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Air Transport

George J Lu, Arash Farhadi, Arnab Mukherjee, Mikhail G Shapiro
A long-standing goal of molecular imaging is to visualize cellular function within the context of living animals, necessitating the development of reporter genes compatible with deeply penetrant imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Until recently, no reporter genes for ultrasound were available, and most genetically encoded reporters for MRI were limited by metal availability or relatively low sensitivity. Here we review how these limitations are being addressed by recently introduced reporter genes based on air-filled and water-transporting biomolecules...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
S Li, S Park, J-Y Lee, K-J Ha, M-K Park, C O Jo, H Oh, J Mühle, K-R Kim, S A Montzka, S O'Doherty, P B Krummel, E Atlas, B R Miller, F Moore, R F Weiss, S C Wofsy
The East Asian Summer Monsoon driven by temperature and moisture gradients between the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean, leads to approximately 50% of the annual rainfall in the region across 20-40°N. Due to its increasing scientific and social importance, there have been several previous studies on identification of moisture sources for summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia mainly using Lagrangian or Eulerian atmospheric water vapor models. The major source regions for EASM previously proposed include the North Indian Ocean, South China Sea and North western Pacific...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yingshuai Liu, Yunshan Ge, Jianwei Tan, Mingliang Fu, Asad Naeem Shah, Luqiang Li, Zhe Ji, Yan Ding
Maritime transport has been playing a decisive role in global trade. Its contribution to the air pollution of the sea and coastal areas has been widely recognized. The air pollutant emission inventories of several harbors in China have already been established. However, the emission factors of local ships have not been addressed comprehensively, and thus are lacking from the emission inventories. In this study, on-board emission tests of eight diesel-powered offshore fishing ships were conducted near the coastal region of the northern Yellow Bo Sea fishing ground of Dalian, China...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
Research question : It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence. Methods: Localization of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks daily exposed to whole cigarette smoke...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Lei Liu, Jun Ma, Qiang Xue, Jingbang Shao, Yijun Chen, Gang Zeng
The optimization design of well spacing (WS) and aeration rate (AR) is crucial to the in situ aeration system operation in under long-term and high-efficiency conditions. This optimization design aims to transport additional air into landfills and to develop an improved oxygen environment for enhancing aerobic degradation. Given the specific pore structure distribution within landfills, providing sufficient oxygen in all waste bodies in field sites through gas wells is difficult. The design of well distribution also lacks adequate criteria...
March 12, 2018: Waste Management
Jianping Cao, Xu Zhang, Yinping Zhang
Dermal exposure to indoor gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) has recently received a great deal of attention, and this has included evaluating the role of clothing in this process. Several models have been developed to assess dermal exposure to SVOCs, based on the transient mass transfer of SVOCs from air to dermal capillaries. However, these models assume either that clothing completely retards SVOC transport, or that there is an air gap of constant thickness between the clothing and the surface of the skin, leading to significant errors in the model calculations...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Thao P Nguyen, P Roy, Ji Hoon Shim
The relationship between structure and charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors has been studied with focus on [6] → [10]phenacene. Upon inserting phenyl rings, the π-extended structure results in strong electronic coupling interactions and reduction of reorganization energy. Using the classical Marcus charge transport theory, we predict that hole mobility in the phenacene series increases gradually up to 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 at [10]phenacene. This is remarkably high among other discovered OSCs, surpassing that of pentacene...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Junwei Huang, Dusik Kim, Jiajie Shan, Asmahan Abu-Arish, Yishan Luo, John W Hanrahan
Bicarbonate plays an important role in airway host defense, however, its transport mechanisms remain uncertain. Here we examined the relative contributions of the anion channel CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, ABCC7) and the anion exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4) to HCO3 - secretion by the human airway cell line Calu-3. Pendrin and CFTR were both detected in parental Calu-3 cells, although mRNA and protein expression appeared higher for CFTR than for pendrin. Targeting pendrin transcripts with lentiviral shRNA reduced pendrin detection by immunofluorescence staining but did not alter the rates of HCO3 - or fluid secretion, HCO3 - transport under pH-stat conditions, or net HCO3 - flux across basolaterally permeabilized monolayers...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Sunhye Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Seung-Muk Yi, Jongbae Heo
The sources of different pollutants contributing to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) on Daebu Island, Korea, were estimated. Twenty four hour integrated filter samples were collected from May 21-November 1, 2016, and analyzed for organic carbon, elemental carbon, ions, and trace elements. Positive matrix factorization was conducted on the PM2.5 chemical speciation data from the samples to define the pathways and sources of PM2.5 at the sampling site. A total of 80 samples and 24 chemical species were used to run the model and a total of nine sources were identified: secondary sulfate (29...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jianping Zhang, Meiping Yan, Wei Gu, Ao Chen, Jie Liu, Lexing Li, Songlin Zhang, Guoquan Liu
Aquaporins (AQPs) and Na,K-ATPase control water transport across the air space-capillary barrier in the distal lung and play an important role in the formation and resolution of lung edema. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection usually causes pulmonary inflammation and edema in the infected pig lungs. To investigate the possibility that PRRSV infection may cause altered expression of AQPs and Na,K-ATPase messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and protein expression of AQP1, AQP5, and Na,K-ATPase in the PRRSV-infected pig lungs were detected...
