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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930599/dissection-of-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Can Sheng, Yue Huang, Ying Han
Pathophysiological changes of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) begin decades before clinical symptoms become apparent, providing an important window for early diagnosis and intervention. Prodromal stage of AD, a great opportunity for effective treatment and postponing the disease onset, has drawn extensive attention. The application of different biomarkers including neuroimaging, biochemical substances and genes makes AD-related pathology detectable in vivo and exploring novel biomarkers with relatively non-invasive and low cost has intrigued a wide range of interests...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920073/design-of-pilot-studies-to-inform-the-construction-of-composite-outcome-measures
#2
Steven D Edland, M Colin Ard, Weiwei Li, Lingjing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Composite scales have recently been proposed as outcome measures for clinical trials. For example, the Prodromal Alzheimer's Cognitive Composite (PACC) is the sum of z-score normed component measures assessing episodic memory, timed executive function, and global cognition. Alternative methods of calculating composite total scores using the weighted sum of the component measures that maximize signal-to-noise of the resulting composite score have been proposed. Optimal weights can be estimated from pilot data, but it is an open question how large a pilot trial is required to calculate reliably optimal weights...
June 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918941/modulation-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-secretases-as-early-prevention-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Iryna Voytyuk, Bart De Strooper, Lucía Chávez-Gutiérrez
The genetic evidence implicating amyloid-β in the initial stage of Alzheimer's disease is unequivocal. However, the long biochemical and cellular prodromal phases of the disease suggest that dementia is the result of a series of molecular and cellular cascades whose nature and connections remain unknown. Therefore, it is unlikely that treatments directed at amyloid-β will have major clinical effects in the later stages of the disease. We discuss the two major candidate therapeutic targets to lower amyloid-β in a preventive mode, i...
August 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918440/interpersonal-sensitivity-and-persistent-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms-in-adolescence
#4
Alice Masillo, M Brandizzi, L R Valmaggia, R Saba, N Lo Cascio, J F Lindau, L Telesforo, P Venturini, D Montanaro, D Di Pietro, M D'Alema, P Girardi, P Fiori Nastro
Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. A sample of 85 help-seeking individuals (mean age = 16...
September 16, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916821/reduced-basal-forebrain-atrophy-progression-in-a-randomized-donepezil-trial-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Enrica Cavedo, Michel J Grothe, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Marie Chupin, Didier Dormont, Marion Houot, Stephane Lehéricy, Stefan Teipel, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are approved drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) atrophy is reported to precede both entorhinal cortex atrophy and memory impairment in AD, challenging the traditional model of the temporal sequence of topographical pathology associated with AD. We studied the effect of one-year Donepezil treatment on the rate of BFCS atrophy in prodromal AD patients using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Donepezil (10 mg/day)...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912150/-18-f-fdg-pet-in-parkinsonism-differential-diagnosis-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Philipp T Meyer, Lars Frings, Gerta Rücker, Sabine Hellwig
Accurate differential diagnosis of parkinsonism is of a paramount therapeutic and prognostic importance. In addition, with the development of invasive therapies and novel disease-specific therapies, strategies for patient enrichment in trial populations are of growing importance. Imaging disease-specific patterns of regional glucose metabolism with positron emission tomography and [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) allows for a highly accurate distinction between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) including multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#7
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910597/predictors-of-change-in-social-networks-support-and-satisfaction-following-a-first-episode-psychosis-a-cohort-study
#8
Laoise Renwick, Liz Owens, John Lyne, Brian O'Donoghue, Eric Roche, Jonathan Drennan, Ann Sheridan, Mark Pilling, Eadbhard O'Callaghan, Mary Clarke
BACKGROUND: Diminished social networks are common in psychosis but few studies have measured these comprehensively and prospectively to determine how networks and support evolve during the early phase. There is little information regarding perceived support in the early phase of illness. The aim of this study was to describe social support, networks and perceived satisfaction, explore the clinical correlates of these outcomes and examine whether phases of untreated psychosis are linked with social network variables to determine potential opportunities for intervention...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904730/-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis-revealed-by-psychiatric-disorders-about-a-case
#9
Khalid Mouhadi, Tarik Boulahri, Abdelhadi Rouimi
Tuberculous meningoencephalitis is fairly frequent in endemic countries and it is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Therapeutic failure is common because of diagnostic delay. This delay is primarily due to a wide clinical polymorphism and, in particular, to misleading forms. We here report a rare clinical case of tuberculous meningitis in a patient in prodromal phase of psychosis.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899446/affective-and-emotional-dysregulation-as-pre-dementia-risk-markers-exploring-the-mild-behavioral-impairment-symptoms-of-depression-anxiety-irritability-and-euphoria
#10
Zahinoor Ismail, Jennifer Gatchel, Daniel R Bateman, Ricardo Barcelos-Ferreira, Marc Chantillon, Judith Jaeger, Nancy J Donovan, Moyra E Mortby
BACKGROUND: Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899422/moderating-effects-of-sex-on-the-impact-of-diagnosis-and-amyloid-positivity-on-verbal-memory-and-hippocampal-volume
#11
Jessica Z K Caldwell, Jody-Lynn Berg, Jeffrey L Cummings, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A(+)) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). METHODS: Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899330/rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-not-just-a-bad-dream
#12
REVIEW
Elie Matar, Simon Jg Lewis
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterised by the loss of the normal atonia during the REM stage of sleep, resulting in overt motor behaviours that usually represent the enactment of dreams. Patients will seek medical attention due to sleep-related injuries or unpleasant dream content. Idiopathic RBD which occurs independently of any other disease occurs in up to 2% of the older population. Meanwhile, secondary RBD is very common in association with certain neurodegenerative conditions...
