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Prodromal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634445/antioxidant-treatment-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-prevents-the-development-of-cognitive-and-social-behavioral-deficits-that-result-from-perinatal-ketamine-treatment
#1
Aarron Phensy, Hasmik E Duzdabanian, Samantha Brewer, Anurag Panjabi, Christopher Driskill, Annuska Berz, George Peng, Sven Kroener
Alterations of the normal redox state can be found in all stages of schizophrenia, suggesting a key role for oxidative stress in the etiology and maintenance of the disease. Pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors can disrupt natural antioxidant defense systems and induce schizophrenia-like behaviors in animals and healthy human subjects. Perinatal administration of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine produces persistent behavioral deficits in adult mice which mimic a range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms that characterize schizophrenia...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#2
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626469/serum-amino-acid-profiles-in-normal-subjects-and-in-patients-with-or-at-risk-of-alzheimer-dementia
#3
Gaetano Corso, Adriana Cristofano, Nadia Sapere, Giancarlo la Marca, Antonella Angiolillo, Michela Vitale, Roberto Fratangelo, Teresa Lombardi, Carola Porcile, Mariano Intrieri, Alfonso Di Costanzo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormalities in the plasma amino acid profile have been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD), but no data exist for the prodromal phase characterized by subjective memory complaint (SMC). It was our aim to understand if serum amino acid levels change along the continuum from normal to AD, and to identify possible diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: Serum levels of 15 amino acids and 2 organic acids were determined in 4 groups of participants - 29 with probable AD, 18 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 24 with SMC, and 46 cognitively healthy subjects (HS) - by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry...
January 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626186/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#4
Kenji Isahaya, Kensuke Shinohara, Masashi Akamatu, Takahiro Shimizu, Kenzo Sakurai, Makoto Shiraishi, Hisanao Akiyama, Yasuhiro Hasegawa
A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with transient global amnesia (TGA) 15 years previously was admitted to hospital with complaints of amnesia and headache. His symptoms improved on day-2. The initial brain MRI and electroencephalography findings were normal. He was diagnosed with a recurrence of TGA and discharged. However, he returned with right leg weakness and complained of a thunderclap headache. MRI demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and multifocal segmental narrowing of the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and large intracranial arteries, and he was diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625940/prodromal-stage-of-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-how-to-diagnose-in-practice
#5
Frédéric Blanc, Marc Verny
Disease with Lewy bodies or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), particularly at the prodromal stage, is a complex disease to diagnose because of different clinical beginnings and variable paths in terms of clinical expression. Thus DLB can be entcountered in different input modes: mild cognitive impairment, depression, acute behavioral disorders, confusion and delirium, or sleep disorders. In the aim to better diagnose the disease, should be sought obviously to search for the key symptoms: fluctuations, hallucinations, extra-pyramidal syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#6
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615430/characterization-of-patients-with-longstanding-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#7
Alex Iranzo, Ambra Stefani, Monica Serradell, Maria Jose Martí, Francisco Lomeña, Philipp Mahlknecht, Heike Stockner, Carles Gaig, Ana Fernández-Arcos, Werner Poewe, Eduard Tolosa, Birgit Högl, Joan Santamaria
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of prodromal markers of Parkinson disease (PD) in patients with longstanding idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD), a small subgroup of individuals with IRBD with long-term follow-up thought not to be at risk of developing PD. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging markers of PD were evaluated in 20 patients with polysomnographic-confirmed long-standing IRBD and in 32 matched controls. RESULTS: Patients were 16 men and 4 women with mean age of 72...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605073/antibody-mimetic-peptoid-nanosheet-for-label-free-serum-based-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ling Zhu, Zijian Zhao, Peng Cheng, Zhaohui He, Zhiqiang Cheng, Jiaxi Peng, Huayi Wang, Chen Wang, Yanlian Yang, Zhiyuan Hu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Current diagnosis of AD is based on symptoms, neuropsychological tests, and neuroimaging, and is usually evident years after the pathological process. Early assessment at the preclinical or prodromal stage is in a great demand since treatment after the onset can hardly stop or reverse the disease progress. However, early diagnosis of AD is challenging due to the lack of reliable noninvasive approaches...
June 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604243/the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-to-measure-change-in-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trials
#9
Bob Olsson, Jonathan M Schott, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
All recent phase 3 trials of potentially disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have so far failed. Potential reasons include enrolling subjects whose disease is too advanced or who do not have AD pathology, or simply incorrect drug targets. The goal of disease-modifying AD trials is to halt the progress of neuronal damage and death and this can be assessed in vivo using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Areas covered: The authors conducted a literature search of the use of CSF biomarkers in disease-modifying AD clinical trials using PubMed...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598856/glucocerebrosidase-mutations-in-parkinson-disease
#10
Grace O'Regan, Ruth-Mary deSouza, Roberta Balestrino, A H Schapira
Following the discovery of a higher than expected incidence of Parkinson Disease (PD) in Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, mutations in the glucocerebrocidase (GBA) gene, which encodes a lysosomal enzyme involved in sphingolipid degradation were explored in the context of idiopathic PD. GBA mutations are now known to be the single largest risk factor for development of idiopathic PD. Clinically, on imaging and pharmacologically, GBA PD is almost identical to idiopathic PD. In patients with a known GBA mutation, it is possible to monitor for prodromal signs of PD...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598839/functional-disintegration-of-the-default-mode-network-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Kim N H Dillen, Heidi I L Jacobs, Juraj Kukolja, Nils Richter, Boris von Reutern, Özgür A Onur, Karl-Josef Langen, Gereon R Fink
Neurodegenerative brain changes can affect the functional connectivity strength between nodes of the default-mode network (DMN), which may underlie changes in cognitive performance. It remains unclear how the functional connectivity strength of DMN nodes differs from healthy to pathological aging and whether these changes are cognitively relevant. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional connectivity strength across five DMN nodes in 25 healthy controls (HC), 28 subjective cognitive decline (SCD) participants, and 25 prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597553/attenuated-positive-psychotic-symptoms-and-the-experience-of-anhedonia
#12
Shanna Cooper, Ann M Kring, Lauren M Ellman
BACKGROUND: Deficits in anticipatory pleasure have been consistently shown among chronic, first-episode, and clinical high risk for psychosis populations, but much less attention has been given to non-clinical individuals experiencing attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS). METHODS: Young adults (N = 1839) were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale, which measures anticipatory and consummatory pleasure, and the Prodromal Questionnaire, which measures APPS...
