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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925506/aliphatic-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-soils-of-the-northwest-qinling-mountains-patterns-potential-risk-and-an-appraisal-of-the-pah-ratios-to-infer-their-source
#1
Yanhong Liu, Yingqin Wu, Yanqing Xia, Tianzhu Lei, Chuntao Tian, Xiaohuan Hou
Surface soils from the tourist areas of the northwest Qinling Mountains were analyzed to determine the concentrations, probable sources and potential risks of hydrocarbons. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons ranged from 4.18 to 3240 ng g(-1) and 0.0462 to 101 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. The extent of soil contamination by hydrocarbons was generally typified by unpolluted to slightly polluted levels. The incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) for exposure to soil-borne PAHs indicated complete safety for tourists...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925436/the-chemical-route-to-a-co2-neutral-world
#2
Johan Martens, Annemie Bogaerts, Norbert De Kimpe, Pierre Jacobs, Guy Marin, Korneel Rabaey, Mark Saeys, Sebastian Verhelst
The excessive CO2 emissions in the atmosphere from anthropogenic activity can be divided into point sources and diffuse sources. The capture of CO2 from flue gases of large industrial installations and its conversion to fuels and chemicals with fast catalytic processes seems technically possible. Some emerging technologies are already being demonstrated on an industrial scale. Others are still being tested on a laboratory or pilot scale. These emerging technologies can be implemented in a time-window ranging from 5 to 20 years...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922201/high-performance-air-stable-field-effect-transistors-based-on-heteroatom-substituted-naphthalenediimide-benzothiadiazole-copolymers-exhibiting-ultrahigh-electron-mobility-up-to-8-5-cm-v-1-s-1
#3
Zhiyuan Zhao, Zhihong Yin, Huajie Chen, Liping Zheng, Chunguang Zhu, Long Zhang, Songting Tan, Hanlin Wang, Yunlong Guo, Qingxin Tang, Yunqi Liu
Rational heteroatom engineering is applied to develop high-performance electron-transporting naphthalenediimide copolymers. Top-gate field-effect transistors fabricated from selenophene-containing polymers achieve an ultrahigh electron mobility of 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and excellent air-stability. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of selenophene heterocycles into the polymers can improve film-forming ability, intermoleclar interaction, and carrier transport significantly.
December 6, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922081/source-apportionment-of-chlorinated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-associated-with-ambient-particles-in-a-japanese-megacity
#4
Yuta Kamiya, Akihiro Iijima, Fumikazu Ikemori, Tomoaki Okuda, Takeshi Ohura
Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) are novel species of environmental contaminants whose possible sources remain unclear. The occurrence of ClPAHs within total suspended particles (TSP) is compared with weekly air samples at two sites of differing characteristics (industrial and residential) in the megacity of Nagoya, Japan. Samples were collected over 12 months during 2011-2012. All 24 species of targeted ClPAHs were detected at both industrial and residential sites, where mean concentrations of total ClPAHs in TSP were 20...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921226/the-relationship-between-aerosol-particles-chemical-composition-and-optical-properties-to-identify-the-biomass-burning-contribution-to-fine-particles-concentration-a-case-study-for-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#5
Regina Maura de Miranda, Fabio Lopes, Nilton Évora do Rosário, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Eduardo Landulfo, Maria de Fatima Andrade
The air quality in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is primarily determined by the local pollution source contribution, mainly the vehicular fleet, but there is a concern about the role of remote sources to the fine mode particles (PM2.5) concentration and composition. One of the most important remote sources of atmospheric aerosol is the biomass burning emissions from São Paulo state's inland and from the central and north portions of Brazil. This study presents a synergy of different measurements of atmospheric aerosol chemistry and optical properties in the MASP in order to show how they can be used as a tool to identify particles from local and remote sources...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919555/benefits-on-public-health-from-transport-related-greenhouse-gas-mitigation-policies-in-southeastern-european-cities
#6
D A Sarigiannis, P Kontoroupis, S Nikolaki, A Gotti, D Chapizanis, S Karakitsios
Climate change is a major environmental threat of our time. Cities have a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions as most of the traffic, industry, commerce and more than 50% of world population is situated in urban areas. Southern Europe is a region that faces financial turmoil, enhanced migratory fluxes and climate change pressure. The case study of Thessaloniki is presented, one of the only two cities in Greece with established climate change action plans. The effects of feasible traffic policies in year 2020 are assessed and their potential health impact is compared to a business as usual scenario...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918473/motion-of-adsorbed-nano-particles-on-azobenzene-containing-polymer-films
#7
REVIEW
Sarah Loebner, Joachim Jelken, Nataraja Sekhar Yadavalli, Elena Sava, Nicolae Hurduc, Svetlana Santer
We demonstrate in situ recorded motion of nano-objects adsorbed on a photosensitive polymer film. The motion is induced by a mass transport of the underlying photoresponsive polymer material occurring during irradiation with interference pattern. The polymer film contains azobenzene molecules that undergo reversible photoisomerization reaction from trans- to cis-conformation. Through a multi-scale chain of physico-chemical processes, this finally results in the macro-deformations of the film due to the changing elastic properties of polymer...
