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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527021/comorbidity-prevalence-and-treatment-outcome-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#1
Laura Reale, Beatrice Bartoli, Massimo Cartabia, Michele Zanetti, Maria Antonella Costantino, Maria Paola Canevini, Cristiano Termine, Maurizio Bonati
Although ADHD comorbidity has been widely studied, some issues remain unsolved. This multicenter observational study aims to examine comorbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of newly diagnosed, treatment naïve children and adolescents with and without ADHD and, to compare treatment efficacy based on the type of comorbidity. We performed an analysis of the medical records of patients identified from the Regional ADHD Registry database, enrolled in 18 ADHD centers in the 2011-2016 period. 1919 of 2861 subjects evaluated (67%) met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD: 650 (34%) had only ADHD, while 1269 (66%) had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder (learning disorders, 56%; sleep disorders, 23%; oppositional defiant disorder, 20%; anxiety disorders, 12%)...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525569/comparative-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#2
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of MPH, modafinil and MDMA on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Methods: Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, MPH, modafinil and MDMA were administrated to 21 healthy subjects, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507595/differential-therapeutic-effects-of-atomoxetine-and-methylphenidate-in-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#3
Yoko Nakanishi, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Naoko Kishimoto, Kosuke Okazaki, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: The stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) and the nonstimulant atomoxetine (ATX) are the most commonly-prescribed pharmacological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the drug-specific mechanism of action on brain function in ADHD patients is not well known. This study examined differences in prefrontal hemodynamic activity between MPH and ATX in children with ADHD as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the Stroop color-word task...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506353/-effect-of-baicalin-on-atpase-and-ldh-and-its-regulatory-effect-on-the-ac-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Rong-Yi Zhou, Jiao-Jiao Wang, Yue You, Ji-Chao Sun, Yu-Chen Song, Hai-Xia Yuan, Xin-Min Han
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of baicalin on synaptosomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its regulatory effect on the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A total of 40 SHR rats were randomly divided into five groups: ADHD model, methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment (0.07 mg/mL), and low-dose (3...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504638/catecholaminergic-challenge-uncovers-distinct-pavlovian-and-instrumental-mechanisms-of-motivated-in-action
#5
Jennifer C Swart, Monja I Froböse, Jennifer L Cook, Dirk Em Geurts, Michael J Frank, Roshan Cools, Hanneke Em den Ouden
Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494748/the-novelty-of-bupropion-as-a-dopaminergic-antidepressant-for-the-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder
#6
Kanit Tha Deang, Hatta Sidi, Hazli Zakaria, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das, Nurul Hazwani Hatta, Muhammad Hatta, Kok Wei Wee
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a hyperactivity disorder that is prevalent among children may continue as an adulthood attention deficit. To date, treating an individual with an adult ADHD may be an arduous task as it involved numerous challenges, such as a need for high index of suspicion to diagnose this medical condition. Many psychiatric disorders masquerade as ADHD and delayed the necessary assessment and proper treatment for the debilitating medical condition. Adult ADHD would also be misdiagnosed (or under diagnosed) due to the facts that this medical condition is being masked by his or her high level of intellectuality achievement...
May 11, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492426/trichotillomania-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-under-methylphenidate-treatment
#7
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490912/update-on-the-treatment-of-narcolepsy-clinical-efficacy-of-pitolisant
#8
REVIEW
Michael W Calik
Narcolepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1 in 2,000 individuals and is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). In 60-70% of individuals with narcolepsy, it is also characterized by cataplexy or a sudden loss of muscle tone that is triggered by positive or negative emotions. Narcolepsy decreases the quality of life of the afflicted individuals. Currently used drugs treat EDS alone (modafinil/armodafinil, methylphenidate, and amphetamine), cataplexy alone ("off-label" use of antidepressants), or both EDS and cataplexy (sodium oxybate)...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489809/cannabis-induced-bullous-lung-disease-leading-to-pneumothorax-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Rashmi Mishra, Ravi Patel, Misbahuddin Khaja
RATIONALE: Marijuana use has been increasing in the United States among college students and young adults. Marijuana use has been associated with bullous lung disease which can lead to pneumothorax. There are other recreational drugs like methylphenidate, cocaine and heroin which have been associated with pneumothorax. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 30-year-old man with spontaneous pneumothorax associated with marijuana use. The patient had no medical conditions and presented to the emergency room with chest pain...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489138/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-impact-of-methylphenidate-on-working-memory-inhibition-capacity-and-mental-flexibility
#10
Cristiana Bolfer, Sandra Pasquali Pacheco, Miriam Harumi Tsunemi, Walter Souza Carreira, Beatriz Borba Casella, Erasmo Barbante Casella
Objective: To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods: Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9-12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities...
April 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475521/loss-of-eyebrows-madarosis-after-use-of-long-acting-methylphenidate-case-report
#11
Çiğdem Yektaş, Nuran Demir Samurcu, Ali Evren Tufan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474229/dose-response-effects-of-long-acting-liquid-methylphenidate-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-a-pilot-study
#12
Soo-Jeong Kim, Sophia Shonka, William P French, Jennifer Strickland, Lindsey Miller, Mark A Stein
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are common in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are frequently treated with stimulant medications. Twenty-seven children were randomized to different dose titration schedules, and ADHD symptoms, tolerability, and aberrant behaviors were assessed weekly during a 6-week trial with long-acting liquid methylphenidate (MPH). MPH at low to moderate doses was effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and was well tolerated in young children with ASD and ADHD...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466613/seasonality-of-methylphenidate-administration-among-children-in-israel
#13
Herman A Cohen, Bella Savitsky, Arie Ashkenasi, Moshe Hoshen
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Recently, increases in ADHD prevalence and methylphenidate use have been reported. There is evidence that children and adolescents use ADHD medication only during the school year. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends in methylphenidate dispensing over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) at the monthly level and to investigate whether there is any monthly variation, especially during the summer season...
