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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636977/long-term-trend-of-o3-in-a-mega-city-shanghai-china-characteristics-causes-and-interactions-with-precursors
#1
Wei Gao, Xuexi Tie, Jianming Xu, Rujin Huang, Xiaoqing Mao, Guangqiang Zhou, Luyu Chang
In recent years, ozone (O3) is often the major pollutant during summertime in China. In order to better understand this problem, a long-term measurement of ozone (from 2006 to 2015) and its precursors (NOx and VOCs) as well as the photochemical parameter (UV radiation) in a mega city of China (Shanghai) is analyzed. The focus of this study is to investigate the trend of O3 and the causes of the O3 trend in large cities in China. In order to understand the relationship between the O3 precursors and O3 formation, two distinguished different sites of measurements are selected in the study, including an urbanization site (XJH-Xujiahui) and a remote site (DT-Dongtan)...
June 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633538/relationship-between-emergency-care-utilization-ambient-temperature-and-the-pollution-standard-index-in-taiwan
#2
Ching-Hui Tseng, Li-Chin Lu, Shao-Hwan Lan, Yen-Ping Hsieh, Shou-Jen Lan
This study applied a vector error correction model to investigate the effects of ambient temperature (AT) and air quality index values on emergency care utilization (ECU). The Pollution Standards Index (PSI) and total suspended particulates (TSP) were used for analysis. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database of the Ministry of Transportation and Communications and Ministry Environmental of Protection Administration of Taiwan. Data from January of 1998 to December of 2012 (180 months) were analyzed...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630743/comparison-of-five-video-assisted-intubation-devices-by-novice-and-expert-laryngoscopists-for-use-in-the-aeromedical-evacuation-environment
#3
Matthew C Wallace, SSgt Tyler Britton, Robbie Meek, Sharon Walsh-Hart, Col Todd E Carter, Steven J Lisco
BACKGROUND: The critically ill or injured patient undergoing military medical evacuation may require emergent intubation. Intubation may be life-saving, but it carries risks. The novice or infrequent laryngoscopist has a distinct disadvantage because experience is critical for the rapid and safe establishment of a secured airway. This challenge is compounded by the austere environment of the back of an aircraft under blackout conditions. This study determined which of five different video-assisted intubation devices (VAIDs) was best suited for in-flight use by U...
2017: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628819/dissolved-gaseous-mercury-formation-and-mercury-volatilization-in-intertidal-sediments
#4
Rute Cesário, Laurier Poissant, Martin Pilote, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Ana M Mota, João Canário
Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627084/water-catalyzed-oxidation-of-few-layer-black-phosphorous-in-dark-environment
#5
Zehua Hu, Qiang Li, Bo Lei, Qionghua Zhou, Du Xiang, Zhiyang Lyu, Fang Hu, Junyong Wang, Yinjuan Ren, Rui Guo, Eda Goki, Li Wang, Cheng Han, Jinlan Wang, Wei Chen
Black phosphorus (BP) shows great potential in electronic and optoelectronic devices owing to its semiconducting properties, such as thickness-dependent direct bandgap and ambipolar transport characteristics. However, the poor stability of BP in air seriously limits its applicability. To develop effective schemes to protect BP, it is crucial to reveal the degradation mechanism under various environments. To date, it is generally accepted that BP degrades in air via light-induced oxidation. Herein, we report a new degradation channel via water-catalyzed oxidation of BP in the dark...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622074/disparities-in-feedback-provision-to-emergency-medical-services-professionals
#6
Rebecca E Cash, Remle P Crowe, Severo A Rodriguez, Ashish R Panchal
INTRODUCTION: Feedback to EMS professionals is a critical component for optimizing patient care and outcomes in the prehospital setting. There is a paucity of data concerning the feedback received by prehospital providers. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of feedback received by EMS professionals in the past 30 days including the types, sources, modes, and utility of feedback. The secondary objective was to identify factors associated with receiving any feedback and, specifically, feedback regarding medical care provided...
June 16, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618662/a-one-year-on-line-multi-site-observational-study-on-water-soluble-inorganic-ions-in-pm2-5-over-the-pearl-river-delta-region-china
#7
Jian Liu, Dui Wu, Shaojia Fan, Xia Mao, Huizhong Chen
As the significant components of PM2.5, almost all of previous studies on water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) have been limited by the use of single sampling station, short sampling times or low temporal resolution. This paper focuses on analysing one-year (2012) observations of WSIIs at a regional central (RCEN) site, a coastal urban (CURB) site and a coastal rural (CRUR) site in the Pearl River Delta region. On average, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) were the most abundant component and accounted for over 80% of the total WSIIs...
