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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944438/personal-exposure-and-health-risk-assessment-of-carbonyls-in-family-cars-and-public-transports-a-comparative-study-in-nanjing-china
#1
Huaizhou Xu, Qin Zhang, Ninghui Song, Min Guo, Shenghu Zhang, Guixiang Ji, Lili Shi
To evaluate passenger health risks associated with inhalation exposure to carbonyl compounds mainly emitted from decoration materials of vehicles, we tested the carbonyl concentrations in interior air of 20 family cars, 6 metro lines, and 5 buses in the city of Nanjing. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines of China, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. To assess carcinogenic risks, we followed a standard approach proposed by the OEHHA to calculate lifetime cancer risks (LCR) of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for various age groups...
September 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943351/sources-distribution-and-export-coefficient-of-phosphorus-in-lowland-polders-of-lake-taihu-basin-china
#2
Jiacong Huang, Junfeng Gao, Yong Jiang, Hongbin Yin, Bahman Jabbarian Amiri
Identifying phosphorus (P) sources, distribution and export from lowland polders is important for P pollution management, however, is challenging due to the high complexity of hydrological and P transport processes in lowland areas. In this study, the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of P export coefficient (PEC) from all the 2539 polders in Lake Taihu Basin, China were estimated using a coupled P model for describing P dynamics in a polder system. The estimated amount of P export from polders in Lake Taihu Basin during 2013 was 1916...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942658/neighborhood-environment-residential-satisfaction-and-depressive-symptoms-among-older-adults-in-residential-care-homes
#3
Susu Liu, Zheng Ouyang, Alice M Chong, Haitao Wang
Burgeoning evidence has shown that neighborhood environments are related to depressive symptoms in the older population. Older adults living in residential care homes may be more vulnerable to environmental characteristics. The current study sought to understand how institutionalized older adults relate to environmental factors and residential satisfaction in terms of depressive symptoms. Data were collected from a cross-sectional national survey of 1,429 Chinese elders living in residential care homes. The findings reveal that 46...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942315/identification-of-chemical-fingerprints-in-long-range-transport-of-burning-induced-upper-tropospheric-ozone-from-colorado-to-the-north-atlantic-ocean
#4
Wonbae Jeon, Yunsoo Choi, Amir Hossein Souri, Anirban Roy, Lijun Diao, Shuai Pan, Hwa Woon Lee, Soon-Hwan Lee
This study investigates a significant biomass burning (BB) event occurred in Colorado of the United States in 2012 using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The simulation reasonably reproduced the significantly high upper tropospheric O3 concentrations (up to 145ppb) caused by BB emissions. We find the BB-induced O3 was primarily affected by chemical reactions and dispersion during its transport. In the early period of transport, high NOx and VOCs emissions caused O3 production due to reactions with the peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, HO2 and OH...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#5
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940535/experimental-and-numerical-assessment-of-hyperthermic-laser-lipolysis-with-1-064%C3%A2-nm-nd-yag-laser-on-a-porcine-fatty-tissue-model
#6
Matija Milanic, Blaz Tasic Muc, Matija Jezersek, Matjaz Lukac
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop experimental and numerical models for a better understanding of hyperthermic laser lipolysis (HHL). STUDY DESIGN: A 3 cm thick porcine fat sample was irradiated over a 4.3 × 4.7 cm(2) area for 2 minutes with a 1,064 nm Nd:YAG laser using 1.2 W/cm(2) irradiance. Two irradiation scenarios were considered: without and with forced air cooling. Following the irradiation, the sample was left to cool down by natural convection...
September 20, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936001/characterization-of-airborne-float-coal-dust-emitted-during-continuous-mining-longwall-mining-and-belt-transport
#7
M R Shahan, C E Seaman, T W Beck, J F Colinet, S E Mischler
Float coal dust is produced by various mining methods, carried by ventilating air and deposited on the floor, roof and ribs of mine airways. If deposited, float dust is re-entrained during a methane explosion. Without sufficient inert rock dust quantities, this float coal dust can propagate an explosion throughout mining entries. Consequently, controlling float coal dust is of critical interest to mining operations. Rock dusting, which is the adding of inert material to airway surfaces, is the main control technique currently used by the coal mining industry to reduce the float coal dust explosion hazard...