December 3, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917258/modeling-the-qbo-improvements-resulting-from-higher-model-vertical-resolution
#8
Marvin A Geller, Tiehan Zhou, D Shindell, R Ruedy, I Aleinov, L Nazarenko, N L Tausnev, M Kelley, S Sun, Y Cheng, R D Field, G Faluvegi
Using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model, it is shown that with proper choice of the gravity wave momentum flux entering the stratosphere and relatively fine vertical layering of at least 500 m in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), a realistic stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) is modeled with the proper period, amplitude, and structure down to tropopause levels. It is furthermore shown that the specified gravity wave momentum flux controls the QBO period whereas the width of the gravity wave momentum flux phase speed spectrum controls the QBO amplitude...
September 2016: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916307/summertime-ambient-ammonia-and-its-effects-on-ammonium-aerosol-in-urban-beijing-china
#9
Zhaoyang Meng, Weili Lin, Renjian Zhang, Zhiwei Han, Xiaofang Jia
To improve the understanding of NH3 variation in urban Beijing, high temporal resolution (1-min averaged) NH3 data derived during the summer of 2009 were analyzed. The results indicated that after rain there was generally an increase in NH3 concentration. The analysis of the 1-min data revealed that a weak but significant linear correlation existed between NH3 and NOx in August, indicating a connection between NH3 concentrations and traffic levels during summer. This was further supported by peak NH3 levels approximately coinciding with morning rush hours...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913958/the-effect-of-mass-transfer-parameterization-and-ice-retention-on-the-scavenging-and-redistribution-of-so2-by-a-deep-convective-cloud
#10
Vladan Vučković, Dragana Vujović
A chemistry module with the aqueous chemistry coupled with the complex 3D nonhydrostatic atmospheric model is used to investigate how the representation of gas-aqueous mass transfer and ice retention affect the SO2 redistribution in the presence of a convective cloud. Gas uptake to the liquid water is calculated using both Henry's law equilibrium (HE) and kinetic mass transport (KMT). The constant retention coefficients for SO2 (k ret = 0.46) and for H2O2 (k ret = 0.64) are used. It is shown that the amount of SO2 in the air at higher altitudes (10-12 km) is greater when partial retention (PR) is included...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913396/long-term-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-and-breast-cancer-incidence-in-the-danish-nurse-cohort-study
#11
Zorana J Andersen, Line Ravnskjaer, Klaus Kaae Andersen, Steffen Loft, Jorgen Brandt, Thomas Becker, Matthias Ketzel, Ole Hertel, Elsebeth Lynge, Elvira Vaclavik Brauner
BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5) and < 10 µg/m3 (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911374/flow-cytometric-analysis-of-particle-bound-bet-v-1-allergen-in-pm10
#12
Katrin Süring, Sabine Bach, Conny Höflich, Wolfgang Straff
Flow cytometry is a method widely used to quantify suspended solids such as cells or bacteria in a size range from 0.5 to several tens of micrometers in diameter. In addition to a characterization of forward and sideward scatter properties, it enables the use of fluorescent labeled markers like antibodies to detect respective structures. Using indirect antibody staining, flow cytometry is employed here to quantify birch pollen allergen (precisely Bet v 1)-loaded particles of 0.5 to 10 µm in diameter in inhalable particulate matter (PM10, particle size ≤10 µm in diameter)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908668/associations-between-urinary-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-and-air-pollutants-observed-in-a-randomized-crossover-exposure-to-steel-mill-emissions
#13
Guillaume Pelletier, Marc Rigden, Lisa Marie Kauri, Robin Shutt, Mamun Mahmud, Sabit Cakmak, Premkumari Kumarathasan, Errol M Thomson, Renaud Vincent, Gayle Broad, Ling Liu, Robert Dales
The effects of industrial air pollution on human health have not been as thoroughly investigated as those of urban air pollution which originates mostly from automotive transport. To better assess the health impacts of point sources of industrial air pollution, a randomized crossover exposure study was conducted. Sixty one young and healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to spend five consecutive eight-hour days near a steel mill or at a location five kilometres away. After a nine or sixteen-day washout period, volunteers spent another five consecutive days at the second site...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906867/external-validation-of-the-air-medical-prehospital-triage-score-for-identifying-trauma-patients-likely-to-benefit-from-scene-helicopter-transport
