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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239975/preparing-to-read-the-ubiquitin-code-top-down-analysis-of-unanchored-ubiquitin-tetramers
#1
Amanda E Lee, Lucia Geis-Asteggiante, Emma K Dixon, Meredith Miller, Yan Wang, David Fushman, Catherine Fenselau
The characterization of polyubiquitin chains has been an analytical challenge for several decades. It has been shown that anchored and unanchored polyubiquitin chains with different isopeptide linkages and lengths exhibit a wide range of profoundly different cellular functions. However, structure function studies have been hindered by the difficulty of characterizing these complex chain structures. This report presents a broadly applicable workflow to characterize ubiquitin tetramers without the need for genetic mutations or reiterative immunoprecipitations...
August 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239961/in-pursuit-of-neurophenotypes-the-consequences-of-having-autism-and-a-big-brain
#2
David G Amaral, Deana Li, Lauren Libero, Marjorie Solomon, Judy Van de Water, Ann Mastergeorge, Letitia Naigles, Sally Rogers, Christine Wu Nordahl
A consensus has emerged that despite common core features, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has multiple etiologies and various genetic and biological characteristics. The fact that there are likely to be subtypes of ASD has complicated attempts to develop effective therapies. The UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project is a longitudinal, multidisciplinary analysis of children with autism and age-matched typically developing controls; nearly 400 families are participating in this study. The overarching goal is to gather sufficient biological, medical, and behavioral data to allow definition of clinically meaningful subtypes of ASD...
February 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239957/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-malignance-of-lung-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#3
Xuebing Li, Xuexia Zhou, Yongwen Li, Lingling Zu, Hongli Pan, Boning Liu, Wang Shen, Yaguang Fan, Qinghua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related death, with high rates of recurrence and poor outcomes. An abnormally high expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in various cancers suggests an oncogenic role; however, its function in lung cancer is largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty-four pairs of lung cancer tissues were collected for ATF3 expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry staining...
February 27, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239947/analysis-of-early-hepatic-artery-thrombosis-after-liver-transplantation
#4
Zhicheng Xue, Maogen Chen, Xuzhi Zhang, Guodong Wang, Xiaoshun He, Linwei Wu, Yi Ma
BACKGROUND: Hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) is one of the deadliest complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). This study aimed to identify risk factors and summarize the experience of HAT management after OLT. METHODS: Clinical data of 407 adult patients who received OLT in our centres from July 2011 to December 2015 were retrospectively investigated. RESULTS: The incidence rate of early HAT was 2.0% (8/407). Recipient/donor weight ratio ≥1...
February 27, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239878/-appeals-to-nature-in-marriage-equality-debates-a-content-analysis-of-newspaper-and-social-media-discourse
#5
Cliodhna O'Connor
In May 2015, Ireland held a referendum to legalize same-sex marriage, which passed with 62% of the vote. This study explores the role played by 'appeals to nature' in the referendum debate. Little research has investigated how biological attributions are spontaneously generated in real-world discourse regarding sexual rights. Through content analysis of newspaper and Twitter discussion of the referendum, this study aims to (1) establish the frequency of appeals to nature and their distribution across the various 'sides' of the debate and (2) analyse the forms these natural claims took and the rhetorical functions they fulfilled...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239807/adiponectin-partially-rescues-high-glucose-high-fat-induced-impairment-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-in-a-pgc-1%C3%AE-dependent-manner
#6
H Wang, W-J Yan, J-L Zhang, F-Y Zhang, C Gao, Y-J Wang, W Bond Law, L Tao
OBJECTIVE: Plasma adiponectin (APN) levels are decreased in diabetic patients. Dysfunctional mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) pathogenesis, by unclear mechanisms. The present study determined (1) whether myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis was impaired in cardiomyocytes exposed to a high glucose/high fat (HGHF) medium (a T2DM in vitro model), (2) the effects of APN administration upon mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiomyocytes affected by HGHF incubation, and 3) the involved underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239780/sesamin-extends-lifespan-through-pathways-related-to-dietary-restriction-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Yumiko Nakatani, Yukie Yaguchi, Tomomi Komura, Masakazu Nakadai, Kenji Terao, Eriko Kage-Nakadai, Yoshikazu Nishikawa
PURPOSE: Sesamin, a polyphenolic compound found in sesame seeds, has been reported to exert a variety of beneficial health effects. We have previously reported that sesamin increases the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the longevity effect of sesamin in C. elegans. METHODS: Starting from three days of age, Caenorhabditis elegans animals were fed a standard diet alone or supplemented with sesamin...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239773/high-resolution-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-of-the-yersinia-pestis-outer-membrane-protein-ail-in-lipid-membranes
#8
Yong Yao, Samit Kumar Dutta, Sang Ho Park, Ratan Rai, L Miya Fujimoto, Andrey A Bobkov, Stanley J Opella, Francesca M Marassi
The outer membrane protein Ail (Adhesion invasion locus) is one of the most abundant proteins on the cell surface of Yersinia pestis during human infection. Its functions are expressed through interactions with a variety of human host proteins, and are essential for microbial virulence. Structures of Ail have been determined by X-ray diffraction and solution NMR spectroscopy, but those samples contained detergents that interfere with functionality, thus, precluding analysis of the structural basis for Ail's biological activity...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239767/down-regulation-of-pin1-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients-and-mouse-model
#9
Lan Tang, Yanke Zhang, Guojun Chen, Yan Xiong, Xuefeng Wang, Binglin Zhu
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, demonstrated by colocalization with the dendritic marker, MAP2...
