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Zn and diabete

Margarita G Skalnaya, Anatoly V Skalny, Vasily V Yurasov, Vasily A Demidov, Andrei R Grabeklis, Ivan V Radysh, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary aim of the research was to assess the level of trace elements and electrolytes in serum of postmenopausal diabetic women. Sixty-four postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 64 age- and body mass index-matched controls were examined. Serum trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were evaluated using Randox kits. The obtained data demonstrate that DM2 patients were characterized by 42 and 34 % higher FPG and HbA1c levels, respectively (p < 0...
October 18, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Soheila Asadi, Mohammad Nabi Moradi, Nejat Khyripour, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Marzieh Mahmoodi
Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose level. Trace element homeostasis causes disturbances in diabetes due to hyperglycemia. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an antioxidant enzyme, contains zinc and copper ions as its cofactors. Defects in SOD level and activity have been observed in diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV) has displayed hypoglycemic effects and is proven to improve oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible effects of RSV on blood glucose level, serum copper and zinc levels, SOD, and a number of other oxidative markers in type 2 diabetic rats...
October 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Manuel Ruz, Fernando Carrasco, Andrés Sánchez, Alvaro Perez, Pamela Rojas
Zinc (Zn) is important in a number of processes related to insulin secretion and insulin activity in peripheral tissues, making this element an interesting potential co-adjuvant in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This issue has been matter of interest in recent years. The available evidence is analyzed in this review. Information from epidemiologic studies evaluating the relationship between Zn and T2D is inconsistent. Furthermore, few studies examined the association between Zn status and insulin action and/or glucose homeostasis...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
M Tunçdemir, S P Ertürküner, D Özçelik
Several mechanisms for the pathogenesis of diabetic complications have been proposed, one of which is abnormal zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Zn is necessary for proper liver function since it has important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. We aimed to investigate whether or not Zn has morphologically protective effect on diabetes-induced liver damage in rats. In addition, we have investigated the role of Zn supplementation on apoptosis, lipid peroxidation levels, and the distribution of metallothionein (MT) in diabetic liver tissue...
September 7, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Sumit Gaur, Rupali Agnihotri
Trace mineral micronutrients are imperative for optimum host response. Populations worldwide are prone to their insufficiency owing to lifestyle changes or poor nutritional intake. Balanced levels of trace minerals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are essential to prevent progression of chronic conditions like periodontitis. Their excess as well as deficiency is detrimental to periodontal health. This is specifically true in relation to Fe. Furthermore, some trace elements, e.g. Se, Zn and Cu are integral components of antioxidant enzymes and prevent reactive oxygen species induced destruction of tissues...
August 31, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Sylwia Szrok, Ewa Stelmanska, Jacek Turyn, Aleksandra Bielicka-Gieldon, Tomasz Sledzinski, Julian Swierczynski
BACKGROUND: Cumulating evidence underlines the role of adipose tissue metallothionein (MT) in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fasting/refeeding was shown to affect MT gene expression in the rodent liver. The influence of nutritional status on MT gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to verify if fasting and fasting/refeeding may influence expression of MT genes in WAT of rats. RESULTS: Fasting resulted in a significant increase in MT1 and MT2 gene expressions in retroperitoneal, epididymal, and inguinal WAT of rats, and this effect was reversed by refeeding...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
Bento João Abreu, Wouber Hérickson de Brito Vieira
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a group of over 20 structurally-related proteins which include a Zn(++) ion binding site that is essential for their proteolytic activities. These enzymes play important role in extracellular matrix turnover in order to maintain a proper balance in its synthesis and degradation. MMPs are associated to several physiological and pathophysiological processes, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanisms of DM and its complications is subject of intense research and evidence suggests that MMPs are implicated with the development and progression of diabetic microvascular complications such as nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hongping Yao, Juanyi Feng, Qiaowei Zheng, Youxia Wei, Shixiang Wang, Weiyi Feng
AIMS: This study investigated the efficacies of gliclazide (GLZ), methylcobalamin (MCA), and GLZ+MCA combination therapy on DPN by evaluating the treatment-related changes in peripheral nerve function, the polyol pathway, and oxidative stress in the sciatic nerve of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was orally given GLZ (25mg/kg/day), MCA (175μg/kg/day), and GLZ+MCA (25mg/kg/day+175μg/kg/day) combination therapy for 8weeks, in order to observe its effects on the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), on the activities of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, aldose reductase(AR), AR mRNA expression, on the polyol contents, antioxidative enzyme activities and peroxidation products in the sciatic never tissue...
September 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Hossein Khosravi-Boroujeni, Faruk Ahmed, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increasing globally and it is recognized as a major public health problem because MetS is associated with increased risk of diabetes, stroke, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Recently, MetS has been linked to vitamin D deficiency. However, the evidence on the association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of MetS remains inconclusive. This review therefore aims to depict the existing evidence related to MetS and vitamin D deficiency, and examined some of the possible confounders which may affect the association between vitamin D status and risk of MetS...
July 20, 2016: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Byung Geun Ha, Deok-Soo Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Yun Hee Shon
Recent studies showed that deficiencies of essential minerals including Mg, Ca, and K, and trace minerals including Se, Zn, and V, have implications for the development, prevention, and treatment of several chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that balanced deep-sea water (BDSW), which is composed of desalinated water enriched with Mg and Ca, has potential as a treatment for diabetes and obesity. In this study, to determine whether BDSW regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and function, we investigated its effects on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial enzyme activity, expression of key transcription factors and mitochondria-specific genes, phosphorylation of signaling molecules associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes...