June 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618525/influence-of-liquid-crystalline-phases-on-the-tunability-of-a-random-laser
#8
José Trull, Josep Salud, Sergio Diez-Berart, David O López
In this paper, we report the temperature behavior of an optimized disordered photonic system-based liquid crystal by means of heat capacity and refractive index measurements. The scattering system is formed by a porous borosilicate glass random matrix (about 60%) infiltrated with a smectogenic liquid crystal (about 16%) and a small amount of laser dye (0.1%). The rest of the scattering system is about 24% air, giving rise to a high refractive index contrast scattering system. Such a system has the functionality to change the refractive index contrast with temperature due to the liquid crystal temperature behavior...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617467/a-wet-tolerant-adhesive-patch-inspired-by-protuberances-in-suction-cups-of-octopi
#9
Sangyul Baik, Da Wan Kim, Youngjin Park, Tae-Jin Lee, Suk Ho Bhang, Changhyun Pang
Adhesion strategies that rely on mechanical interlocking or molecular attractions between surfaces can suffer when coming into contact with liquids. Thus far, artificial wet and dry adhesives have included hierarchical mushroom-shaped or porous structures that allow suction or capillarity, supramolecular structures comprising nanoparticles, and chemistry-based attractants that use various protein polyelectrolytes. However, it is challenging to develop adhesives that are simple to make and also perform well-and repeatedly-under both wet and dry conditions, while avoiding non-chemical contamination on the adhered surfaces...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613008/n-channel-organic-semiconductors-derived-from-air-stable-four-coordinate-boron-complexes-of-substituted-thienylthiazoles
#10
Reinhard Hecht, Juliane Kade, David Schmidt, Agnieszka Nowak-Król
Three acceptor-π-bridge-acceptor (A-π-A) molecules derived from 2-(3-boryl-2-thienyl)thiazole have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Incorporation of a B-N unit into thienylthiazole and attachment of suitable acceptor moieties allowed to obtain ambient-stable A-π-A molecules with low-lying LUMO levels. Their potential for applications in organic electronics was tested in vacuum-deposited organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The OTFT device based on boryl-thienylthiazole donor and 1,1-dicyanomethylene-3-indandione (DCIND) acceptor moieties showed an electron mobility of ~1...
June 14, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611883/altitude-related-change-in-endotracheal-tube-cuff-pressures-in-helicopter-ems
#11
Stacy N Weisberg, Jonathan C McCall, Joseph Tennyson
INTRODUCTION: Over-inflation of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuffs has the potential to lead to scarring and stenosis of the trachea.1, 2,3, 4 The air inside an ETT cuff is subject to expansion as atmospheric pressure decreases, as happens with an increase in altitude. Emergency medical services helicopters are not pressurized, thereby providing a good environment for studying the effects of altitude changes ETT cuff pressures. This study aims to explore the relationship between altitude and ETT cuff pressures in a helicopter air-medical transport program...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609846/a-comparison-of-satellite-observations-with-the-xco2-surface-obtained-by-fusing-tccon-measurements-and-geos-chem-model-outputs
#12
Li Li Zhang, Tian Xiang Yue, John P Wilson, Na Zhao, Ya Peng Zhao, Zheng Ping Du, Yu Liu
Ground observations can capture CO2 concentrations accurately but the number of available TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) sites is too small to support a comprehensive analysis (i.e. validation) of satellite observations. Atmospheric transport models can provide continuous atmospheric CO2 concentrations in space and time, but some information is difficult to generate with model simulations. The HASM platform can model continuous column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction (XCO2) surface taking TCCON observations as its optimum control constraints and an atmospheric transport model as its driving field...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609736/effects-of-continental-anthropogenic-sources-on-organic-aerosols-in-the-coastal-atmosphere-of-east-china
#13
Dongjie Shang, Min Hu, Qingfeng Guo, Qi Zou, Jing Zheng, Song Guo
Although organic compounds in marine atmospheric aerosols have significant effects on climate and marine ecosystems, they have rarely been studied, especially in the coastal regions of East China. To assess the origins of the organic aerosols in the East China coastal atmosphere, PM2.5 samples were collected from the atmospheres of the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and Changdao Island during the CAPTAIN (Campaign of Air PolluTion At INshore Areas of Eastern China) field campaign in the spring of 2011. The marine atmospheric aerosol samples that were collected were grouped based on the backward trajectories of their air masses...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609735/typical-winter-haze-pollution-in-zibo-an-industrial-city-in-china-characteristics-secondary-formation-and-regional-contribution
#14
Hui Li, Yongliang Ma, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Takashi Kimoto, Xiaoxuan Ma, Tao Ma, Lili Xu, Beiyao Xu, Shuo Yang, Siqi Ye, Zhenli Sun, Jiutao An, Zhaolu Zhang
Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015...
