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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835923/ros-no-mediated-inter-organ-communication-in-skeletal-muscle-wasting-diseases
#1
Lucia Maria Leitner, Rebecca June Wilson, Zhen Yan, Axel Gödecke
SIGNIFICANCE: Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and a loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. This disease is associated with high incidence with chronic diseases such as heart failure, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS, among others. Since there is currently no effective treatment available, cachectic patients have a poor prognosis. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms is therefore an important medical task...
November 11, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741382/tangential-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-to-the-intact-breast
#2
Jenna Dean, Carmen J Hansen, Justin Westhuyzen, Brett Waller, Kirsty Turnbull, Maree Wood, Andrew Last
INTRODUCTION: Inverse-planned intensity modulated radiation therapy (IP-IMRT) has potential benefits over other techniques for tangential intact breast radiotherapy. Possible benefits include increased homogeneity, faster planning time, less inter-planner variability and lower doses to organs at risk (OAR). We therefore conducted a pilot study of previously treated intact breast patients to compare the current forward-planned 'field-in-field' technique (FP-IMRT) with an IP-IMRT alternative...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720277/dosimetric-and-radiobiological-comparison-of-tg-43-and-monte-carlo-calculations-in-192-ir-breast-brachytherapy-applications
#3
V Peppa, E P Pappas, P Karaiskos, T Major, C Polgár, P Papagiannis
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical significance of introducing model based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) as an alternative to TG-43 in (192)Ir interstitial breast brachytherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 57 patient cohort was used in a retrospective comparison between TG-43 based dosimetry data exported from a treatment planning system and Monte Carlo (MC) dosimetry performed using MCNP v. 6.1 with plan and anatomy information in DICOM-RT format. Comparison was performed for the target, ipsilateral lung, heart, skin, breast and ribs, using dose distributions, dose-volume histograms (DVH) and plan quality indices clinically used for plan evaluation, as well as radiobiological parameters...
October 5, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599608/impact-of-coronal-and-sagittal-views-on-lung-gross-tumor-volume-delineation
#4
Isabelle Fitton, Joop C Duppen, Roel J H M Steenbakkers, Heidi Lotz, Peter J C M Nowak, Coen R N Rasch, Marcel van Herk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the impact of coronal and sagittal views (CSV) on the gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation on CT and matched PET/CT scans in non-small cell lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: GTV delineations were performed by 11 experienced radiation oncologists on CT and PET/CT in 22 patients. Two tumor groups were defined: Group I: Primary tumors surrounded by lung or visceral pleura, without venous invasion, and without large extensions to the chest wall or the mediastinum...
September 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594562/endothelins-and-carcinogenesis
#5
Jacek Olender, Ewa Nowakowska-Zajdel, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Endothelins are a family of four endogenous peptides (ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, ET-4) secreted primarily in an inactive form by the endothelium. They are activated with the participation of converting enzyme. Numerous studies have described their pleiotropic biological activity. These peptides are involved, inter alia, in the regulation of processes such as cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Their important role in the regulation of blood pressure, tissue perfusion (especially in the central nervous system), and myocardial systolic function is also known...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579358/how-well-do-final-year-undergraduate-medical-students-master-practical-clinical-skills
#6
Sylvère Störmann, Melanie Stankiewicz, Patricia Raes, Christina Berchtold, Yvonne Kosanke, Gabrielle Illes, Peter Loose, Matthias W Angstwurm
INTRODUCTION: The clinical examination and other practical clinical skills are fundamental to guide diagnosis and therapy. The teaching of such practical skills has gained significance through legislative changes and adjustments of the curricula of medical schools in Germany. We sought to find out how well final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills. METHODS: We conducted a formative 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) focused on practical clinical skills during the final year of undergraduate medical education...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558560/inter-organ-handling-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-humans
#7
Daniela Verzola, Francesca Ansaldo, Samantha Milanesi, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Gian Marco Rosa, Antonella Sofia, Alice Bonanni, Francesca Viazzi, Manrico Balbi, Giacomo Garibotto
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF-23) accumulates in blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated both with cardiovascular complications and disease progression. However, our knowledge of the sites and mechanisms which regulate plasma FGF-23 is still incomplete. We measured plasma intact FGF-23 across the kidney, splanchnic organs and lung in eleven patients (eGFR 60 ± 6 ml/min) during elective diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. In these patients FGF-23 was removed by the kidney, with a fractional extraction (FE) of ~22%...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491065/pre-clinical-investigation-of-plasma-pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution-of-a-novel-antithrombotic-agent-s002-333-in-mice-using-lc-ms-ms
#8
Manisha Bhateria, Rachumallu Ramakrishna, Santosh Kumar Puttrevu, Sahithi Yerrabelli, Anil K Saxena, Rabi Sankar Bhatta
S002-333 [2-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-b-carboxylic acid amide] is a novel and potent antithrombotic agent developed by CSIR-CDRI, India. The present study was aimed to develop a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of S002-333 in mice plasma and tissues. The extraction of S002-333 from relatively small amount of mouse biomatrices (50μL) was accomplished using protein precipitation followed by liquid-liquid extraction and the separation of analytes was achieved on C18 reversed phase column using acetonitrile and triple distilled water (75:25, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434081/cardiorespiratory-response-to-different-exercise-tests-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#9
Baptiste Chéhère, Valérie Bougault, Alice Gicquello, Benoit Wallaert
INTRODUCTION: The 6-minute stepper test (6MST) has been used as an alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess exercise tolerance in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Recent data suggest that the tests may involve different energy pathways and cardiorespiratory responses. We thus aimed to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of ILD patients during the 6MWT and the 6MST. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with ILD were randomised to perform both tests in the order 6MST→6MWT (n=16) or 6MWT→6MST (n=15)...
