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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#1
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775415/exercise-cardiac-mri-unmasks-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-acute-hypoxia-and-chronic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#2
Shareen Kaur Jaijee, Marina Quinlan, Pawel Tokarczuk, Matthew Clemence, Luke S Howard, J Simon R Gibbs, Declan O'Regan
Background - Coupling of right ventricular (RV) contractility to afterload is maintained at rest in the early stages of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but exercise may unmask depleted contractile reserves. We assessed whether elevated afterload reduces RV contractile reserve despite compensated resting function using non-invasive exercise imaging. Methods and Results - Fourteen patients with PAH (mean age 39.1 years, 10 females) and 34 healthy control subjects (mean age 35.6 years, 17 females) completed real-time cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during sub-maximal exercise breathing room-air...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771608/paced-breathing-and-phrenic-nerve-responses-evoked-by-epidural-stimulation-following-complete-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Tatiana Bezdudnaya, Michael A Lane, Vitaliy Marchenko
Spinal cord injury (SCI) at the level of cervical segments often results in life-threatening respiratory complications and requires long-term mechanical ventilator assistance. Thus, restoring diaphragm activity and regaining voluntary control of breathing are the primary clinical goals for patients with respiratory dysfunction following cervical SCI. Epidural stimulation (EDS) is a promising strategy that has been explored extensively for non-respiratory functions, and to a limited extent within the respiratory system...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771456/serum-serotonin-levels-in-patients-with-epileptic-seizures
#4
Arun Murugesan, M R Sandhya Rani, Johnson Hampson, Bilal Zonjy, Nuria Lacuey, Carl L Faingold, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Rup K Sainju, Stephan Schuele, Beate Diehl, Maromi Nei, Ronald M Harper, Lisa M Bateman, George Richerson, Samden D Lhatoo
Profound cardiovascular and/or respiratory dysfunction is part of the terminal cascade in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Central control of ventilation is mediated by brainstem rhythm generators, which are influenced by a variety of inputs, many of which use the modulatory neurotransmitter serotonin to mediate important inputs for breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate epileptic seizure-induced changes in serum serotonin levels and whether there are potential implications for SUDEP...
May 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771243/breath-volatile-organic-compounds-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-and-without-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#5
Lucas Küppers, Olaf Holz, Sven Schuchardt, Jens Gottlieb, Jan Fuge, Mark Greer, Jens Hohlfeld
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) with its clinical correlative of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) remains the major limiting factor for long-term graft survival. Currently there are no established methods for the early diagnosis or prediction of BOS. To assess the feasibility of breath collection as a non-invasive tool and the potential of breath volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the early detection of BOS, we compared the breath VOC composition between transplant patients without and different stages of BOS...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764215/myotonic-dystrophytype-1-report-of-non-24-h-sleep-wake-disorder-with-excessive-daytime-sleepiness
#6
Lucio Huebra Pimentel Filho, Ana Carolina Dias Gomes, Bruno Gonçalves, Sergio Tufik, Fernando Morgadinho Coelho
Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is a neuromuscular disease with myotonia, progressive weakness, and involvement of CNS, heart, and gastrointestinal system. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is related to sleep breathing diseases, restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movements during sleep and narcoleptic-like phenotype. However, authors highlight a central dysfunction of sleep regulation. We describe a 26-year-old, female, MD1 patient with EDS. Sleep diary/actigraphy evidenced two different circadian periods with values of 1442 and 1522 min...