September 2017: Mining Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935404/chemical-characteristics-and-sources-of-pm1-during-the-2016-summer-in-hangzhou
#8
Kangwei Li, Linghong Chen, Stephen J White, Xianjue Zheng, Biao Lv, Chao Lin, Zhier Bao, Xuecheng Wu, Xiang Gao, Fang Ying, Jiandong Shen, Merched Azzi, Kefa Cen
During the 2016 Hangzhou G20 Summit, the chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1) was measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with a suite of collocated instruments. The campaign was undertaken between August 5 and September 23, 2016. The impacts of emission controls and meteorological conditions on PM1 chemical composition, diurnal cycles, organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment, size distribution and elemental ratios were characterized in detail...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935398/understanding-complex-lnapl-sites-illustrated-handbook-of-lnapl-transport-and-fate-in-the-subsurface
#9
Derek W Tomlinson, Michael O Rivett, Gary P Wealthall, Rob E H Sweeney
The goal of the paper is to highlight the management of the complexities and risks for light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) sites, and how the Illustrated Handbook of LNAPL Transport and Fate in the Subsurface (CL:AIRE, London. ISBN 978-1-905046-24-9. http://www.claire.co.uk/LNAPL; "LNAPL illustrated handbook") is useful guidance and a tool for professionals to understand these complexities and risks. The LNAPL illustrated handbook provides a clear and concise best-practice guidance document, which is a valuable decision support tool for use in discussions and negotiations regarding LNAPL impacted sites with respect to the risks of LNAPL...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934993/can-a-single-primary-care-paramedic-configuration-safely-transport-low-acuity-patients-in-air-ambulances
#10
Homer Tien, Bruce Sawadsky, Michael Lewell, Sean Moore, Michael Peddle, Alun Ackery, Brodie Nolan, Russell D MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: To determine if utilizing a single paramedic crew configuration is safe for transporting low acuity patients requiring only a primary care paramedic (PCP) level of care in Air Ambulances. METHODS: We studied single-PCP transports of low acuity patients done by contract air ambulance carriers, organized by Ornge (Ontario's Air Ambulance Service) for one year. We only included interfacility transports. We excluded all scene calls, and all Code 4 (emergent) calls...
September 22, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934721/association-of-long-term-exposure-to-transportation-noise-and-traffic-related-air-pollution-with-the-incidence-of-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Charlotte Clark, Hind Sbihi, Lillian Tamburic, Michael Brauer, Lawrence D Frank, Hugh W Davies
BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. OBJECTIVES: Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934719/exposure-to-road-railway-and-aircraft-noise-and-arterial-stiffness-in-the-sapaldia-study-annual-average-noise-levels-and-temporal-noise-characteristics
#12
Maria Foraster, Ikenna C Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Simon Endes, Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Christian Schindler, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: The impact of different transportation noise sources and noise environments on arterial stiffness remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential outdoor exposure to annual average road, railway, and aircraft noise levels, total noise intermittency (IR), and total number of noise events (NE) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) following a cross-sectional design. METHODS: We measured baPWV (meters/second) in 2,775 participants (49-81 y old) at the second follow-up (2010-2011) of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA)...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933483/selective-separation-of-furfural-and-hydroxymethylfurfural-from-an-aqueous-solution-using-a-supported-hydrophobic-deep-eutectic-solvent-liquid-membrane
#13
Carin H J T Dietz, Maaike C Kroon, Michela Di Stefano, Martin van Sint Annaland, Fausto Gallucci
For the first time, 12 different supported deep eutectic solvent (DES) liquid membranes were prepared and characterized. These membranes consist of a polymeric support impregnated with a hydrophobic DES. First, the different membranes were characterized and their stability in water and air was determined. Subsequently, the supported DES liquid membranes were applied for the recovery of furfural (FF) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous solutions. The effects of substrate properties (e.g. pore size), DES properties (e...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931881/contrasting-subtropical-pv-intrusion-frequency-and-their-impact-on-tropospheric-ozone-distribution-over-pacific-ocean-in-el-ni%C3%A3-o-and-la-ni%C3%A3-a-conditions
#14
Debashis Nath, Wen Chen, Hans-F Graf, Xiaoqiang Lan, Hainan Gong