July 18, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27332881/proton-pencil-beam-scanning-for-mediastinal-lymphoma-treatment-planning-and-robustness-assessment
#10
Chuan Zeng, John P Plastaras, Paul James, Zelig A Tochner, Christine E Hill-Kayser, Stephen M Hahn, Stefan Both
BACKGROUND: Modern radiotherapy (RT) for lymphoma is highly personalized. While advanced imaging is largely employed to define limited treatment volumes, the use of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) for highly conformal lymphoma RT is still in its infancy. Here, we assess the dosimetric benefits and feasibility of PBS for mediastinal lymphoma (ML). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients were planned using PBS for involved-site RT. The initial plans were calculated on the average four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)...
June 22, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325526/bulk-evaluation-and-comparison-of-radiotherapy-treatment-plans-for-breast-cancer
#11
T Kairn, S B Crowe, C M Langton, J V Trapp
This study provides a bulk, retrospective analysis of 151 breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatment plans, as a small-scale demonstration of the potential breadth and value of the information that may be obtained from clinical data mining. The treatments were planned at three centres belonging to one organisation over a period of 3 months. All 151 plans were used to evaluate inter-centre consistency and compliance with a local planning protocol. A subset of 79 plans, from one centre, were used in a more detailed evaluation of the effects of anatomical asymmetry on heart and lung dose, the effects of a metallic temporary tissue expander port on dose homogeneity and the overall conformity and homogeneity achieved in routine breast treatment planning...
September 2016: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260349/focused-cardiopulmonary-ultrasound-for-assessment-of-dyspnea-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#12
Sachita P Shah, Sachin P Shah, Reginald Fils-Aime, Walkens Desir, Joanel Joasil, David M Venesy, Krithika Meera Muruganandan
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and management of acutely dyspneic patients in resource-limited developing world settings poses a particular challenge. Focused cardiopulmonary ultrasound (CPUS) may assist in the emergency diagnosis and management of patients with acute dyspnea by identifying left ventricular systolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, interstitial pulmonary edema, and pleural effusion. We sought to assess the accuracy of emergency providers performing CPUS after a training intervention in a limited-resource setting; a secondary objective was to assess the ability of CPUS to affect change of clinician diagnostic assessment and acute management in patients presenting with undifferentiated dyspnea...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051173/respiratory-gated-radiotherapy-pretreatment-patient-specific-quality-assurance
#13
Rajesh Thiyagarajan, Sujit Nath Sinha, Ramamoorthy Ravichandran, Kothandaraman Samuvel, Girigesh Yadav, Ashok Kumar Sigamani, Vikraman Subramani, N Arunai Nambi Raj
Organ motions during inter-fraction and intra-fraction radiotherapy introduce errors in dose delivery, irradiating excess of normal tissue, and missing target volume. Lung and heart involuntary motions cause above inaccuracies and gated dose delivery try to overcome above effects. Present work attempts a novel method to verify dynamic dose delivery using a four-dimensional (4D) phantom. Three patients with mobile target are coached to maintain regular and reproducible breathing pattern. Appropriate intensity projection image set generated from 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT) is used for target delineation...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018507/plasma-pharmacokinetics-bioavailability-and-tissue-distribution-of-agnuside-following-peroral-and-intravenous-administration-in-mice-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Rachumallu Ramakrishna, Manisha Bhateria, Rajbir Singh, Santosh Kumar Puttrevu, Rabi Sankar Bhatta
Agnuside (AGN), an iridoid glycoside, is the chemotaxonomic marker of the genus Vitex which has gained enormous attention by virtue of its potential health benefits. Regardless of claiming many therapeutic applications reports demonstrating its pharmacokinetics or quantification in biomatrices are lacking. This is the first report which presents a sensitive liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of AGN in mice plasma and various tissues (including liver, intestine, spleen, kidney, heart, lungs and brain)...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921406/distribution-of-mirna-expression-across-human-tissues
#15
Nicole Ludwig, Petra Leidinger, Kurt Becker, Christina Backes, Tobias Fehlmann, Christian Pallasch, Steffi Rheinheimer, Benjamin Meder, Cord Stähler, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller
We present a human miRNA tissue atlas by determining the abundance of 1997 miRNAs in 61 tissue biopsies of different organs from two individuals collected post-mortem. One thousand three hundred sixty-four miRNAs were discovered in at least one tissue, 143 were present in each tissue. To define the distribution of miRNAs, we utilized a tissue specificity index (TSI). The majority of miRNAs (82.9%) fell in a middle TSI range i.e. were neither specific for single tissues (TSI > 0.85) nor housekeeping miRNAs (TSI < 0...
