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eosinophilic asthma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223720/serum-periostin-is-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-allergic-rhinitis-in-healthy-and-asthmatic-subjects
#1
Hirokazu Kimura, Satoshi Konno, Hironi Makita, Natsuko Taniguchi, Hiroki Kimura, Houman Goudarzi, Kaoruko Shimizu, Masaru Suzuki, Noriharu Shijubo, Katsunori Shigehara, Junya Ono, Kenji Izuhara, Yoichi Minagawa Ito, Masaharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Many studies have attempted to clarify the factors associated with serum periostin levels in asthmatic patients. However, these results were based on studies of subjects mainly characterized by high eosinophil counts, which may present as an obstacle for clarification in the identification of other factors associated with serum periostin levels. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with serum periostin levels in healthy subjects. We also assessed some factors in asthmatic subjects to confirm their extrapolation for management of asthma...
December 6, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223148/exhaled-nitric-oxide-helps-discriminating-asthmatic-children-with-and-without-positive-specific-ige-to-aeroallergens
#2
Li-Ching Fang, Shyh-Dar Shyur, Jun Yang, Jen-Yu Wang, Yu-Hsuan Kao, Chien-Hui Yang, Yu-Ting Yu
BACKGROUND: Aeroallergen sensitization may predict higher fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels. OBJECTIVE: We evaluate cut-off values of FeNO in asthmatic children with and without positive specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to at least one of 5 aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, and cockroach). METHODS: 564 patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR) aged 5 to 18 years were enrolled into two groups...
December 10, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221918/low-variability-in-peak-expiratory-flow-predicts-successful-inhaled-corticosteroid-step-down-in-adults-with-asthma
#3
Naomi Tsurikisawa, Chiyako Oshikata, Toshio Sato, Goro Kimura, Masami Mizuki, Takahiro Tsuburai, Shunsuke Shoji, Hiroshi Saito, Terufumi Shimoda
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for patients beyond 1 year after reduction of their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose remains unknown. Predictive factors that can be evaluated before the initiation of asthma treatment or at ICS dose reduction are unknown. METHODS: We prospectively studied 223 patients in 6 hospitals in the National Hospital Organization of Japan during the 36 months after 50% reduction of their daily ICS dose. All patients recorded their morning and evening peak expiratory flows (PEFs) in their diaries...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221581/biomarkers-for-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Steven W Yancey, Oliver N Keene, Frank C Albers, Hector Ortega, Stewart Bates, Eugene R Bleecker, Ian Pavord
The last decade has seen the approval of several new biologics for the treatment of severe asthma-targeting specific endotypes and phenotypes. This review will examine how evidence generated from the mepolizumab clinical development program showed that blood eosinophil counts, rather than sputum or tissue eosinophil counts, evolved as a pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker for the efficacy of treatment with mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. Based on the available evidence and combined with clinical judgement, a baseline blood eosinophil threshold of 150 cells/μL or greater or a historical blood eosinophil threshold of 300 cells/μL or greater will allow selection of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who are most likely to achieve clinically significant reductions in the rate of exacerbations with mepolizumab treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221580/mechanisms-of-allergen-immunotherapy-for-inhaled-allergens-and-predictive-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Mohamed H Shamji, Stephen R Durham
Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with IgE-dependent allergic rhinitis and asthma. When immunotherapy is given continuously for 3 years, there is persistent clinical benefit for several years after its discontinuation. This disease-modifying effect is both antigen-specific and antigen-driven. Clinical improvement is accompanied by decreases in numbers of effector cells in target organs, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunotherapy results in the production of blocking IgG/IgG4 antibodies that can inhibit IgE-dependent activation mediated through both high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRII) on B cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220719/house-dust-mite-allergen-causes-certain-features-of-steroid-resistant-asthma-in-high-fat-fed-obese-mice
#6
Vijay Pal Singh, Ulaganathan Mabalirajan, Kunal Pratap, Devika Bahal, Deepanshu Maheswari, Atish Gheware, Aabha Bajaj, Lipsa Panda, Ashish Jaiswal, Arjun Ram, Anurag Agrawal
Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatment due to its non-classical features such as non-eosinophilic cellular inflammation. The overall increased morbidity, mortality and economical burden in asthma is mainly due to steroid resistant asthma. In the present study, we used high fat diet induced obese mice which when sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) showed steroid resistant features...
