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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346795/understanding-the-emission-impacts-of-hov-to-hot-lane-conversions-experience-from-atlanta-ga
#1
Yanzhi Ann Xu, Haobing Liu, Michael O Rodgers, Angshuman Guin, Michael Hunter, Adnan Sheikh, Randall L Guensler
Converting a congested High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane into a High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane is a viable option for improving travel time reliability for carpools and buses that use the managed lane. However, the emission impacts of HOV-to-HOT-conversions are not well understood. The lack of emissions impact quantification for HOT conversions creates a policy challenge for agencies making transportation funding choices. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the case study before-and-after changes in vehicle emissions for the Atlanta, GA I-85 HOV/HOT lane conversion project, implemented in October, 2011...
March 27, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344377/effect-of-nitrogen-compounds-on-transport-of-ruthenium-through-the-rcs
#2
Ivan Kajan, Teemu Kärkelä, Ari Auvinen, Christian Ekberg
Ruthenium is a fission product that can be released from the fuel in case of a severe nuclear accident. In this work the impact of the atmosphere composition, including air radiolysis products, on the transport of ruthenium through a primary circuit was examined. Experiments were performed at temperatures 1300, 1500 and 1700 K in a slightly humid air. In the experiments significant effect of nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO2) and nitric acid on the ruthenium chemistry in the model primary circuit was observed. The obtained results indicate a strong effect of air radiolysis products on the quantity partitioning of transported ruthenium to gaseous and aerosol compounds...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343569/a-3d-thermal-model-to-analyze-the-temperature-changes-of-digits-during-cold-stress-and-predict-the-danger-of-frostbite-in-human-fingers
#3
Amir Fallahi, Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Ebrahim Shirani
The existing computational models of frostbite injury are limited to one and two dimensional schemes. In this study, a coupled thermo-fluid model is applied to simulate a finger exposed to cold weather. The spatial variability of finger-tip temperature is compared to experimental ones to validate the model. A semi-realistic 3D model for tissue and blood vessels is used to analyze the transient heat transfer through the finger. The effect of heat conduction, metabolic heat generation, heat transport by blood perfusion, heat exchange between tissues and large vessels are considered in energy balance equations...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340603/blunt-cardiac-injury-due-to-trauma-associated-with-snowboarding-a-case-report
#4
Fuminori Yamaji, Hideshi Okada, Yasuhiro Nakajima, Kodai Suzuki, Takahiro Yoshida, Yosuke Mizuno, Haruka Okamoto, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Taku Tanaka, Shiho Nakano, Sho Nachi, Tomoaki Doi, Keisuke Kumada, Shozo Yoshida, Narihiro Ishida, Katsuya Shimabukuro, Hiroaki Ushikoshi, Izumi Toyoda, Kiyoshi Doi, Shinji Ogura
BACKGROUND: Cardiac trauma is associated with a much higher mortality rate than injuries to other organ systems, even though cardiac trauma is identified in less than 10% of all trauma admissions. Here we report blunt trauma of the left atrium due to snowboarding trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old Asian man collided with a tree while he was snowboarding and drinking. He lost consciousness temporarily. An air ambulance was requested and he was transported to an advanced critical care center...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339039/the-effects-of-air-pollutants-on-the-mortality-rate-of-lung-cancer-and-leukemia
#5
Mansooreh Dehghani, Laila Keshtgar, Mohammad Reza Javaheri, Zahra Derakhshan, Gea Oliveri Conti, Pietro Zuccarello, Margherita Ferrante
World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338949/long-term-exposure-to-transportation-noise-and-air-pollution-in-relation-to-incident-diabetes-in-the-sapaldia-study
#6
Ikenna C Eze, Maria Foraster, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau, Harris Héritier, Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Medea Imboden, Arnold von Eckardstein, Christian Schindler, Mark Brink, Christian Cajochen, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Martin Röösli, Nicole Probst-Hensch
Background: Epidemiological studies have inconsistently linked transportation noise and air pollution (AP) with diabetes risk. Most studies have considered single noise sources and/or AP, but none has investigated their mutually independent contributions to diabetes risk. Methods: We investigated 2631 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), without diabetes in 2002 and without change of residence between 2002 and 2011...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336095/chlorinated-pesticides-and-natural-brominated-anisoles-in-air-at-three-northern-baltic-stations
#7
Terry F Bidleman, Hjalmar Laudon, Olle Nygren, Staffan Svanberg, Mats Tysklind
Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers were deployed at one inland and two island locations in the Bothnian Bay region of the northern Baltic Sea. Uptake was linear over 81-147 d and a temperature range of -2.6 to 14.2 °C for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) having log KOA ≥9 at ambient temperatures. Partial saturation of the PUF disks occurred for the more volatile OCPs hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and for bromoanisoles (BAs), which are products of bromophenols released by natural and anthropogenic sources...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336018/air-medical-transport-residency-program-for-flight-nurses-and%C3%A2-paramedics
#8
Jeff Phillips, Chad Kuhlman, Chris Evanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335592/air-and-light-stable-p4-and-as4-within-an-anion-coordination-based-tetrahedral-cage
#9
Dong Yang, Jie Zhao, Le Yu, Xiangsong Lin, Wenyao Zhang, Hongwei Ma, Adolf Gogoll, Zhibin Zhang, Yao-Yu Wang, Xiao-Juan Yang, Biao Wu
In contrast to the stable dinitrogen molecule, white phosphorus (P4) and yellow arsenic (As4) are very reactive allotropic modifications of these two heavier pnicogen elements, which has greatly hampered the study of their properties and applications. Thus the safe storage and transport of them is imperative. Supramolecular caged structures are one of the most efficient approaches for the encapsulation and stabilization of reactive species; however, their use in the P4 and As4 chemistry is very rare. In the current work, we demonstrate a new design strategy for constructing finite cages and including guests based on anion coordination chemistry...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333580/air-quality-measurements-from-rubber-bands-to-tapping-the-rainbow