May 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757061/exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction-in-athletes-contributory-factors-and-treatment-implications
#7
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes, Trine Stensrud
Otherwise healthy adolescent athletes presenting with respiratory symptoms consistent with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) are frequently encountered in clinical practice. The symptoms are often incorrectly considered to result from exercise-induced asthma, and may be wrongly treated as such. Given the potential implications for health and performance if EILO is left untreated, a more comprehensive understanding of contributory mechanisms is essential in order to create appropriate treatment procedures...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750475/effects-of-losartan-and-allopurinol-on-cardiorespiratory-regulation-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#8
Barbara J Morgan, Mihaela Teodorescu, David F Pegelow, Emily R Jackson, Devin L Schneider, David T Plante, James P Gapinski, Scott J Hetzel, John M Dopp
Chemoreflex sensitization produced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in rats is attenuated by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) blockade. AT1 R blockade and xanthine oxidase inhibition both ameliorate CIH-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized treatment with losartan and allopurinol would reduce chemoreflex sensitivity and improve hypoxic vasodilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Eighty-six hypertensive patients with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥25 events/hr and no other cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol, losartan, or placebo for 6 weeks...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749451/helicobacter-pylori-infection-impairs-gastric-epithelial-barrier-function-via-microrna%C3%A2-100%C3%A2-mediated-mtor-signaling-inhibition
#9
Guimei Hu, Lihua Guo, Guoliang Ye
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has an important effect on human health as it is an established cause of gastric carcinoma. microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are a family of small RNAs with various functions in the control of cellular profiles. However, the effect of miR‑100 in H. pylori infection remains unknown. Healthy volunteers (n=100) and patients with H. pylori infection (n=98) were included in the present study. H. pylori infection was confirmed by urea breath tests. The levels of miR‑100 in gastroscopic biopsy samples and cultured GES‑1 cells were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731498/a-case-of-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-antibody-positive-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-pulmonary-hemorrhage-successfully-treated-at-an-early-stage-of-the-disease
#10
Takehisa Yamada, Koji Mugishima, Seiichiro Higo, Yukie Yoshida, Fumiaki Itagaki, Shizuka Yui, Tetsuya Kashiwagi, Yoko Endo, Akira Shimizu, Shuichi Tsuruoka
We report here a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with pulmonary hemorrhage and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of exanthema, arthralgia, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis. Plain chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed pericardial effusion, bilateral pleural effusions, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Laboratory findings on admission revealed proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, anemia, leukopenia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocomplementemia, and slightly elevated levels of serum creatinine...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729441/laryngeal-dysfunction-in-cough-hypersensitivity-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#11
Anne E Vertigan, Sarah M Kapela, Emily K Kearney, Peter G Gibson
BACKGROUND: Chronic refractory cough(CRC), a phenotype of Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome(CHS), is a disabling problem. Laryngeal dysfunction may be important in CC and CHS because laryngeal symptoms are common and CC, however the role of laryngeal dysfunction in CHS has not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature of laryngeal dysfunction in patients with CC and compare with the related laryngeal conditions of Vocal Cord Dysfunction(VCD) and Muscle Tension Dysphonia(MTD)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728164/impact-of-supraglottoplasty-on-parental-preception-of-swallowing-using-a-10-question-swallowing-index
#12
Sohit Paul Kanotra, Vil Vaitaitis, Hunter Hopkins, Meghan Fletcher, Courtney K Gonsoulin, Brent Keith
INTRODUCTION: Laryngomalacia can have a significant impact on swallowing function. Most of the studies in literature have focused on evaluating swallowing dysfunction in children with Laryngomalacia using clinical assessment and swallowing studies i.e. functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluroscopic evaluation of swallowing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the parental perception of swallowing using a newly devised 10-point swallowing index before and after supraglottoplasty...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720799/phrenic-nerve-conduction-study-in-the-early-stage-of-guillain-barre-syndrome-as-a-predictor-of-respiratory-failure
#13
Barun Kumar Sen, Alak Pandit
Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. Objective: To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. Methods: 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study...
January 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719025/correlation-between-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-eds-and-self-reported-and-objective-nasal-characteristics
#14
K M Hoven, H J Aarstad, B Bjorvatn, E H Lundemo, S K Steinsvåg
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF), and patient reported symptoms from the nose. METHOLOGY: Six hundred and fifty one consecutive patients referred to a hospital on suspicion of sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) were included in the study. Daytime sleepiness was assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EpSS). Nasal airflow was measured with Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF)...