Upper tropospheric equatorial westerly ducts over the Pacific Ocean are the preferred location for Rossby wave breaking events during boreal winter and spring. These subtropical wave breaking events lead to the intrusion of high PV (potential vorticity) air along the extra-tropical tropopause and transport ozone rich dry stratospheric air into the tropics. The intrusion frequency has strong interannual variability due to ENSO (El-Niño/Southern Oscillation), with more events under La-Niña and less under El-Niño conditions...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930515/changes-in-transportation-related-air-pollution-exposures-by-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status-outdoor-nitrogen-dioxide-in-the-united-states-in-2000-and-2010
#15
Lara P Clark, Dylan B Millet, Julian D Marshall
BACKGROUND: Disparities in exposure to air pollution by race-ethnicity and by socioeconomic status have been documented in the United States, but the impacts of declining transportation-related air pollutant emissions on disparities in exposure have not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate changes over time (2000 to 2010) in disparities in exposure to outdoor concentrations of a transportation-related air pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in the United States...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929325/computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-analysis-of-airlift-bioreactor-effect-of-draft-tube-configurations-on-hydrodynamics-cell-suspension-and-shear-rate
#16
Sanjay B Pawar
The biomass productivity of microalgae cells mainly depends on the hydrodynamics of airlift bioreactor (ABR). Thus, the hydrodynamics of concentric tube ABR was initially studied using two-phase three-dimensional CFD simulations with the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The performance of ABR (17 L) was examined for different configurations of the draft tube using various drag models such as Grace, Ishii-Zuber, and Schiller-Naumann. The gas holdups in the riser and the downcomer were well predicted using E-L approach...
September 19, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926270/an-ultra-thin-nanoporous-membrane-evaporator
#17
Zhengmao Lu, Kyle L Wilke, Daniel John Preston, Ikuya Kinefuchi, Elizabeth F Chang-Davidson, Evelyn N Wang
Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon found in nature and widely used in industry. Yet fundamental understanding of interfacial transport during evaporation remains limited to date owing to the difficulty of characterizing the heat and mass transfer at the interface, especially at high heat fluxes ( > 100 W/cm(2)). In this work, we elucidated evaporation into an air ambient with an ultra-thin (≈ 200 nm thick) nanoporous (≈ 130 nm pore diameter) membrane. With our evaporator design, we accurately monitored the temperature of the liquid-vapor interface, reduced the thermal-fluidic transport resistance and mitigated the clogging risk associated with contamination...
September 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926226/correlation-between-dissolved-protons-in-nickel-doped-bazr0-1ce0-7y0-1yb0-1o3-%C3%AE-and-its-electrical-conductive-properties
#18
Tomohiro Ishiyama, Haruo Kishimoto, Katherine Develos-Bagarinao, Katsuhiko Yamaji, Toshiaki Yamaguchi, Yoshinobu Fujishiro
The electrical conductivity of nickel (2 wt %)-doped BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.1Yb0.1O3-δ (BZCYYb) acceptor-doped perovskite oxide was evaluated under air and a 1% H2 atmosphere. The partial conductivity was calculated from the total conductivity and the transport number of each carrier (tH(+), tO(2-), and th(+)) obtained using the concentration cell method. Its correlation with the dissolution state of the protons in the oxide as studied by in situ diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is discussed...
September 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924306/refrigerant-performance-evaluation-including-effects-of-transport-properties-and-optimized-heat-exchangers
#19
Riccardo Brignoli, J Steven Brown, H Skye, Piotr A Domanski
Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system...
August 2017: Revue Internationale du Froid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923752/anthropogenic-and-geogenic-mass-input-of-trace-elements-to-moss-and-natural-surface-soil-in-norway
#20
Erik R Christensen, Eiliv Steinnes, Ola Anfin Eggen
Data sets for concentrations of up to 22 elements including Pb, Cd, Ag, As, and Hg and several rare earth elements (REEs) in moss and surface soil from all over mainland Norway are analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) with centered log-ratio transformation. Moss and soil samples collected in 2010 and 2005, respectively, show both a distinct long-range atmospheric transport PMF factor including a dominant Pb loading along with smaller loadings of Mo, Cd, Sb, and As, and a geogenic factor dominated by Ce, La, and Y...
September 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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