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Rudolph M Navari
The approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting in a cancer patient should begin with a complete assessment, including the frequency, duration, and intensity of the nausea/vomiting; associated activities; and whether anorexia or cachexia is present. It is important to determine whether the nausea and vomiting is related to treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) or is independent of cancer treatment. Nausea/vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy and/or radiation may have an etiology for which there is a specific and potentially successful intervention...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Sharon Ashong, Irene A Kretchy, Barima Afrane, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Konstantin S Rodygin, Alexander S Bogachenkov, Valentine P Ananikov
We developed a simple and efficient strategy to access N -vinyl secondary amines of various naturally occurring materials using readily available solid acetylene reagents (calcium carbide, KF, and KOH). Pyrrole, pyrazole, indoles, carbazoles, and diarylamines were successfully vinylated in good yields. Cross-linked and linear polymers were synthesized from N -vinyl carbazoles through free radical and cationic polymerization. Post-modification of olanzapine (an antipsychotic drug substance) was successfully performed...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ciara C O'Sullivan, Holly K Van Houten, Lindsey R Sangaralingham, Alexis D Leal, Shivani Shinde, Hongfang Liu, David Ettinger, Charles L Loprinzi, Kathryn J Ruddy
Purpose: Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is essential to preserve quality of life in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Recently, new drugs (eg, fosaprepitant, and the newer neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists [NK1RAs] rolapitant and netupitant) and updated antiemetic guidelines have emerged. However, trends in real-world antiemetic use are understudied. Methods: We identified patients treated with an initial dose of HEC (either cisplatin or doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide) from January 2006 to June 2016 using administrative claims data from a US commercial insurance database (OptumLabs)...
March 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Petter Andreas Ringen, Ann Faerden, Bjørnar Antonsen, Ragnhild S Falk, Asgeir Mamen, Eline B Rognli, Dag K Solberg, Ole A Andreassen, Egil W Martinsen
PURPOSE: Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause for the markedly reduced life expectancy in people with severe mental illness (SMI). Hospital departments should provide adequate prevention of cardiometabolic risk by optimizing prevention and treatment. Characteristics of cardiometabolic risk factors in inpatients are still not well known. We aimed to describe the status of cardiometabolic risk factors in inpatients with SMI and identify associations with psychiatric status and treatment...
March 9, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Kevin J Li, Aaron P Greenstein, Lynn E Delisi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the recent literature regarding sudden death in patients with schizophrenia and synthesize salient conclusions based on this evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the largest subset of sudden unexpected death (SUD), with up to 40% of SUD from cardiovascular causes. SCD has been associated with exposure to both first and second-generation antipsychotics. Clozapine [odds ratio (OR) 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Liang Shan, Tiane Liu, Zhijian Zhang, Qing Liu, Mengjiao Zhang, Xudong Zhao, Yan Zhang, Fuqiang Xu, Yuanye Ma
Deficits in olfactory abilities are frequently observed in schizophrenia patients. However, whether olfactory dysfunction is found in animal models is not known. Here, we examined whether two well-established schizophrenia rat models exhibit olfactory-relevant dysfunction that is similar to schizophrenia patients. Olfactory sensitivity was tested in rats that were acutely (3.3mg/kg) or postnatally (10mg/kg, at postnatal day 7, 9 and 11) treated with phencyclidine (PCP) as schizophrenia models. Electrophysiological recordings were conducted to measure the olfactory-relevant local field potential after acute PCP treatment...
March 3, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
So-Yeon Jeon, Hye Sook Han, Woo Kyun Bae, Moo-Rim Park, Hyeok Shim, Sang-Cheol Lee, Se-Il Go, Hwan Jung Yun, Yong-Jin Im, Eun-Kee Song
Purpose: Data on the efficacy of olanzapine in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) are limited. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of olanzapine versus placebo in controlling nausea and vomiting in patients receiving MEC. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether olanzapine can reduce the frequency of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving palonosetron and dexamethasone as prophylaxis for MEC-induced nausea and vomiting...