#14
Joshua B Brown, Mark L Gestring, Francis X Guyette, Matthew R Rosengart, Nicole A Stassen, Raquel M Forsythe, Timothy R Billiar, Andrew B Peitzman, Jason L Sperry
BACKGROUND: The Air Medical Prehospital Triage (AMPT) score was developed to identify injured patients who may benefit from scene helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) transport. External validation using a different dataset is essential to ensure reliable performance. The study objective was to validate the effectiveness of the AMPT score to identify patients with a survival benefit from HEMS using the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study (PTOS) registry. METHODS: Patients age≥16years undergoing scene HEMS or ground EMS (GEMS) transport in the PTOS registry 2000-2013 were included...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#15
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898693/a-comparison-between-temperature-controlled-laminar-airflow-device-and-a-room-air-cleaner-in-reducing-exposure-to-particles-while-asleep
#16
Michal P Spilak, Torben Sigsgaard, Hisamitsu Takai, Guoqiang Zhang
People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894803/evaluating-the-impacts-of-the-clean-cities-program
#17
Shiyong Qiu, Nikhil Kaza
The Department of Energy's Clean Cities program was created in 1993 to reduce petroleum usage in the transportation sector. The program promotes alternative fuels such as biofuels and fuel-saving strategies such as idle reduction and fleet management through coalitions of local government, non-profit, and private actors. Few studies have evaluated the impact of the program because of its complexity that include interrelated strategies of grants, education and training and diversity of participants. This paper uses a Difference-in-Differences (DiD) approach to evaluate the effectiveness of the program between 1990 and 2010...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894560/analysis-of-temperature-variability-in-medication-storage-compartments-in-emergency-transport-helicopters
#18
Margaret A O'Donnell, Justin Whitfield
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the temperature in medication storage compartments in air medical helicopters was within United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-defined limits for controlled room temperature. This was a prospective study using data obtained from a continuous temperature monitoring device. A total of 4 monitors were placed within 2 medication storage locations in 2 identical helicopters. The data collection period lasted 2 weeks during the summer and winter seasons. Data retrieved from monitors were compared against USP parameters for proper medication storage...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894558/helicopter-scene-response-for-stroke-patients-a-5-year-experience
#19
Andrew Hawk, Catherine Marco, Matt Huang, Bonnie Chow
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of an emergency medical service (EMS)-requested air medical helicopter response directly to the scene for a patient with clinical evidence of an ischemic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and transport to a regional comprehensive CVA center. METHODS: CareFlight, an air medical critical care transportation service, is based in Dayton, OH. The 3 CareFlight helicopters are geographically located and provided transport to all CVA scene patients in this study...
November 2016: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889086/impacts-of-regional-transport-on-black-carbon-in-huairou-beijing-china
#20
Yuqin Wang, Benjamin de Foy, James J Schauer, Michael R Olson, Yang Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Yuanxun Zhang
The 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference was held near Yanqi Lake, Huairou, in Beijing, China during November 10-11, 2014. To guarantee haze-free days during the APEC Conference, the Beijing government and the governments of the surrounding provinces implemented a series of controls. Three months of Aethalometer 880 nm black carbon (BC) measurements were examined to understand the hourly fluctuations in BC concentrations that resulted from emission controls and meteorology changes. Measurements were collected at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences near the APEC Conference site and in Central Beijing at the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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