March 12, 2018: Inflammation
Yijun Lin, Dimitrios Stripelis, Yao-Yi Chiang, José Luis Ambite, Rima Habre, Fan Pan, Sandrah P Eckel
Air quality models are important for studying the impact of air pollutant on health conditions at a fine spatiotemporal scale. Existing work typically relies on area-specific, expert-selected attributes of pollution emissions (e,g., transportation) and dispersion (e.g., meteorology) for building the model for each combination of study areas, pollutant types, and spatiotemporal scales. In this paper, we present a data mining approach that utilizes publicly available OpenStreetMap (OSM) data to automatically generate an air quality model for the concentrations of fine particulate matter less than 2...
November 2017: Proceedings of the ... ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems: ACM GIS
Daniel C Anderson, Julie M Nicely, Glenn M Wolfe, Thomas F Hanisco, Ross J Salawitch, Timothy P Canty, Russell R Dickerson, Eric C Apel, Sunil Baidar, Thomas J Bannan, Nicola J Blake, Dexian Chen, Barbara Dix, Rafael P Fernandez, Samuel R Hall, Rebecca S Hornbrook, L Gregory Huey, Beatrice Josse, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E Kinnison, Theodore K Koenig, Michael LeBreton, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Luke D Oman, Laura L Pan, Carl Percival, David Plummer, Laura E Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Andrea Stenke, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Kirk Ullmann, Rainer Volkamer, Andrew J Weinheimer, Guang Zeng
Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx . In remote marine environments, such as the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here, we have used observations from the CONTRAST field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Emily Riley, Patrick Harris, Jennifer Kent, Peter Sainsbury, Anna Lane, Fran Baum
BACKGROUND: Transport policy and practice impacts health. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are regulated public policy mechanisms that can be used to consider the health impacts of major transport projects before they are approved. The way health is considered in these environmental assessments (EAs) is not well known. This research asked: How and to what extent was human health considered in EAs of four major transport projects in Australia. METHODS: We developed a comprehensive coding framework to analyse the Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) of four transport infrastructure projects: three road and one light rail...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Branka D Živanović, Kristian K Ullrich, Bianka Steffens, Sladjana Z Spasić, Paul Galland
The roles of fungal auxins in the regulation of elongation growth, photo-, and gravitropism are completely unknown. We analyzed the effects of exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), various synthetic auxins including 1-NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and the auxin transport inhibitor NPA (N-1-naphtylphtalamic acid) on the growth rate and bending of the unicellular sporangiophore of the zygomycete fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Sporangiophores that were submerged in an aqueous buffer responded to IAA with a sustained enhancement of the growth rate, while 1-NAA, 2,4-D, and NPA elicited an inhibition...
March 9, 2018: Protoplasma
Pan-Pan Gao, Yi-Bo Zhao, Hong-Gang Ni
This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Greg Martin, Mairin Boland
The ever-increasing speed and scope of human mobility by international air travel has led to a global transport network for infectious diseases with the potential to introduce pathogens into non-endemic areas, and to facilitate rapid spread of novel or mutated zoonotic agents.Robust national emergency preparedness is vital to mitigate the transmission of infectious diseases agents domestically and to prevent onward spread to other countries. Given the complex range of stakeholders who respond to an infectious disease threat being transmitted through air travel, it is important that protocols be tested and practised extensively in advance of a real emergency...
March 7, 2018: Globalization and Health
Alexander Maslowski, Adam Wang, Mingshan Sun, Todd Wareing, Ian Davis, Josh Star-Lack
PURPOSE: To describe Acuros® CTS, a new software tool for rapidly and accurately estimating scatter in x-ray projection images by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). METHODS: The LBTE describes the behavior of particles as they interact with an object across spatial, energy, and directional (propagation) domains. Acuros CTS deterministically solves the LBTE by modeling photon transport associated with an x-ray projection in three main steps: 1) Ray tracing photons from the x-ray source into the object where they experience their first scattering event and form scattering sources...
March 6, 2018: Medical Physics
Pengjun Zhao, Manhyung Han, Wenping Yin, Xing Zhao, Seul-Gi Kim, Yaping Yan, Minwoo Kim, Young Jae Song, Nam-Gyu Park, Hyun Suk Jung
Currently, the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) mainly use planar and mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an electron-transporting-layer (ETL). However, due to its intrinsic photocatalytic properties, TiO2 can decompose perovskite absorber and lead to poor stability under solar illumination (ultraviolet light). Herein, simplified architectural ETL-free PSC with enhanced efficiency and outstanding photostability is produced by the facile deposition of Bathocuproine (BCP) interlayer. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ETL-free PSC improves from 15...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Vikram Ravi, Allan H Gao, Natalie B Martinkus, Michael P Wolcott, Brian K Lamb
Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second generation biofuel, however little knowledge exists about environmental impacts of development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of an aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that uses forest residue as the feedstock. Pollutant emissions for the major supply chain components including feedstock harvesting, transportation, and biorefinery operations were compiled...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
P Burgueño, C González, A Sarralde, F Gordo
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is indicated in patients who are refractory to treatment, those with cardiogenic shock or respiratory failure and those with exacerbations eligible for heart and lung transplantation. Physician experience and quantity of necessary resources are reasons why regionalization could benefit patients of this kind, establishing ECMO reference centers and integrating a transportation network specialized in ECMO. This type of transportation is a challenge for healthcare systems and physicians, given its greater complexity, requiring a multidisciplinary and inter-territorial approach...
March 1, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
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