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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097755/a-solution-processable-liquid-crystalline-semiconductor-for-low-temperature-annealed-air-stable-n-channel-field-effect-transistors
#1
Resul Ozdemir, Donghee Choi, Mehmet Ozdemir, Hyekyoung Kim, Sinem Tuncel Kostakoğlu, Mustafa Erkartal, Hyungsug Kim, Choongik Kim, Hakan Usta
A new solution-processable and air-stable liquid-crystalline n-channel organic semiconductor (α,ω-2OD-TIFDMT) employing a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type of π-conjugation has been designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. The new semiconductor exhibits a low LUMO energy (-4.19 eV) and a narrow optical band gap (1.35 eV). Typical pseudo focal-conic fan-shaped texture of a hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed over a wide temperature range. The spin-coated semiconductor thin-films shows the formation of large (~0...
January 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094515/nanoporous-materials-for-the-onboard-storage-of-natural-gas
#2
K Vasanth Kumar, Kathrin Preuss, Maria-Magdalena Titirici, Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso
Climate change, global warming, urban air pollution, energy supply uncertainty and depletion, and rising costs of conventional energy sources are, among others, potential socioeconomic threats that our community faces today. Transportation is one of the primary sectors contributing to oil consumption and global warming, and natural gas (NG) is considered to be a relatively clean transportation fuel that can significantly improve local air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and decrease the energy dependency on oil sources...
January 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090133/impacts-of-changes-of-indoor-air-pressure-and-air-exchange-rate-in-vapor-intrusion-scenarios
#3
Rui Shen, Eric M Suuberg
There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. This paper focuses on two major factors that may be subject to significant transients in vapor intrusion situations, including the indoor air pressure and the air exchange rate in the subject building...
February 1, 2016: Building and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090122/effect-of-static-vs-dynamic-imaging-on-particle-transport-in-ct-based-numerical-models-of-human-central-airways
#4
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
Advances in quantitative computed tomography (CT) has provided methods to assess the detailed structure of the pulmonary airways and parenchyma, providing the means of applying computational fluid dynamics-based modeling to better understand subject-specific differences in structure-to-function relationships. Most of the previous numerical studies, seeking to predict patterns of inhaled particle deposition, have considered airway geometry and regional ventilation derived from static images. Because geometric alterations of the airway and parenchyma associated with regional ventilation may greatly affect particle transport, we have sought to investigate the effect of rigid vs...
October 2016: Journal of Aerosol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088626/characterization-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-based-on-error-estimation-from-epa-pmf-5-0-model-at-a-medium-city-in-china
#5
Baoshuang Liu, Jianhui Wu, Jiaying Zhang, Lu Wang, Jiamei Yang, Danni Liang, Qili Dai, Xiaohui Bi, Yinchang Feng, Yufen Zhang, Qinxun Zhang
Heze city, a medium-size city in Shandong province, Eastern China. Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area of Heze from August 2015 to April 2016, and chemical species and sources of PM2.5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 100.9 μg/m(3) during the sampling period, and the water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species included elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), as well as elements contributed 32.7-51.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively, to PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088011/particulates-and-noise-exposure-during-bicycle-bus-and-car-commuting-a-study-in-three-european-cities
#6
Enembe O Okokon, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Anu W Turunen, Pekka Taimisto, Arto Pennanen, Ilias Vouitsis, Zissis Samaras, Marita Voogt, Menno Keuken, Timo Lanki
BACKGROUND: In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. METHODS: We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#7
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081508/historical-variation-in-black-carbon-deposition-and-sources-to-northern-china-sediments
#8
Wenxue Xu, Fu Wang, Jiwei Li, Lizhu Tian, Xingyu Jiang, Jilong Yang, Bing Chen
Black carbon (BC) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important air pollutant in a large area of China. We have reconstructed a 100-year-long history of BC deposition based on analyses of sediment samples in the coastal area of the Northern China Plain (NCP). During 1900-2010, the sedimentary BC concentrations at three cores increased from 0.2 to 1.3, from 0.2 to 2.3, and from 0.2 to 1.9 mg g(-1), and the ranges for the BC deposition fluxes were 0.1-4.7, 0.1-8.2, 0.2-7.4 g m(-2) a(-1), suggesting the increase of ten times from the pre-industrial era...
