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Methylphenidate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225747/effect-of-methylphenidate-on-emotional-dysregulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-oppositional-defiant-disorder-conduct-disorder
#1
Ayse Kutlu, Ulku Akyol Ardic, Eyup Sabri Ercan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a frequent feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can be observed as a dysregulation profile or a deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) profile. Oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) comorbidity is prevalent in ADHD and known to be related with ED. The first-line treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, but their effects on ED are not well studied. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on ED in ADHD + ODD/CD cases...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217153/methylphenidate-induced-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Soumya Jhanda, Neha Singla, Sandeep Grover
Literature on the association of methylphenidate and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is sparse. This report discusses a case of a 14-year-old boy, who developed OCS (in the form of need for symmetry, obsessive doubts; compulsive symptoms included the need to order/arrange articles and repeated checking behavior), within 10 days of starting methylphenidate at the dose of 15 mg/day. Stoppage of methylphenidate led to amelioration of OCS over 2 weeks. The case description suggests that whenever a child on stimulants presents with new-onset OCS, association of OCS with stimulants must be suspected before considering an independent diagnosis of comorbid OCS/obsessive-compulsive disorder...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214989/exposure-response-analyses-of-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-changes-for-methylphenidate-in-healthy-adults
#3
Liang Li, Yaning Wang, Ramana S Uppoor, Mehul U Mehta, Tiffany Farchione, Mitchell V Mathis, Hao Zhu
The aim of the study was to evaluate the exposure-response (E-R) relationships of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy adults taking methylphenidate (MPH). Intensive time profiles of BP and HR from healthy adults in placebo and MPH treatment arms of seven clinical trials from the FDA internal database were utilized for this analysis. The analysis model contains a circadian component for placebo effect and an E-R component to describe drug effect. Internal validation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots and visual predictive check...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213188/children-with-adhd-and-symptoms-of-oppositional-defiant-disorder-improved-in-behavior-when-treated-with-methylphenidate-and-adjuvant-risperidone-though-weight-gain-was-also-observed-results-from-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Leila Jahangard, Shahrokh Akbarian, Mohammad Haghighi, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Amir Keshavarzi, Hafez Bajoghli, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Children with ADHD often show symptoms of oppositional defiant disorders (ODD). We investigated the impact of adjuvant risperidone (RISP) to a standard treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD and symptoms of ODD. Eighty-four children with ADHD and ODD (age: M=8.55; range: 7.28-9.95 years; 73.8% males) took part in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial lasting eight weeks. Participants were randomly assigned either to the MPH+RISP (1mg/kg/d+0.5mg/d) or to the MPH+PLCO (1mg/kg/d+placebo) condition...
December 10, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#5
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197010/methylphenidate-induced-priapism-in-a-prepubertal-boy
#6
Nidhi Chauhan, Sandeep Grover, Vandana Patidar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191586/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-low-educational-achievement-evidence-supporting-a-causal-hypothesis
#7
Eveline L de Zeeuw, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Erik A Ehli, Eco J C de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and educational achievement are negatively associated in children. Here we test the hypothesis that there is a direct causal effect of ADHD on educational achievement. The causal effect is tested in a genetically sensitive design to exclude the possibility of confounding by a third factor (e.g. genetic pleiotropy) and by comparing educational achievement and secondary school career in children with ADHD who take or do not take methylphenidate. Data on ADHD symptoms, educational achievement and methylphenidate usage were available in a primary school sample of ~10,000 12-year-old twins from the Netherlands Twin Register...
February 13, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181385/hemodynamic-profile-and-behavioral-characteristics-during-induction-of-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
Richard S Cartabuke, Joseph D Tobias, Julie Rice, Dmitry Tumin
AIM: There is no consensus regarding the administration of stimulant drugs preoperatively, particularly in pediatric patients diagnosed with ADHD. The primary objective of the current study was to assess differences in blood pressure and heart rate before and after induction of anesthesia between patients on chronic amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy who receive their normal dose preoperatively compared to patients in whom the prescribed medication was withheld. Secondary objectives were to assess the anxiety level during the induction of anesthesia and the effect of premedication with midazolam...
February 8, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179105/a-prenatal-nicotine-exposure-mouse-model-of-methylphenidate-responsive-adhd-associated-cognitive-phenotypes
#9
Jinmin Zhu, Fangfang Fan, Deirdre M McCarthy, Lin Zhang, Elisa N Cannon, Thomas J Spencer, Joseph Biederman, Pradeep G Bhide
Prenatal exposure to nicotine via cigarette smoke or other forms of tobacco use is a significant environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and ADHD are not well understood. Animal models, especially rodent models, are beginning to bridge this gap in knowledge. Although ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and working memory deficits, the majority of the animal models are based on only one or two ADHD associated phenotypes, in particular, hyperactivity or inattention...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176786/disrupted-glutamatergic-transmission-in-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-behavioral-abnormality-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#10
Jia Cheng, Aiyi Liu, Michael Y Shi, Zhen Yan
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used animal model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we sought to reveal the neuronal circuits and molecular basis of ADHD and its potential treatment using SHR. Combined electrophysiological, biochemical, pharmacological, chemicogenetic and behavioral approaches were utilized. We found that AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC) was diminished in SHR, which was correlated with the decreased surface expression of AMPAR subunits...