May 5, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856537/inter-tissue-coexpression-network-analysis-reveals-dpp4-as-an-important-gene-in-heart-to-blood-communication
#16
Quan Long, Carmen Argmann, Sander M Houten, Tao Huang, Siwu Peng, Yong Zhao, Zhidong Tu, Jun Zhu
BACKGROUND: Inter-tissue molecular interactions are critical to the function and behavior of biological systems in multicellular organisms, but systematic studies of interactions between tissues are lacking. Also, existing studies of inter-tissue interactions are based on direct gene expression correlations, which can't distinguish correlations due to common genetic architectures versus biochemical or molecular signal exchange between tissues. METHODS: We developed a novel strategy to study inter-tissue interaction by removing effects of genetic regulation of gene expression (genetic decorrelation)...
February 9, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780157/a-hplc-ms-ms-method-for-determination-of-6-feruloylspinosin-in-rat-plasma-and-tissues-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-study
#17
Longdong Qiao, Yan Liu, Xiaoyan Chen, Junbo Xie, Yanqing Zhang, Ke Yang, Hongjian Zhou, Yayun Duan, Wei Zheng, Wenlin Xie
A sensitive, reliable and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues with puerarin as the internal standard. The separation was performed on a Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was performed by MRM with m/z [M-H](-) 783.3→427.2 for 6'''-feruloylspinosin and m/z [M-H](-) 415.4→295.4 for the internal standard, respectively...
March 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765266/development-and-validation-of-hplc-method-with-fluorometric-detection-for-quantification-of-bisnaphthalimidopropyldiaminooctane-in-animal-tissues-following-administration-in-polymeric-nanoparticles
#18
Marcela A Segundo, Vera L R G Abreu, Marcelo V Osório, Sonia Nogueira, Paul Kong Thoo Lin, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Sofia A C Lima
A simple, sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of bisnaphthalimidopropyldiaminooctane (BNIPDaoct), a potent anti-Leishmania compound, incorporated into poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles was developed and validated toward bioanalysis application. Biological tissue extracts were injected into a reversed-phase monolithic column coupled to a fluorimetric detector (λexc=234nm, λem=394nm), using isocratic elution with aqueous buffer (acetic acid/acetate 0...
February 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26757982/rare-variant-associations-with-waist-to-hip-ratio-in-european-american-and-african-american-women-from-the-nhlbi-exome-sequencing-project
#19
Mengyuan Kan, Paul L Auer, Gao T Wang, Kristine L Bucasas, Stanley Hooker, Alejandra Rodriguez, Biao Li, Jaclyn Ellis, L Adrienne Cupples, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Josée Dupuis, Caroline S Fox, Myron D Gross, Joshua D Smith, Nancy Heard-Costa, James B Meigs, James S Pankow, Jerome I Rotter, David Siscovick, James G Wilson, Jay Shendure, Rebecca Jackson, Ulrike Peters, Hua Zhong, Danyu Lin, Li Hsu, Nora Franceschini, Chris Carlson, Goncalo Abecasis, Stacey Gabriel, Michael J Bamshad, David Altshuler, Deborah A Nickerson, Kari E North, Leslie A Lange, Alexander P Reiner, Suzanne M Leal
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project...
August 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26266925/effects-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-on-inter-organ-crosstalk-among-the-kidney-lung-and-heart-in-a-rat-model-of-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Chieko Mitaka, May Khin Hnin Si, Miniwan Tulafu, Qi Yu, Tokujiro Uchida, Shinya Abe, Masanobu Kitagawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Yoshinobu Eishi, Makoto Tomita
BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and a frequent occurrence in critically ill patients. Renal IRI releases proinflammatory cytokines within the kidney that induce crosstalk between the kidney and other organ systems. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has anti-inflammatory as well as natriuretic effects and serves important functions as a regulator of blood pressure, fluid homeostasis, and inflammation. The objective of the present study was to elucidate whether ANP post-treatment attenuates kidney-lung-heart crosstalk in a rat model of renal IRI...
December 2014: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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