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Stéphanie Bioulac, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Jenna Maire, Manuel P Bouvard, Albert A Rizzo, Patricia Sagaspe, Pierre Philip
OBJECTIVE: Virtual environments have been used to assess children with ADHD but have never been tested as therapeutic tools. We tested a new virtual classroom cognitive remediation program to improve symptoms in children with ADHD. METHOD: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 children with ADHD (7-11 years) were assigned to a virtual cognitive remediation group, a methylphenidate group, or a psychotherapy group. All children were evaluated before and after therapy with an ADHD Rating Scale, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and a virtual classroom task...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Sungchul Huh, Tae Wan Kim, Jung Hyun Yang, Myung Hoon Moon, Soo-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Yoon Ko
Objective: To investigate the current status of pharmacotherapy prescribed by physiatrists in Korea for cognitive-behavioral disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by mailing questionnaires to 289 physiatrists working at teaching hospitals. Items on the questionnaire evaluated prescribing patterns of 16 drugs related to cognitive-behavioral therapy, the status of combination pharmacotherapy, and tools for assessing target symptoms. Results: Fifty physiatrists (17...
February 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Jolien Fleur Leijenaar, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Erica Surya Klaassen, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Frederik Barkhof, Niels Daniël Prins
BACKGROUND: People with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) constitute a clinically heterogeneous group, but previous symptomatic drug trials in VCI did not take this clinical heterogeneity into account. Executive dysfunction and memory impairment are the cognitive domains that are most frequently impaired in VCI, and these impairments are likely to reflect vascular damage to specific neurotransmitter systems, which opens the possibility for targeted symptomatic treatment directed at specific neurotransmitters...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
L Zimmer, P Fourneret
Methylphenidate (MPH) remains the only accessible psychostimulant used in France in the attention and behavior disturbances of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Its prescription has been extended during the past decade to other neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, also associated with a deficit of attentional resources or, more broadly, fragility of executive functions. Despite its efficiency, validated by more than 400 randomized controlled and double-blind studies, and the good tolerance of MPH in these indications, this treatment remains limited in France because of many fears and other prejudices on the part of medical practitioners and/or families...
March 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
J H C de Roo, T M Bosch, A van Rhijn, R Del Canho
BACKGROUND: Medication is not always delivered in a safe dosing format. Up to 33% of medication errors can be attributed to confusing packaging or labelling. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 6-year-old boy with ADHD, for which he was being treated with methylphenidate and pipamperone drops, was brought to the A&E department with signs of severe encephalopathy. He had apparently been given pipamperone in streams rather than in drops in the previous months. The pipamperone level in his blood was raised to toxic levels...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
E J Marijke Achterberg, Ruth Damsteegt, Louk J M J Vanderschuren
Social play behaviour is a vigorous, highly rewarding social activity abundant in the young of most mammalian species, including humans. Social play is thought to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development, yet its neural underpinnings are incompletely understood. We have previously shown that low doses of methylphenidate suppress social play behaviour through a noradrenergic mechanism of action, and that methylphenidate exerts its effect within the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and habenula...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Mary Alexis Iaccarino, Lisa Liang Philpotts, Ross Zafonte, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often presents with cognitive complaints including difficulty with attention and concentration. As these symptoms resemble those of ADHD, stimulants may be a potential treatment for mTBI. This review evaluates the literature on the use of stimulants for the treatment of mTBI. METHOD: A systematic evaluation of the literature using six databases: Ovidmedline, Pubmed, psychINFO, CINAH, Embase, and Cochrane. Broad search terms were used and studies were included that evaluate the use of stimulant and stimulant-like medications in the mTBI population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
V Pauly, E Frauger, M Lepelley, M Mallaret, Q Boucherie, J Micallef
AIM: The aim was to characterize patterns of Methylphenidate (MPH) use in France in both children and adults over a three year period. METHODS: Using the French General Health Insurance database limited to two areas covering approximately 4 million individuals, we made up a cohort of incident MPH users between July 2010 and June 2013. Splitting them into distinct age groups ( [18-24]; [25;49]; >=50 years olds for adults and less than 6 years old, [6-11] and [12;17] for children), we described these populations at MPH initiation and during follow-up according to duration of treatment, quantities dispensed, and co-prescription with Central Nervous System (CNS) drugs...