November 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465019/first-dose-methylphenidate-induced-changes-in-brain-functional-connectivity-are-correlated-with-3-month-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-response
#14
Richard B Silberstein, Florence Levy, Andrew Pipingas, Maree Farrow
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are most commonly treated with stimulant medication such as methylphenidate (MPH); however, approximately 25% of patients show little or no symptomatic response. We examined the extent to which initial changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) associated with the first MPH dose in boys newly diagnosed with ADHD predict MPH-associated changes in ADHD inattentiveness and hyperactivity symptoms at 3 months. METHODS: Brain FC was estimated using steady-state visual evoked potential partial coherence before and 90 minutes after the administration of the first MPH dose to 40 stimulant drug-naïve boys newly diagnosed with ADHD while they performed the AX version of the continuous performance task...
April 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461697/exocytosis-related-genes-and-response-to-methylphenidate-treatment-in-adults-with-adhd
#15
B S da Silva, R B Cupertino, D L Rovaris, J B Schuch, D B Kappel, D Müller, C E Bandeira, M M Victor, R G Karam, N R Mota, L A Rohde, V Contini, E H Grevet, C H D Bau
Experimental studies have demonstrated that methylphenidate (MPH) modulates the synaptic vesicle trafficking and synaptotagmin-1 (SytI) mRNA levels. SytI is a regulatory protein of the SNARE complex, a neurotransmitter exocytosis mediator. Despite this evidence, most SNARE complex-related genes have never been evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacogenetics. This study evaluates, for we believe the first time, polymorphisms on the SNARE complex-related genes STX1A (rs2228607), VAMP2 (26bp Ins/Del) and SYT1 (rs1880867 and rs2251214) on the response to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) in a naturalistic sample of adults with ADHD...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458048/the-risk-of-injury-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-nationwide-matched-cohort-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#16
Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Fu-Huang Lin, Chin-Bin Yeh, San-Yuan Huang, Ru-Band Lu, Hsin-An Chang, Yu-Chen Kao, Wei-Shan Chiang, Yu-Ching Chou, Chang-Huei Tsao, Yung-Fu Wu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the risk of injuries associated with adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even though several studies have suggested a higher risk of injury in children and adolescents with ADHD. AIMS: To investigate the risk of injury in adults with ADHD. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We included 665 adults with ADHD from January 1, to December 31, 2000, and 1995 sex-, age- and index day-matched controls without ADHD from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) subset of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
April 27, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452866/effects-of-dopamine-and-norepinephrine-on-exercise-induced-oculomotor-fatigue
#17
Charlotte J W Connell, Benjamin Thompson, Jason Turuwhenua, Alexa Srzich, Nicholas Gant
INTRODUCTION: Fatigue-induced impairments in the control of eye movements are detectable via reduced eye movement velocity following a bout of prolonged, strenuous exercise. Slower eye movements caused by neural fatigue within the oculomotor system can be prevented by caffeine and upregulation of central catecholamines may be responsible for this effect. This study explored the individual contribution of dopamine and norepinephrine to fatigue-related impairments in oculomotor control...
April 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450072/contribution-of-clinical-neuroimaging-to-the-understanding-of-the-pharmacology-of-methylphenidate
#18
REVIEW
Luc Zimmer
Methylphenidate (MPH) is currently the most widely used molecule in the pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although experience of its application now extends over several decades, its psychotropic nature, prolonged use in children, and chemical relation to amphetamines still raise doubts in the minds of prescribers and the families of the patients. Brain imaging has shed considerable light on the neuropharmacology of MPH. The two main in vivo neuroimaging techniques are positron-emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and these can be applied in both animal models and humans...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449914/evaluation-of-sleep-organization-in-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-adhd-as-a-comorbidity-of-epilepsy
#19
Felipe Kalil Neto, Magda L Nunes
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Epilepsy or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence sleep organization in different ways. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep organization in children and adolescents with ADHD and epilepsy, and to analyze the influence of methylphenidate. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of children and adolescents with epilepsy, who were seizure free for at least three months, and were also diagnosed with ADHD...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445770/first-evidence-that-waterborne-methylphenidate-alters-endocrine-and-behavioral-stress-responses-in-zebrafish
#20
Helena Cristina Endres, João Gabriel da Rosa, Celestin Kabaselle, Heloisa Helena Barcellos, Charise Dallazem Bertol, Leonardo José Gil Barcellos, Luciana Grazziotin Rossato-Grando
Several studies have reported the presence of methylphenidate (MPH) in effluents; however, its impacts on aquatic life are not yet well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of acute exposure on endocrine and behavioral stress responses to environmentally relevant concentrations of MPH in zebrafish. We show that MPH blunts the response of cortisol to stress in zebrafish. On the other hand, MPH stresses fish per se. Additionally, MPH seems to modulate anxiety-like behaviors. We conclude that the presence of MPH in aquatic environments can alter neuroendocrine and behavior responses, which might considerably impact fish survival and welfare...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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