#10
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship and operations, and archiving and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see smoke and smell contaminated air...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331047/ascension-island-a-survey-to-assess-the-presence-of-zika-virus-vectors
#11
G Bullivant, A F Martinou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island. METHODS: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329220/prolonged-exposures-to-intermittent-hypoxia-promote-visceral-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-severe-sleep-apnea-effect-of-normoxic-recovery
#12
Alex Gileles-Hillel, Isaac Almendros, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Recep Nigdelioglu, Zhuanhong Qiao, Robert B Hamanaka, Gökhan M Mutlu, Mahzad Akbarpour, David Gozal
Study Objectives: Increased visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) mass results in infiltration of inflammatory macrophages that drive inflammation and insulin resistance. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) suffer from increased prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Murine models of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking moderate-severe OSA manifest insulin resistance following short-term IH. We examined in mice the effect of long-term IH on the inflammatory cellular changes within vWAT, and the potential effect of normoxic recovery (IH-R)...
December 22, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321937/ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-personal-exposures-in-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-children-at-school-age
#13
Pau Pañella, Maribel Casas, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Oliver Robinson, Antònia Valentín, John Gulliver, Isabelle Momas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Jordi Sunyer
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure during childhood is associated with asthma; however, the contribution of the different TRAP pollutants in each microenvironment (home, school, transportation, others) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children is unknown. Daily (24 h) personal black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), and alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) individual exposure measurements were obtained from 100 children (29 past and 21 current asthmatics, 50 non-asthmatics) aged 9±0.7 years from the INMA-Sabadell cohort (Catalonia, Spain)...
March 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318888/characterization-of-the-lung-parenchyma-using-ultrasound-multiple-scattering
#14
Kaustav Mohanty, John Blackwell, Thomas Egan, Marie Muller
The purpose of the study described here was to showcase the application of ultrasound to quantitative characterization of the micro-architecture of the lung parenchyma to predict the extent of pulmonary edema. The lung parenchyma is a highly complex and diffusive medium for which ultrasound techniques have remained qualitative. The approach presented here is based on ultrasound multiple scattering and exploits the complexity of ultrasound propagation in the lung structure. The experimental setup consisted of a linear transducer array with an 8-MHz central frequency placed in contact with the lung surface...
March 16, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315824/near-field-investigation-of-the-explosive-dispersal-of-radioactive-material-based-on-a-reconstructed-spherical-blast-wave-flow
#15
David Hummel, Lucian Ivan
A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304360/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-childhood-asthma-recent-advances-and-remaining-gaps-in-the-exposure-assessment-methods
#16
REVIEW
Haneen Khreis, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#17
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303007/modeling-the-air-soil-exchange-secondary-emissions-and-residues-in-soil-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-china
#18
Song Cui, Qiang Fu, Yi-Fan Li, Jianmin Ma, Chongguo Tian, Liyan Liu, Leiming Zhang
The present study investigated the environmental distribution and fate of low molecular weight (LMW) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China using the ChnGIPERM (Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model), in which the air-soil exchange, spatial-temporal variations and the heterogeneity of secondary emission and residue in the non-source areas were studied. The model simulated the temporal and spatial variations of the PCB28 concentration in soils and air which agreed well with historical monitoring data across China...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300199/effect-of-hydro-oleophobic-perfluorocarbon-chain-on-interfacial-behavior-and-mechanism-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-oil-water-mixture
#19
Pingping Meng, Shubo Deng, Ziwen Du, Bin Wang, Jun Huang, Yujue Wang, Gang Yu, Baoshan Xing
Perfluorocarbon chain of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic, and its effect on PFOS distribution in oil-water mixture and underlying mechanism are unclear. For the first time, we propose that PFOS can emulsify oil-water mixture only in the presence of air, completely different from hydrocarbon surfactants. The perfluorocarbon chain repels hydrophobic compounds and its oleophobicity increases with decreasing polarity of organic solvents. The formed emulsion in oil phase contains high concentrations of PFOS, resulting in PFOS decrease in water...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296532/allergic-diseases-smoking-and-environmental-exposure-among-university-students-in-lebanon
#20
Souheil Hallit, Tarek Bou Assy, Rabih Hallit, Pascale Salameh
INTRODUCTION: Smoking habits among university students in Lebanon are not clearly identified, and studies correlating these habits to asthma and allergic diseases are lacking. The primary objective of this study is to assess the asthma and allergic diseases' predictors, particularly cigarette and/or waterpipe smoking and other environmental exposures, among university students. A second objective is to evaluate the potential role of these predictors as correlates of health-related self-assessment...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
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