December 4, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220595/dose-dependent-effects-of-tadalafil-and-roflumilast-on-ovalbumin-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-guinea-pigs
#7
Anna Urbanova, Ivana Medvedova, Martin Kertys, Pavol Mikolka, Petra Kosutova, Daniela Mokra, Juraj Mokrý
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive diseases of airways associated with cough and/or airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness are usually treated with bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been introduced into the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to influence the airway reactivity and eosinophilic inflammation by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentrations also in bronchial asthma...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212496/pulmonary-function-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-symptoms-in-asthma-patients-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Marise J Kasteleyn, Tobias N Bonten, Renée de Mutsert, Willemien Thijs, Pieter S Hiemstra, Saskia le Cessie, Frits R Rosendaal, Niels H Chavannes, Christian Taube
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of asthma. In patients with obesity the diagnosis of asthma is often based on symptoms, but without objective measurements. Nevertheless, obesity-associated asthma is recognized as a distinct asthma phenotype. Therefore, this study explores lung function and symptoms in asthma patients with and without obesity. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a population-based cohort study with 6671 participants (aged 45-65 years) of whom 472 had asthma...
December 7, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211545/efficacy-and-safety-of-benralizumab-for-eosinophilic-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Bao-Ping Tian, Gen-Sheng Zhang, Jian Lou, Hong-Bin Zhou, Wei Cui
CONTEXT: Benralizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the α chain of the IL-5 receptor (IL-5Rα) and is currently being assessed in clinical trials for asthma control. OBJECTIVE: Our systematic review and meta-analysis intends to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of benralizumab in patients with eosinophilic asthma. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: Literature searches of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were performed to identify randomized controlled trials of benralizumab and clinic outcomes in asthmatics...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209456/novel-glutathione-containing-dry-yeast-extracts-inhibit-eosinophilia-and-mucus-overproduction-in-a-murine-model-of-asthma
#10
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Eun-Jung Lee, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Dong Yeon Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Sang-Jae Park, Young-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND/OBSECTIVE: Airway inflammation by eosinophils, neutrophils and alveolar macrophages is a characteristic feature of asthma that leads to pathological subepithelial thickening and remodeling. Our previous study showed that oxidative stress in airways resulted in eosinophilia and epithelial apoptosis. The current study investigated whether glutathione-containing dry yeast extract (dry-YE) ameliorated eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus overproduction. MATERIALS/METHOD: This study employed 2 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or 20 ng/mL eotaxin-1-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells and ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mice...
December 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202821/effects-of-treatment-changes-on-asthma-phenotype-prevalence-and-airway-neutrophil-function
#11
Collin R Brooks, Christine J Van Dalen, Elizabeth Harding, Ian F Hermans, Jeroen Douwes
BACKGROUND: Asthma inflammatory phenotypes are often defined by relative cell counts of airway eosinophils/neutrophils. However, the importance of neutrophilia remains unclear, as does the effect of ICS treatment on asthma phenotypes and airway neutrophil function. The purpose of this study was to assess asthma phenotype prevalence/characteristics in a community setting, and, in a nested preliminary study, determine how treatment changes affect phenotype stability and inflammation, with particular focus on airway neutrophils...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197547/further-studies-of-unsuspected-emphysema-in-non-smoking-asthmatics-with-persistent-expiratory-airflow-obstruction
#12
Arthur F Gelb, Alfred Yamamoto, Eric K Verbeken, Mark J Schein, Roxanna Moridzadeh, Diem Tran, Christine Fraser, Richard Barbers, Wafaa Elatre, Michael N Koss, Eric F Glassy, Jay A Nadel
BACKGROUND: Previously, we and other investigators have described reversible loss of lung elastic recoil in acute and persistent loss in moderate-to-severe, chronic, treated asthmatics who never smoked, and its adverse effect on maximal expiratory airflow. In 4 consecutive autopsies, the pathophysiologic mechanism(s)has been unsuspected mild, diffuse, middle and upper lobe centrilobular emphysema. METHODS: We performed prospective studies (5-22 years) in 25(12F) chronic asthmatics age 55±15 yr who never smoked, with persistent moderate-to-severe expiratory obstruction...
November 29, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189887/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-without-respiratory-symptoms-or-asthma-in-an-adolescent-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Gülçin Otar Yener, Zahide Ekici Tekin, Neşe Çallı Demirkan, Selçuk Yüksel
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels. It is primarily associated with respiratory conditions such as asthma and sinusitis as well as eosinophilia, neuropathy, pulmonary infiltrates, and vasculitis. EGPA is extremely rare in the pediatric age group, and respiratory system disorders are usually predominant in EGPA patients. A 14-year-old boy presented with rash and severe extremity pain...