July 16, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Antonia Solomou, Erwann Philippe, Pauline Chabosseau, Stephanie Migrenne-Li, Julien Gaitan, Jochen Lang, Christophe Magnan, Guy A Rutter
BACKGROUND: The human SLC30A8 gene encodes the secretory granule-localised zinc transporter ZnT8 whose expression is chiefly restricted to the endocrine pancreas. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SLC30A8 gene have been associated, through genome-wide studies, with altered type 2 diabetes risk. In addition to a role in the control of insulin release, recent studies involving targeted gene ablation from the pancreatic α cell (Solomou et al., J Biol Chem 290(35):21432-42) have also implicated ZnT8 in the control of glucagon release...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
John I Anetor, Chukwuemelie Z Uche, Emmanuel B Ayita, Solomon K Adedapo, Jokotade O Adeleye, Gloria O Anetor, Sola K Akinlade
Cadmium (Cd) has recently emerged as a major concern not only in environmental toxicology but also in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and its complications. Conflicting data aside, these studies have not been examined in a clinical population undergoing management as well as possible modulation by the prominent metabolic antagonist of Cd such as zinc (Zn). This study examined the relationship between cadmium levels, glycemic control, and renal pathology in established type II diabetic patients with focus on populations exposed to modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Naoyuki Taniguchi, Motoko Takahashi, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Shinobu Kitazume, Vladimir V Shuvaev, Tomomi Ookawara, Akiko Furuta
In our previous studies, we reported that the activity of an anti-oxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) became decreased as the result of glycation in vitro and in vivo. Glycated Cu,Zn-SOD produces hydroxyl radicals in the presence of transition metals due to the formation of a Schiff base adduct and a subsequent Amadori product. This results in the site-specific cleavage of the molecule, followed by random fragmentation. The glycation of other anti-oxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase results in a loss or decrease in enzyme activity under pathological conditions, resulting in oxidative stress...
August 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
R H Olesen, T M Hyde, J E Kleinman, K Smidt, J Rungby, A Larsen
The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing. Major risk factors for AD are advancing age and diabetes. Lately, obesity has been associated with an increased risk of dementia. Obese and diabetic individuals are prone to decreased circulating levels of zinc, reducing the amount of zinc available for crucial intracellular processes. In the brain, zinc co-localizes with glutamate in synaptic vesicles, and modulates NMDA receptor activity. Intracellular zinc is involved in apoptosis and fluctuations in cytoplasmic Zn(2+) affect modulation of intracellular signaling...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Esther Sastre, Laura Caracuel, Javier Blanco-Rivero, María Callejo, Fabiano E Xavier, Gloria Balfagón
INTRODUCTION: We analysed possible time-dependent changes in nitrergic perivascular innervation function from diabetic rats and mechanisms implicated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In endothelium-denuded mesenteric arteries from control and four- (4W) and eight-week (8W) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats the vasoconstriction to EFS (electrical field stimulation) was analysed before and after preincubation with L-NAME. Neuronal NO release was analysed in the absence and presence of L-arginine, tetrahydrobiopterine (BH4) and L-arginine plus BH4...
2016: PloS One
Pauline Chabosseau, Guy A Rutter
Zn(2+) ions are essential for the normal processing and storage of insulin and altered pancreatic insulin content is associated with all forms of diabetes mellitus. Work of the past decade has identified variants in the human SLC30A8 gene, encoding the zinc transporter ZnT8 which is expressed highly selectively on the secretory granule of pancreatic islet β and α cells, as affecting the risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Here, we review the regulation and roles of Zn(2+) ions in islet cells, the mechanisms through which SLC30A8 variants might affect glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk, and the novel technologies including recombinant targeted zinc probes and knockout mice which have been developed to explore these questions...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yuki Naito, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Kazufumi Masuda, Hiroyuki Yasui
Since many Zn complexes have been developed to enhance the insulin-like activity and increase the exposure and residence of Zn in the animal body, these complexes are recognized as one of the new candidates with action mechanism different from existing anti-diabetic drugs. However, the molecular mechanism by which Zn complexes exert an anti-DM effect is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of Zn complexes, especially related to the phosphorylation of insulin signaling pathway components. We focused on the insulin-like effects of the bis(hinokitiolato)zinc complex, [Zn(hkt)2], using 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
July 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Philipp A Gerber, Guy A Rutter
SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolic syndrome is a frequent precursor of Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease which currently affects ~8 % of the adult population worldwide. Pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and loss are central to the disease process, though understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still fragmentary. RECENT ADVANCES: Over-supply of nutrients including glucose and fatty acids, and the subsequent over-stimulation of beta cells, is believed to be an important contributor to insulin secretory failure in T2D...
May 25, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Serge Bordeleau, Hugo Asselin, Marc J Mazerolle, Louis Imbeau
Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56-156km of a copper smelter...
September 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
K Nithya, T Angeline, W Isabel, A J Asirvatham
Superoxide dismutase is an antioxidant enzyme that is involved in defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. Cu/Zn SOD is a variant that is located in exon3/intron3 boundary. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Cu/Zn SOD (+35A/C) gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus among south Indian population. The study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 100) and healthy controls (n = 75). DNA was isolated from the blood and genotyping of Cu/Zn SOD gene polymorphism was done by polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism method...
2016: Genetics Research International
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