-precipitating-hallucinations-in-a-patient-with-an-undetected-psychotic-prodrome-a-call-for-better-screening-at-the-point-of-care
#12
Ren Belcher, Michael Marcangelo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120563/diagnosing-and-managing-mild-cognitive-impairment
#13
Sophie Behrman, Vyara Valkanova, Charlotte L Allan
There has been a rapid rise in the number of people diagnosed with dementia in England from 232,000 in 2008 to 850,000 in 2014. Currently, it is estimated that the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in adults aged 65 and over is 10-20%. It is likely that this figure will increase in line with trends in dementia diagnosis. In some cases, mild cognitive impairment may be a prodrome for dementia, and my be caused by any of the dementia pathology subtypes. The relationship between depression in the elderly and mild cognitive impairment is difficult to tease out as they are frequently comorbid conditions and both have been found to be independent risk factors for subsequent dementia: about 10% convert to dementia each year, compared with 1-2% of the general elderly population...
May 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116670/predictive-capacity-of-prodromal-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-of-recent-onset
#14
Ana Barajas, Trinidad Pelaez, Olga González, Judith Usall, Raquel Iniesta, Maria Arteaga, Chris Jackson, Iris Baños, Bernardo Sánchez, Montserrat Dolz, Jordi E Obiols, Josep M Haro, Susana Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Both the nature and number of a wide range of prodromal symptoms have been related to the severity and type of psychopathology in the psychotic phase. However, at present there is an incomplete picture focused mainly on the positive pre-psychotic dimension. AIM: To characterize the prodromal phase retrospectively, examining the number and nature of prodromal symptoms as well as their relationship with psychopathology at the onset of first-episode psychosis...
November 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116145/cingulate-island-sign-temporally-changes-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#15
Tomomichi Iizuka, Rui Iizuka, Masashi Kameyama
The cingulate island sign (CIS) that reflects sparing of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to the precuneus plus cuneus on FDG-PET and brain perfusion SPECT, has been proposed as a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). As the CIS is influenced by concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, we postulated that the CIS gradually disappears as DLB progresses. To determine temporal changes in the CIS, 24 patients with mild DLB and 7 with prodromal DLB underwent (123)I-IMP-SPECT and MMSE twice at an interval of two years...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114969/apathy-in-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-is-common-and-under-recognised
#16
Thomas R Barber, Kinan Muhammed, Daniel Drew, Michael Lawton, Marie Crabbe, Michal Rolinski, Timothy Quinnell, Zenobia Zaiwalla, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Masud Husain, Michele Tm Hu
BACKGROUND: Apathy is an important neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which often emerges before the onset of motor symptoms. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) have a high probability of developing Parkinson's disease in future. Neuropsychiatric problems are common in RBD, but apathy has not previously been detailed in this key prodromal population. METHODS: 88 patients with polysomnographically proven RBD, 65 patients with PD and 33 controls were assessed for apathy using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111419/diagnosis-of-multiple-system-atrophy
#17
REVIEW
Jose-Alberto Palma, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Horacio Kaufmann
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) may be difficult to distinguish clinically from other disorders, particularly in the early stages of the disease. An autonomic-only presentation can be indistinguishable from pure autonomic failure. Patients presenting with parkinsonism may be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson disease. Patients presenting with the cerebellar phenotype of MSA can mimic other adult-onset ataxias due to alcohol, chemotherapeutic agents, lead, lithium, and toluene, or vitamin E deficiency, as well as paraneoplastic, autoimmune, or genetic ataxias...
October 23, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110502/daily-vision-testing-can-expose-the-prodromal-phase-of-migraine
#18
Allison M McKendrick, Yu Man Chan, Algis J Vingrys, Andrew Turpin, David R Badcock
Background Several visual tasks have been proposed as indirect assays of the balance between cortical inhibition and excitation in migraine. This study aimed to determine whether daily measurement of performance on such tasks can reveal perceptual changes in the build up to migraine events. Methods Visual performance was measured daily at home in 16 non-headache controls and 18 individuals with migraine using a testing protocol on a portable tablet device. Observers performed two tasks: luminance increment detection in spatial luminance noise and centre surround contrast suppression...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109690/comorbid-mental-disorders-and-6-month-symptomatic-and-functioning-outcomes-in-chinese-university-students-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Jingyu Shi, Lu Wang, Yuhong Yao, Na Su, Chenyu Zhan, Ziyu Mao, Xudong Zhao
Background: High rates of non-psychotic psychopathological symptoms have been observed in clinical population at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. These comorbid disorders affected the baseline functional level of CHR patients. However, little is known about the comorbid mental disorder in CHR individuals in non-clinical adolescent population. This study aimed to investigate the comorbid mental disorder in non-clinical CHR adolescents and the impact on attenuated psychosis symptoms (APS) as well as clinical outcome...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107211/cyclothymic-temperament-and-glucose-metabolism-in-the-right-superior-parietal-lobule
#20
Koji Hatano, Takeshi Terao, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno, Yoshinori Mizokami, Nobuyoshi Ishii
Cyclothymic temperament possesses a central dimension that includes rapid fluctuations in mood and emotional instability, and it is regarded as a prodromal state of bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study is to explore the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament. We used the data of 55 healthy participants in our previous study and analyzed the association between cyclothymic temperament scores rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the uptake of [(18)F]-FDG measured by positron emission tomography (PET)...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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