February 27, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
David A Kahn
In this issue of the journal, 2 case reports are presented that describe rare but serious side effects of commonly used medications. These cases illustrate dilemmas in clinical decision-making. The first describes the induction of seizures by low-dose venlafaxine in a predisposed individual, and the second describes the development of mild but significant leukopenia with sequential trials of olanzapine and risperidone. The association between a drug and a rare but potentially serious side effect in an individual patient can be difficult to determine with precision, and the decision to press ahead and try to work around the reaction, versus stopping the likely offender and finding a substitute, is a matter for seasoned clinical judgment...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Luke Sy-Cherng Woon, Chun Keat Tee, Lydia Lay Yen Gan, Kanit Tha Deang, Lai Fong Chan
Leukopenia is a known hematological side effect of atypical antipsychotics. We report a case of an antipsychotic-naive patient with schizophrenia who developed leukopenia after a single dose of olanzapine, which worsened during subsequent treatment with risperidone. Normalization of the white blood cell counts occurred within 24 hours of risperidone discontinuation. Possible synergistic mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced and risperidone-induced leukopenia are discussed. This case highlights the challenges in identifying and managing nonclozapine antipsychotic-induced leukopenia in a susceptible patient...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Chunsong Yang, Zilong Hao, Ling-Li Zhang, Cai-Rong Zhu, Ping Zhu, Qin Guo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic drugs for tic disorders (TDs) in a network meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and 4 Chinese databases were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs for TDs were included. RESULTS: Sixty RCTs were included. In terms of tic symptom score, compared with placebo, haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine, olanzapine, and ziprasidone can significantly improve tic symptom score (standardized mean differences [SMD] ranged from -12...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Tomas Kulhan, Veronika Marcincakova Husarova, Igor Ondrejka, Ivan Farsky, Gabriela Nosalova
OBJECTIVE: Both venlafaxine and olanzapine have been previously found to have anxiolytic properties, however no study examined the effect of their combination on anxiety in anxious MDD. The aim of this study was to reveal if and when venlafaxine/olanzapine combination (VOC) can reduce the anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with severe MDD at the level of patients with moderate-severe depression treated with venlafaxine monotherapy. METHODS: Fifty seven patients were included into the study...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Hao Yu, Hao Yan, Lifang Wang, Jun Li, Liwen Tan, Wei Deng, Qi Chen, Guigang Yang, Fuquan Zhang, Tianlan Lu, Jianli Yang, Keqing Li, Luxian Lv, Qingrong Tan, Hongyan Zhang, Xiao Xiao, Ming Li, Xin Ma, Fude Yang, Lingjiang Li, Chuanyue Wang, Tao Li, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs improve schizophrenia symptoms and reduce the frequency of relapse, but treatment response is highly variable. Little is known about the genetic factors associated with treatment response. We did a genome-wide association study of antipsychotic treatment response in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: The discovery cohort comprised patients with schizophrenia from 32 psychiatric hospitals in China that are part of the Chinese Antipsychotics Pharmacogenomics Consortium...
March 1, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Carlo Ripoli, Anna Paola Pinna, Faustina Podda, Roberta Zanni, Maria Giada Tronci, Anna Maria Nurchi
Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) are used in children for the treatment of various psychiatric diseases, including pervasive developmental disorders. These drugs can cause metabolic effects as hyperglycemia and diabetes. A 16-year-old young-boy, diagnosed with autism, developed diabetes mellitus type 1 whilst he was on treatment with olanzapine (started 4 months before), clomipramine, valproic acid and lithium. The hypothesis of druginduced diabetes imposed olanzapine interruption and clozapine initiation...
December 13, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die averagely 15years earlier than people in the Western background population, cardiovascular disease being the most frequent cause of death with unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity as major contributing risk factors. Understanding possible associations and predictors of the specific cardiovascular risk may permit more targeted and effective prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between clinical and psychosocial factors and several separate cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of 428 persons with schizophrenia and abdominal obesity enrolled in the CHANGE trial...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Bunta Yoshimura, Shinji Sakamoto, Kojiro Sato, Manabu Takaki, Norihito Yamada
AIM: Early clinical response predicts symptomatic remission and recovery in the maintenance treatment phase of first-episode schizophrenia (FES). However, little is known about predictors of symptomatic remission during acute treatment of severely ill patients with FES. Here, we conducted a secondary analysis of our retrospective observational study, which examined response, remission and treatment-resistance rates in seriously ill patients with FES spectrum disorders involuntarily hospitalized and treated with algorithm-based pharmacotherapy...
December 12, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Apoorva Upadhyay, Samrat Singh Bhandari, Vatsala Sharma, Shyamanta Das
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Naresh Nebhinani, Navratan Suthar
Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an acute dystonic reaction, commonly seen with the administration of typical antipsychotics, and rarely reported with atypical antipsychotics. Here, we report five cases of oculogyric crisis, developed after administration of atypical antipsychotics. The first case developed OGC on quetiapine 800 mg/day and the second case on olanzapine 20 mg/day. Both the patients did not improve on adding anticholinergic agents and finally stabilized by switching to clozapine. The third case developed OGC on amisulpride 400 mg and lurasidone 40 mg/day and improved by reducing amisulpride dose to 200 mg and stopping lurasidone...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rajan Jain, Priti Arun, Ajeet Sidana, Atul Sachdev
Objective: Till date, typical antipsychotic haloperidol is the treatment of choice for delirium. But, due to higher side effects with haloperidol, newer atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine) are increasingly being used in the treatment of delirious patients. The aim of the current research was to study the efficacy and tolerability of haloperidol and olanzapine in the treatment of delirium. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, randomized controlled study carried out in a tertiary care hospital at Chandigarh, India...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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