April 25, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717157/effective-in-vivo-treatment-of-acute-lung-injury-with-helical-amphipathic-peptoid-mimics-of-pulmonary-surfactant-proteins
#15
Ann M Czyzewski, Lynda M McCaig, Michelle T Dohm, Lauren A Broering, Li-Juan Yao, Nathan J Brown, Maruti K Didwania, Jennifer S Lin, Jim F Lewis, Ruud Veldhuizen, Annelise E Barron
Acute lung injury (ALI) leads to progressive loss of breathing capacity and hypoxemia, as well as pulmonary surfactant dysfunction. ALI's pathogenesis and management are complex, and it is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exogenous surfactant therapy, even for research purposes, is impractical for adults because of the high cost of current surfactant preparations. Prior in vitro work has shown that poly-N-substituted glycines (peptoids), in a biomimetic lipid mixture, emulate key biophysical activities of lung surfactant proteins B and C at the air-water interface...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697839/brain-derived-erythropoietin-protects-from-intermittent-hypoxia-induced-cardiorespiratory-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#16
Elizabeth Elliot-Portal, Sofien Laouafa, Christian Arias-Reyes, Tara Adele Janes, Vincent Joseph, Jorge Soliz
Study Objectives: Based on the fact that erythropoietin (Epo) administration in rodents protects against spatial learning and cognitive deficits induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-mediated oxidative damage, here we tested the hypothesis that Epo in the brain protects against cardiorespiratory disorders and oxidative stress induced by CIH in adult mice. Methods: Adult control and transgenic mice overexpressing Epo in the brain only (Tg21) were exposed to CIH (21%-10% O2-10 cycles/hour-8 hours/day-7 days) or room air...
April 25, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687276/diaphragm-function-and-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation-an-ultrasound-and-phrenic-nerve-stimulation-clinical-study
#17
Martin Dres, Ewan C Goligher, Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Elise Morawiec, Laurence Dangers, Danielle Reuter, Julien Mayaux, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule
BACKGROUND: Diaphragm dysfunction is defined by a value of twitch tracheal pressure in response to magnetic phrenic stimulation (twitch pressure) amounting to less than 11 cmH2 O. This study assessed whether this threshold or a lower one would predict accurately weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. Twitch pressure was compared to ultrasound measurement of diaphragm function. METHODS: In patients undergoing a first spontaneous breathing trial, diaphragm function was evaluated by twitch pressure and by diaphragm ultrasound (thickening fraction)...
April 23, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675716/disturbances-of-sleep-and-alertness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Aleksandar Videnovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Sleep dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor manifestations of PD that has gained significant interest over the past two decades due to its impact on the daily lives of PD patients, poorly understood mechanisms, and limited treatment options. In this review, we discuss the most common sleep disorders in PD and present recent investigations that have broadened our understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of disturbed sleep and alertness in PD...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659867/gastric-emptying-impacts-the-timing-of-meal-glucose-peak-on-subjects-with-uncomplicated-type-1-diabetes
#19
Roberta Lupoli, Annalisa Creanza, Ettore Griffo, Gerardo Nardone, Alba Rocco, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Gabriele Riccardi, Brunella Capaldo
Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) motility dysfunction, ranging from delayed to accelerated gastric emptying (GE). Objective: To evaluate GE in type 1 DM (T1DM) patients without chronic complications and to investigate its relation with postprandial glucose and GI hormones responses. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting/Participants: Forty-two T1DM patients free of chronic complications referred to "Federico II" University and 31 healthy controls comparable for age, gender and BMI...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657376/smoke-inhalation-injury-etiopathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Kapil Gupta, Mayank Mehrotra, Parul Kumar, Anoop Raj Gogia, Arun Prasad, Joseph Arnold Fisher
Smoke inhalation injury is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in fire victims. It is a complex multifaceted injury affecting initially the airway; however, in short time, it can become a complex life-threatening systemic disease affecting every organ in the body. In this review, we provide a summary of the underlying pathophysiology of organ dysfunction and provide an up-to-date survey of the various critical care modalities that have been found beneficial in caring for these patients. Major pathophysiological change is development of edema in the respiratory tract...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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