June 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608962/image-based-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-the-lung-virtual-reality-or-new-clinical-practice
#15
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Jan De Backer, Haribalan Kumar
The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems...
June 13, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607986/hierarchically-structured-composites-for-ultrafast-liquid-sensing-and-smart-leak-plugging
#16
Xiaodong Wu, Yangyang Han, Xinxing Zhang, Canhui Lu
Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) have been intensively exploited as remarkable liquid sensing materials based on variations in their conductivity under liquid stimuli. However, most advances in liquid sensing CPCs are limited to bulk materials. Due to the slow permeation of liquids into the compact CPCs, sluggish responses are inevitable for most existing CPC-based liquid sensing materials. Here, we developed a new class of liquid sensing materials via a hierarchical structure design. Specifically, a thin CPC layer with a segregated conductive network was coated on porous polyurethane (PU) skeletons by layer-by-layer assembly, forming an elaborately designed hierarchical structure in the prepared CPC@PU composites...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607358/temperature-gradients-assist-carbohydrate-allocation-within-trees
#17
Or Sperling, Lucas C R Silva, Aude Tixier, Guillaume Théroux-Rancourt, Maciej A Zwieniecki
Trees experience two distinct environments: thermally-variable air and thermally-buffered soil. This generates intra-tree temperature gradients, which can affect carbon metabolism and water transport. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate allocation within trees is assisted by temperature gradients. We studied pistachio (Pistacia integerrima) to determine: (1) temperature-induced variation in xylem sugar concentration in excised branches; (2) changes in carbon allocation in young trees under simulated spring and fall conditions; and (3) seasonal variability of starch levels in mature orchard trees under field conditions...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605865/source-apportionment-of-fine-particulate-matter-in-china-in-2013-using-a-source-oriented-chemical-transport-model
#18
Zhihao Shi, Jingyi Li, Lin Huang, Peng Wang, Li Wu, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Li Lu, Xuejun Liu, Hong Liao, Jianlin Hu
China has been suffering high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Designing effective PM2.5 control strategies requires information about the contributions of different sources. In this study, a source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to quantitatively estimate the contributions of different source sectors to PM2.5 in China. Emissions of primary PM2.5 and gas pollutants of SO2, NOx, and NH3, which are precursors of particulate sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA, major PM2...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605583/multiple-sulfur-isotope-constraints-on-sources-and-formation-processes-of-sulfate-in-beijing-pm2-5-aerosol
#19
Xiaokun Han, Qingjun Guo, Harald Strauss, Cong-Qiang Liu, Jian Hu, Zhaobing Guo, Rongfei Wei, Marc Peters, Liyan Tian, Jing Kong
Recently air pollution is seriously threatening the health of millions of people in China. Multiple sulfur isotopic compositions of sulfate in PM2.5 samples collected in Beijing are used to better constraining potential sources and formation processes of sulfate aerosol. Here we found the Δ33S values of sulfate in PM2.5 show a pronounced seasonality with positive values in spring, summer and autumn and negative values in winter. Positive Δ33S anomalies are interpreted to result from SO2 photolysis with self-shielding, and may reflect air mass transport between the troposphere and the stratosphere...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604832/insects-and-associated-arthropods-analyzed-during-medicolegal-death-investigations-in-harris-county-texas-usa-january-2013-april-2016
#20
Michelle R Sanford
The application of insect and arthropod information to medicolegal death investigations is one of the more exacting applications of entomology. Historically limited to homicide investigations, the integration of full time forensic entomology services to the medical examiner's office in Harris County has opened up the opportunity to apply entomology to a wide variety of manner of death classifications and types of scenes to make observations on a number of different geographical and species-level trends in Harris County, Texas, USA...
2017: PloS One
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