September 18, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892758/seizure-self-prediction-myth-or-missed-opportunity
#13
REVIEW
Michael Mackay, Hector Mahlaba, Erika Gavillet, Roger G Whittaker
PURPOSE: Many patients report being able to predict their own seizures, and yet most seizures appear to strike out of the blue. This inherent contradiction makes the topic of seizure self-prediction controversial as well as difficult to study. Here we review the evidence for whether this ability exists, how many patients are capable of self-prediction and the nature of this capability, and whether this could provide a target for intervention. METHODS: Systematic searches of bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO through OVID were performed to identify relevant papers which were then screened by the study authors for inclusion in the study...
September 1, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891447/potential-role-of-neuroimaging-markers-for-early-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-primary-care
#14
Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Jochen R Thyrian, Stefan Klöppel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The use of imaging markers for the diagnosis of predementia and early dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has widely been explored in research settings and specialized care. The use of these markers in primary care has yet to be established. OBJECTIVE: Summarize current evidence for the usefulness of imaging markers for AD in primary compared to specialized care settings. METHOD: Selective overview of the literature, and pilot data on the use of MRI-based hippocampus and basal forebrain volumetry for the discrimination of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases from healthy controls in 58 cases from a primary care cohort and 58 matched cases from a memory clinic's sample...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890931/rotigotine-transdermal-patch-and-sleep-in-parkinson-s-disease-where-are-we-now
#15
REVIEW
Miguel Rosa-Grilo, Mubasher A Qamar, Raquel N Taddei, Javier Pagonabarraga, Jaime Kulisevsky, Anna Sauerbier, K Ray Chaudhuri
A wide range of sleep dysfunction complicates Parkinson's disease during its course from prodromal to palliative stage. It is now increasingly acknowledged that sleep disturbances are thus integral to the disease and pose a significant burden impacting on quality of life of patients. Sleep fragmentation, restless legs syndrome, nocturia, and nocturnal pain are regarded as one of the main components of night-time sleep dysfunction with possible secondary impact on cognition and well-being. The role of dopaminergic therapies, particularly using a continuous drug delivery strategy in managing some of these sleep issues, have been reported but the overall concept remains unclear...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890916/power-analysis-to-detect-treatment-effects-in-longitudinal-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Zhiyue Huang, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Brian D M Tom
INTRODUCTION: Assessing cognitive and functional changes at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and detecting treatment effects in clinical trials for early AD are challenging. METHODS: Under the assumption that transformed versions of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes, and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale tests'/components' scores are from a multivariate linear mixed-effects model, we calculated the sample sizes required to detect treatment effects on the annual rates of change in these three components in clinical trials for participants with mild cognitive impairment...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884231/infant-brachial-neuritis-following-a-viral-prodrome-a-case-in-a-6-month-old-child-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Oliver D Mrowczynski, Sara T Langan, Elias B Rizk
INTRODUCTION: Brachial neuritis, commonly known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome, affects two to three people per 100,000 and presents with pain and weakness of the arm and shoulder. Brachial neuritis is uncommon in infants. METHODS: Here, we present the case of a 6-month old female, who presented with right upper extremity weakness and paresis following a viral prodrome. We also present a summary of all reported cases of brachial neuritis in infants. RESULTS: This is the youngest case of brachial neuritis diagnosed at our institution...
September 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880689/prodromal-signs-and-symptoms-of-serious-infections-with-tocilizumab-treatment-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-text-mining-of-the-japanese-postmarketing-adverse-event-reporting-database
#18
Tatsuya Atsumi, Yoshiaki Ando, Shinichi Matsuda, Shiho Tomizawa, Riwa Tanaka, Nobuhiro Takagi, Ayako Nakasone
OBJECTIVE: To search for signs and symptoms before serious infection (SI) occurs in tocilizumab (TCZ)-treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: Individual case safety reports, including structured (age, sex, adverse event [AE]) and unstructured (clinical narratives) data, were analyzed by automated text mining from a Japanese post-marketing AE-reporting database (16 April 2008-10 April 2015) assuming the following: treated in Japan; TCZ RA treatment; ≥1 SI; unable to exclude causality between TCZ and SIs...
September 7, 2017: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874223/premorbid-social-adjustment-and-association-with-attenuated-psychotic-symptoms-in-clinical-high-risk-and-help-seeking-youth
#19
S I Tarbox-Berry, D O Perkins, S W Woods, J Addington
BACKGROUND: Attenuated positive symptom syndrome (APSS), characterized by 'putatively prodromal' attenuated psychotic-like pathology, indicates increased risk for psychosis. Poor premorbid social adjustment predicts severity of APSS symptoms and predicts subsequent psychosis in APSS-diagnosed individuals, suggesting application for improving detection of 'true' prodromal youth who will transition to psychosis. However, these predictive associations have not been tested in controls and therefore may be independent of the APSS diagnosis, negating utility for improving prediction in APSS-diagnosed individuals...
September 6, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872736/progression-of-prodromal-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-in-the-premotor-phase-study-2-year-follow-up-data
#20
I Liepelt-Scarfone, B Brändle, R Yilmaz, K Gauss, E Schaeffer, M Timmers, I Wurster, K Brockmann, W Maetzler, L Van Nueten, J R Streffer, D Berg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neuropathological process starts years before the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Assessment of prodromal features in healthy individuals may help to define those with high risk for future PD. Our aim was to evaluate the presence and progression of prodromal markers in individuals with low risk [healthy controls (HC), n = 14] and high risk for PD (HR-PD, n = 34) and early PD (n = 14) patients. METHODS: Several risk or prodromal markers were combined to define HR-PD...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
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