March 7, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Cleo L Crunelle, Wim van den Brink, Franz Moggi, Maija Konstenius, Johan Franck, Frances R Levin, Geurt van de Glind, Zsolt Demetrovics, Corné Coetzee, Mathias Luderer, Arnt Schellekens, Frieda Matthys
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and is associated with early onset and more severe development of SUD and with reduced treatment effectiveness. Screening tools allow for a good recognition of possible ADHD in adults with SUD and should be used routinely, followed by an ADHD diagnostic process initiated as soon as possible. Simultaneous and integrated treatment of ADHD and SUD, using a combination of pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is recommended...
March 6, 2018: European Addiction Research
Mai H Philipsen, Nhu N T Phan, John Stephen Fletcher, Per Malmberg, Andrew G Ewing
Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules in the fly with a spatial resolution around 3 µm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both...
March 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Chittaranjan Andrade
The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: Multicenter studies have shown that cardiovascular risks of ADHD medication are extremely low. However, QTc length has been shown to be increased in smaller samples of patients or case reports after stimulant and atomoxetine medication. Based on recent studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with drug-induced QTc prolongation and polymorphisms linkage to regional populations, we hypothesized that the drug-induced QTc prolongation could be a factor of particular polymorphisms linked to specific regional populations undistinguished in multicenter studies...
February 5, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Hideyuki Imagawa, Saurabh P Nagar, William Montgomery, Tomomi Nakamura, Masayo Sato, Keith L Davis
Objective: To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prescribed atomoxetine in Japan. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years) with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, and ≥180 to ≤900 days of follow-up were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kai-Lin Huang, Han-Ting Wei, Ju-Wei Hsu, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Mu-Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts. Aims To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. METHOD: Using a nationwide, population-based insurance claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009...
March 4, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Edna Grünblatt, Jasmin Bartl, Susanne Walitza
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed drug in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is suggested that in vivo, methylphenidate treatment supports cortical maturation, however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to explore the potential effect of methylphenidate on cell proliferation and maturation in various cellular models, hypothesizing its interaction with the Wnt-signaling. The termination of cell proliferation concomitant to neuronal maturation following methylphenidate treatment was observed in all of the cell-models tested: murine neural stem-, rat PC12- and the human SH-SY5Y-cells...
March 1, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Daniel Fife, M Soledad Cepeda, Alan Baseman, Henry Richards, Peter Hu, H Lynn Starr, Anthony G Sena
BACKGROUND: Observational studies of switching from branded to generic formulations of the same drug substance often lack appropriate comparators for the subjects who switched. Three generic formulations were deemed equivalent to Concerta: an authorized generic (AG) identical except for external packaging, and two other generics (EG). OBJECTIVE: Compare the incidence of a combined endpoint (switching back to Concerta, changing the use of immediate release methylphenidate (MPH), stopping all long-acting methylphenidate, or starting a new medication) among people switched from Concerta to the AG versus the EG...
2018: PloS One
Tanya E Froehlich, Stephen P Becker, Todd G Nick, William B Brinkman, Mark A Stein, James Peugh, Jeffery N Epstein
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology moderates dose response to methylphenidate and whether the impact of SCT on medication response is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype effects. METHODS: Stimulant-naive children with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 126) or ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 45) aged 7-11 years were recruited from the community from September 2006 to June 2013 to participate in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 4-week crossover trial of long-acting methylphenidate...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Hui-Ching Huang, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Shun-Chieh Yu, Bo-Jian Wu, Ahai Chang Lua, Shin-Min Lee, Chao-Zong Liu
Objective: The therapeutic effect of methylphenidate (MPH) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to the alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) gene -1291C/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We investigated the effect of MPH in treating Taiwanese children and adolescent with ADHD and its relation to the ADRA2A gene -1291C/G SNP. Methods: The subjects with DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis underwent a titration period to find out the dose of MPH for maintenance treatment...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
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