June 9, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595287/conversion-to-parkinson-disease-in-the-pars-hyposmic-and-dopamine-transporter-deficit-prodromal-cohort
#13
Danna Jennings, Andrew Siderowf, Matthew Stern, John Seibyl, Shirley Eberly, David Oakes, Kenneth Marek
Importance: Detecting individuals at risk for Parkinson disease (PD) during the prodromal phase could clarify disease mechanisms and allow for treatment earlier in the disease process to possibly slow or prevent the onset of motor PD. Objective: To determine if the combination of smell identification testing followed by dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can accurately and efficiently identify individuals from the general population at risk for conversion to a clinical diagnosis of PD...
June 8, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595262/dopaminergic-imaging-and-prodromal-parkinson-disease-a-key-biomarker-arrives
#14
Ronald B Postuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592904/non-motor-features-of-parkinson-disease
#15
REVIEW
Anthony H V Schapira, K Ray Chaudhuri, Peter Jenner
Many of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) can be preceded, sometimes for several years, by non-motor symptoms that include hyposmia, sleep disorders, depression and constipation. These non-motor features appear across the spectrum of patients with PD, including individuals with genetic causes of PD. The neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological bases of non-motor abnormalities in PD remain largely undefined. Here, we discuss recent advances that have helped to establish the presence, severity and effect on the quality of life of non-motor symptoms in PD, and the neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological mechanisms involved...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592819/spatial-and-temporal-boundaries-of-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-leading-to-schizophrenia
#16
Kazu Nakazawa, Vivek Jeevakumar, Kazuhito Nakao
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction is one of the most prevalent models of schizophrenia. For example, healthy subjects treated with uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists elicit positive, negative, and cognitive-like symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, which is likely caused by autoantibody-mediated down-regulation of cell surface N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, often experience psychiatric symptoms similar to schizophrenia initially...
February 3, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592637/in-vivo-imaging-of-prodromal-hippocampus-ca1-subfield-oxidative-stress-in-models-of-alzheimer-disease-and-angelman-syndrome
#17
Bruce A Berkowitz, Jacob Lenning, Nikita Khetarpal, Catherine Tran, Johnny Y Wu, Ali M Berri, Kristin Dernay, E Mark Haacke, Fatema Shafie-Khorassani, Robert H Podolsky, John C Gant, Shaniya Maimaiti, Olivier Thibault, Geoffrey G Murphy, Brian M Bennett, Robin Roberts
Hippocampus oxidative stress is considered pathogenic in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Angelman syndrome (AS). Yet clinical benefits of antioxidant treatment for these diseases remain unclear because conventional imaging methods are unable to guide management of therapies in specific hippocampus subfields in vivo that underlie abnormal behavior. Excessive production of paramagnetic free radicals in nonhippocampus brain tissue can be measured in vivo as a greater-than-normal 1/T1 that is quenchable with antioxidant as measured by quench-assisted (Quest) MRI...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588547/improving-dual-task-walking-paradigms-to-detect-prodromal-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#18
Maroua Belghali, Nathalie Chastan, Damien Davenne, Leslie M Decker
Gait control is a complex movement, relying on spinal, subcortical, and cortical structures. The presence of deficits in one or more of these structures will result in changes in gait automaticity and control, as is the case in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). By reviewing recent findings in this field of research, current studies have shown that gait performance assessment under dual-task conditions could contribute to predict both of these diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587814/motion-energy-analysis-reveals-altered-body-movement-in-youth-at-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Derek J Dean, Alayna T Samson, Raeana Newberry, Vijay A Mittal
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that movement abnormalities occur prior to the onset of psychosis. Innovations in technology and software provide the opportunity for a fine-tuned and sensitive measurement of observable behavior that may be particularly useful to detecting the subtle movement aberrations present during the prodromal period. METHODS: In the present study, 54 youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis and 62 healthy controls participated in structured clinical interviews to assess for an UHR syndrome...
June 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587688/hot-and-cold-executive-functions-in-youth-with-psychotic-symptoms
#20
L E MacKenzie, V C Patterson, A Zwicker, V Drobinin, H L Fisher, S Abidi, A N Greve, A Bagnell, L Propper, M Alda, B Pavlova, R Uher
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between 'cold' and 'hot' executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in 'hot' executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses...
June 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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