November 30, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186686/testosterone-attenuates-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-mediated-airway-inflammation
#14
Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Matthew T Stier, Hubaida Fuseini, Jeffrey A Yung, Shinji Toki, Melissa H Bloodworth, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Jian Zhang, Sarah L Garon, Robert G Hamilton, Vasiliy V Poloshukin, Kelli L Boyd, R Stokes Peebles, Dawn C Newcomb
Sex hormones regulate many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including asthma. As adults, asthma prevalence is 2-fold greater in women compared to men. The number of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is increased in patients with asthma, and we investigate how testosterone attenuates ILC2 function. In patients with moderate to severe asthma, we determine that women have an increased number of circulating ILC2 compared to men. ILC2 from adult female mice have increased IL-2-mediated ILC2 proliferation versus ILC2 from adult male mice, as well as pre-pubescent females and males...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184413/near-fatal-asthma-responsive-to-mepolizumab-after-failure-of-omalizumab-and-bronchial-thermoplasty
#15
Francesco Menzella, Carla Galeone, Mirco Lusuardi, Anna Simonazzi, Claudia Castagnetti, Patrizia Ruggiero, Nicola Facciolongo
Severe asthma affects between 5% and 10% of patients with asthma worldwide and requires best standard therapies at maximal doses, but there is a subgroup of patients refractory to all treatments. We share a case report of a 53-year-old woman with a history of severe allergic asthma that progressively worsened over the years despite the best therapy. She had been hospitalized 35 times, including nine admissions to the respiratory intensive care unit due to severe exacerbations. To rule out other possible diagnoses, several investigations were performed, such as computed tomography scan of the chest and neck, fiberoptic laryngoscopy, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, and complete blood cell count...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183929/effectiveness-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-real-life-on-clinical-outcomes-sputum-cells-and-systemic-inflammation-in-asthmatics-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-a-secondary-care-centre
#16
Sophie F Demarche, Florence N Schleich, Monique A Henket, Virginie A Paulus, Thierry J Van Hees, Renaud E Louis
OBJECTIVES: The impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on eosinophilic inflammation in asthma is well established, but their effect in a real-life setting has not been extensively studied. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of ICS on airway and systemic inflammation as well as on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma from clinical practice. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on asthmatics from a secondary care centre in whom ICS were initiated/increased (n=101), stopped/decreased (n=60) or remained stable (n=63, used as a control group) between two visits with available sputum and blood cell counts...
November 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178675/alteration-in-claudin-4-contributes-to-airway-inflammation-and-responsiveness-in-asthma
#17
Pureun Haneul Lee, Byeong Gon Kim, Sun Hye Lee, June Hyuck Lee, Sung Woo Park, Do Jin Kim, Choon Sik Park, George D Leikauf, An Soo Jang
PURPOSE: Claudin-4 has been reported to function as a paracellular sodium barrier and is one of the 3 major claudins expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells. However, the possible role of claudin-4 in bronchial asthma has not yet been fully studied. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of claudin-4 in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. METHODS: We determined claudin-4 levels in blood from asthmatic patients. Moreover, using mice sensitized and challenged with OVA, as well as sensitized and challenged with saline, we investigated whether claudin-4 is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma...
January 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176061/exhaled-breath-temperature-in-optimally-treated-asthmatics-severity-and-underlying-mechanisms
#18
Polyxeni Ntontsi, Petros Bakakos, Evgenia Papathanasiou, Zoi Tsilogianni, Konstantinos Kostikas, Georgios Hillas, Georgios Papatheodorou, Nikolaos G Koulouris, Spyridon Papiris, Stelios Loukides
ABSTRACT Introduction: Increased vascularity may lead to loss of heat in the airways and may modulate Exhaled breath temperature (EBT). Increased EBT has been associated with uncontrolled asthma. Aim: We wanted to determine whether the measurement of EBT in optimally treated asthmatic patients is influenced by the increased vascular permeability and whether Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in the above process. Furthermore, to assess the impact of asthma severity on EBT values...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174062/tiotropium-respimat-add-on-is-efficacious-in-symptomatic-asthma-independent-of-t2-phenotype
#19
Thomas B Casale, Eric D Bateman, Mark Vandewalker, J Christian Virchow, Hendrik Schmidt, Michael Engel, Petra Moroni-Zentgraf, Huib A M Kerstjens
BACKGROUND: Adding tiotropium to existing inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) maintenance therapy with or without a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) has been shown to be beneficial in patients with symptomatic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether responses to tiotropium Respimat add-on therapy were influenced by patients' T2 status. METHODS: In this exploratory study, data from 4 phase III trials were analyzed: once-daily tiotropium 5 μg or placebo as add-on to ICS + LABA (PrimoTinA-asthma; 2 replicate trials; NCT00772538/NCT00776984; n = 912); once-daily tiotropium 5 μg or 2...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167414/biomarkers-related-to-respiratory-symptoms-and-lung-function-in-adults-with-asthma
#20
Lucia Calciano, Laura Portas, Angelo Guido Corsico, Mario Olivieri, Paolo Degan, Marcello Ferrari, Alessandro Fois, Anna Maria Fratta Pasini, Andrea Pasini, Maria Elisabetta Zanolin, Roberto de Marco, Simone Accordini
There is a need for easily measurable biomarkers that are able to identify different levels of asthma severity. Aim. To assess the association between peripheral blood cell counts, fractional nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO), urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane), and asthma severity in adult patients from the general population. Methods. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study, 287 subjects with asthma (aged 20-64) were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) (2008-2010)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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