February 8, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168407/what-are-the-benefits-of-methylphenidate-as-a-treatment-for-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
EDITORIAL
Manfred Gerlach, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Luis A Rohde, Marcel Romanos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165547/effects-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-the-cerebellum-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#12
A N Inci Kenar, G A Unal, Y Kiroglu, H Herken
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between the use of methylphenidate (MPH) and changes in creatine, choline, and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), striatum, cerebellum, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 60 patients 18-60 years of age who met the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for ADHD...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165318/an-evaluation-approach-for-the-performance-of-dosing-regimens-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treatment
#13
Guillaume Bonnefois, Philippe Robaey, Olivier Barrière, Jun Li, Fahima Nekka
OBJECTIVE: Stimulant medications, with methylphenidate as the main agent, are the most prescribed for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nevertheless, real challenges still remain for clinicians concerned with adaptation of the therapeutic regimens, in terms of doses and timing, to children's daily activities. The aim of this study was to optimize short-acting methylphenidate regimens according to specific children's needs by evaluating the performance of a particular regimen through a web-based application...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165298/methylphenidate-is-likely-less-effective-than-placebo-for-improving-imbalance-walking-and-fatigue-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Michelle H Cameron, Garnett McMillan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159724/rationalising-polymer-selection-for-supersaturated-film-forming-systems-produced-by-an-aerosol-spray-for-the-transdermal-delivery-of-methylphenidate
#15
A Edwards, S Qi, F Liu, M B Brown, W J McAuley
Film forming systems offer a number of advantages for topical and transdermal drug delivery, in particular enabling production of a supersaturated state which can greatly improve drug absorption and bioavailability. However the suitability of individual film forming polymers to stabilise the supersaturated state and optimise delivery of drugs is not well understood. This study reports the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to measure the solubility of methylphenidate both as the free base and as the hydrochloride salt in two polymethacrylate copolymers, Eudragit RS (EuRS) and Eudragit E (EuE) and relates this to the ability of films formed using these polymers to deliver methylphenidate across a model membrane...
January 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156680/the-combination-therapy-with-methylphenidate-and-american-ginseng-in-cancer-related-fatigue
#16
Joshua Smith, Diane G Portman, Ritika Oberoi-Jassal, Sahana Rajasekhara, Mellar P Davis
: 215 Background: Fatigue is one of common symptoms among patients with cancer. However, little is known about the pathophysiology and effective pharmacologic intervention. Methylphenidate and American Ginseng were recognized for promising results and safe to use as a single therapy. Psycho-stimulants are commonly used and are effective in moderate to severe fatigue. The mechanism behind the evidence for methylphenidate is rebalancing dopamine neurotransmission which is altered in fatigue...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154152/oral-administration-of-methylphenidate-ritalin-differentially-affects-dopamine-release-between-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-striatum-a-microdialysis-study-in-the-monkey
#17
Tohru Kodama, Takashi Kojima, Yoshiko Honda, Takayuki Hosokawa, Ken-Ichiro Tsutsui, Masataka Watanabe
: Methylphenidate (MPH: Ritalin) is a widely used drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and is often used as a cognitive enhancer. Since MPH increases dopamine (DA) release by blocking the DA transporter in the human striatum, MPH is supposed to work on attention and cognition through a DA increase in the striatum. However, ADHD patients show impaired prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, and MPH administration is associated with increased neural activity in the PFC...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145999/short-term-effects-of-methylphenidate-on-math-productivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-mediated-by-symptom-improvements-evidence-from-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Anne Fleur Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Marjolein Luman, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Pierre M Bet, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies report positive effects of methylphenidate on academic performance, the mechanism behind these improvements remains unclear. This study investigates the effects of methylphenidate on academic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mediating and moderating influence of ADHD severity, academic performance, and ADHD symptom improvement. METHODS: Sixty-three children with ADHD participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study comparing the effects of long-acting methylphenidate and placebo...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144880/use-of-stimulants-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Giulio Perugi, Giulia Vannucchi, Fulvio Bedani, Ettore Favaretto
Several international guidelines indicate stimulants, including methylphenidate (MPH), amphetamines and derivatives, modafinil, and armodafinil among the second-third-line choices for bipolar depression. Efficacy of stimulants has been also reported for the management of residual depressive symptoms such as fatigue and sleepiness and for the management of affective, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms in children and adult bipolar patients with comorbid ADHD. Few case reports show positive results with MPH in the treatment of resistant mania...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137460/the-pharmacological-treatment-of-aggression-in-children-and-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-do-callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-the-efficacy-of-medication
#20
REVIEW
Carla Balia, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Alessandro Zuddas
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) show repetitive and persistent patterns of aggressive behaviour and the more severe forms are often associated with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and, where data are adequate, conduct meta-analyses on the efficacy of medication on aggression in children and adolescent with CD considering the impact of CU traits. RESULTS: Few studies have investigated patients with CD as primary diagnosis, and few of these have discriminated between different types of aggression or reported measures of CU traits...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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