January 2, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081161/factors-related-with-ch4-and-n2o-emissions-from-a-paddy-field-clues-for-management-implications
#9
Chun Wang, Derrick Y F Lai, Jordi Sardans, Weiqi Wang, Congsheng Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Paddy fields are major sources of global atmospheric greenhouse gases, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The different phases previous to emission (production, transport, diffusion, dissolution in pore water and ebullition) despite well-established have rarely been measured in field conditions. We examined them and their relationships with temperature, soil traits and plant biomass in a paddy field in Fujian, southeastern China. CH4 emission was positively correlated with CH4 production, plant-mediated transport, ebullition, diffusion, and concentration of dissolved CH4 in porewater and negatively correlated with sulfate concentration, suggesting the potential use of sulfate fertilizers to mitigate CH4 release...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080047/burden-of-disease-from-rising-coal-fired-power-plant-emissions-in-southeast-asia
#10
Shannon N Koplitz, Daniel J Jacob, Melissa P Sulprizio, Lauri Myllyvirta, Colleen Reid
Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076547/-spatial-distribution-of-biomass-burning-and-mortality-among-the-elderly-in-a-brazilian-amazon-region-2001-2012
#11
Valdir Soares de Andrade, Paulo Eduardo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Cleber Nascimento do Carmo
The burning of biomass has a significant impact on the Amazon ecosystem in the dry season due to the emissions of air pollutants. The effects on the health of the population, especially in the region of the arc of deforestation, has been the subject of recent studies. The scope of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in the state of Rondônia in the period from 2001 to 2012. Mortality data were obtained through the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075119/bubble-driven-detachment-of-bacteria-from-confined-microgeometries
#12
Sepideh Khodaparast, Minyoung Kevin Kim, Justin E Silpe, Howard A Stone
Moving air-liquid interfaces, for example, bubbles, play a significant role in the detachment and transport of colloids and microorganisms in confined systems as well as unsaturated porous media. Moreover, they can effectively prevent and/or postpone the development of mature biofilms on surfaces that are colonized by bacteria. Here we demonstrate the dynamics and quantify the effectiveness of this bubble-driven detachment process for the bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus. We investigate the effects of interface velocity and geometrical factors through microfluidic experiments that mimic some of the confinement features of pore-scale geometries...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071776/%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-of-imidazolium-cations-enhances-molecular-layering-of-room-temperature-ionic-liquids-at-their-interfaces
#13
Fujie Tang, Tatsuhiko Ohto, Taisuke Hasegawa, Mischa Bonn, Yuki Nagata
The interfacial structure of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) controls many of the unique properties of RTILs, such as the high capacitance of RTILs and the efficiency of charge transport between RTILs and electrodes. RTILs have been experimentally shown to exhibit interfacial molecular layering structures over a 10 Å length scale. However, the driving force behind the formation of these layered structures has not been resolved. Here, we report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of imidazolium RTIL/air and RTIL/graphene interfaces along with force field molecular dynamics simulations...
January 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069367/co-variability-and-its-association-with-household-cooking-fuels-consumption-over-the-indo-gangetic-plains
#14
Alok Kumar Pandey, Amit Kumar Mishra, Ritesh Kumar, Shivesh Berwal, Rakhesh Devadas, Alfredo Huete, Krishan Kumar
This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069306/nitrated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-nitro-pahs-in-the-environment-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Benjamin A Musa Bandowe, Hannah Meusel
Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are derivatives of PAHs with at least one nitro-functional group (-NO2) on the aromatic ring. The toxic effects of several nitro-PAHs are more pronounced than those of PAHs. Some nitro-PAHs are classified as possible or probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Nitro-PAHs are released into the environment from combustion of carbonaceous materials (e.g. fossil fuels, biomass, waste) and post-emission transformation of PAHs...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067788/mixed-potential-gas-sensors-using-an-electrolyte-consisting-of-zinc-phosphate-glass-and-benzimidazole
#16
Takafumi Akamatsu, Toshio Itoh, Woosuck Shin
Mixed-potential gas sensors with a proton conductor consisting of zinc metaphosphate glass and benzimidazole were fabricated for the detection of hydrogen produced by intestinal bacteria in dry and humid air. The gas sensor consisting of an alumina substrate with platinum and gold electrodes showed good response to different hydrogen concentrations from 250 parts per million (ppm) to 25,000 ppm in dry and humid air at 100-130 °C. The sensor response varied linearly with the hydrogen and carbon monoxide concentrations due to mass transport limitations...
January 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064392/chemical-composition-structural-properties-and-source-apportionment-of-organic-macromolecules-in-atmospheric-pm10-in-a-coastal-city-of-southeast-china
#17
Yanting Chen, Wenjiao Du, Jinsheng Chen, Youwei Hong, Jinping Zhao, Lingling Xu, Hang Xiao
Particulate matter (PM10) associated with the fractions of organic macromolecules, including humic acid (HA), kerogen + black carbon (KB), and black carbon (BC), was determined during summer and winter at urban and suburban sites in a coastal city of southeast China. The organic macromolecules were characterized by elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their sources were identified by using stable carbon/nitrogen isotope (δ(13)C/δ(15)N) and the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Model...
January 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063521/dynamic-interfacial-tension-of-surfactant-solutions
#18
REVIEW
R Miller, E V Aksenenko, V B Fainerman
The dynamics of surfactant interfacial layers was first discussed more than a century ago. In 1946 the most important work by Ward and Tordai was published which is still the theoretical basis of all new models to describe the time dependence of interfacial properties. In addition to the diffusion controlled adsorption mechanism, many other models have been postulated in literature, however, well performed experiments with well defined surfactant systems have shown that the diffusional transport is the main process governing the entire formation of surfactant adsorption layers...
December 24, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062481/sex-specific-effects-of-sex-steroids-on-alveolar-epithelial-na-transport
#19
Melanie Haase, Mandy Laube, Ulrich H Thome
Alveolar fluid clearance mediates perinatal lung transition to air breathing in newborn infants, which is accomplished by epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) and the Na,K-ATPase. Male sex represents a major risk factor for developing respiratory distress, especially in preterm infants. We previously showed that male sex is associated with reduced epithelial Na+ transport, possibly contributing to the sexual dimorphism in newborn respiratory distress. This study aimed to determine sex-specific effects of sex steroids on epithelial Na+ transport...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061918/clinical-experience-and-learning-style-of-flight-nurse-and-aeromedical-evacuation-technician-students
#20
Marla J De Jong, Susan F Dukes, Karey M Dufour, Darcy L Mortimer
BACKGROUND: The clinical experience and preferred learning style of U.S. Air Force flight nurses and aeromedical evacuation technicians are unknown. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional survey design, we gathered data regarding the clinical experience, level of comfort providing clinical care, and preferred learning style of 77 active duty (AD), Air Force Reserve (AFR), and Air National Guard (ANG) nurses enrolled in the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Flight Nurse course, and 121 AD, AFR, and ANG medical technicians enrolled in the Aeromedical Evacuation Technician course...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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