February 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239719/electronic-properties-of-carbon-nanotubes-complexed-with-a-dna-nucleotide
#10
Morteza Chehelamirani, Maurício C da Silva, Dennis R Salahub
Electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play an important role in their interactions with nano-structured materials. In this work, interactions of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), a DNA nucleotide, with metallic and semi-conducting CNTs are studied using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. The electronic structure of semi-conducting CNTs was found to be changed as they turned to metallic CNTs in a vacuum upon interaction with the nucleotide while metallic CNTs remain metallic. Specifically, the band gap of semi-conducting CNTs was decreased by 0...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239716/h-bonding-controls-the-emission-properties-of-functionalized-carbon-nano-dots
#11
Soumalya Mukherjee, Edamana Prasad, Anju Chadha
Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts in the photo-luminescent spectra of doped and functionalized carbon nano-dots (CDs) arise due to the complex interaction between CDs and the solvent molecules around them. Nitrogen-functionalized carbon nano-dots (N-CDs) were synthesized from citric acid and urea using microwave assisted hydrothermal methods. Optical studies (absorption and photoluminescence) from the as-synthesized N-CDs were carried out in polar protic, aprotic and non-polar solvents. When excited at 355 nm, blue photoluminescence (PL) was observed from the N-CDs dispersed in polar aprotic solvents while green emission was observed in polar protic solvents...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239708/spectral-evidence-for-multi-pathway-contribution-to-the-upconversion-pathway-in-nayf4-yb-3-er-3-phosphors
#12
Youngho Cho, Si Won Song, Soo Yeong Lim, Jae Hun Kim, Chan Ryang Park, Hyung Min Kim
Although upconversion phosphors have been widely used in nanomedicine, laser engineering, bioimaging, and solar cell technology, the upconversion luminescence mechanism of the phosphors has been fiercely debated. A comprehensive understanding of upconversion photophysics has been significantly impeded because the number of photons incorporated in the process in different competitive pathways could not be resolved. Few convincing results to estimate the contribution of each of the two-, three-, and four-photon channels of near-infrared (NIR) energy have been reported in yielding upconverted visible luminescence...
February 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239692/high-throughput-screening-of-microchip-synthesized-genes-in-programmable-double-emulsion-droplets
#13
H F Chan, S Ma, J Tian, K W Leong
The rapid advances in synthetic biology and biotechnology are increasingly demanding high-throughput screening technology, such as screening of the functionalities of synthetic genes for optimization of protein expression. Compartmentalization of single cells in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets allows screening of a vast number of individualized assays, and recent advances in automated microfluidic devices further help realize the potential of droplet technology for high-throughput screening. However these single-emulsion droplets are incompatible with aqueous phase analysis and the inner droplet environment cannot easily communicate with the external phase...
February 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239676/intact-ventral-striatal-prediction-error-signaling-in-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#14
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Ziye Xu, Deanna M Barch, James A Waltz
BACKGROUND: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons code a computational quantity, reward prediction error (RPE), which has been causally related to learning. Recently, this insight has been leveraged to link phenomenological and biological levels of understanding in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, results have been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes. Here we present results from two studies with relatively large Ns to assess VS RPE in schizophrenia. METHODS: In the current study we analyzed data from two independent studies, involving a total of 87 chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 61 controls...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239647/enhanced-fcgr2a-and-fcgr3a-signaling-by-hiv-viremic-controller-igg
#15
Raymond A Alvarez, Ana M Maestre, Kenneth Law, Natasha D Durham, Maria Ines Barria, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Minoru Tada, Manav Kapoor, Mathew T Hotta, Gabriela Rodriguez-Caprio, Daniel S Fierer, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Viviana Simon, Benjamin K Chen
HIV-1 viremic controllers (VC) spontaneously control infection without antiretroviral treatment. Several studies indicate that IgG Abs from VCs induce enhanced responses from immune effector cells. Since signaling through Fc-γ receptors (FCGRs) modulate these Ab-driven responses, here we examine if enhanced FCGR activation is a common feature of IgG from VCs. Using an infected cell-based system, we observed that VC IgG stimulated greater FCGR2A and FCGR3A activation as compared with noncontrollers, independent of the magnitude of HIV-specific Ab binding or virus neutralization activities...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239637/alzheimer-s-disease-the-influence-of-age-on-clinical-heterogeneity-through-the-human-brain-connectome
#16
Bradford C Dickerson, Michael Brickhouse, Scott McGinnis, David A Wolk
INTRODUCTION: One major factor that influences the heterogeneity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age: younger AD patients more frequently exhibit atypical forms of AD. We propose that this age-related heterogeneity can be understood better by considering age-related differences in atrophy in the context of large-scale brain networks subserving cognitive functions that contribute to memory. METHODS: We examined data from 75 patients with mild AD dementia from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239636/cognitive-impairment-and-decline-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-with-high-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Jenalle E Baker, Yen Ying Lim, Robert H Pietrzak, Jason Hassenstab, Peter J Snyder, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
INTRODUCTION: This meta-analysis aimed to characterize the nature and magnitude of amyloid (Aβ)-related cognitive impairment and decline in cognitively normal (CN) older individuals. METHOD: MEDLINE Ovid was searched from 2012 to June 2016 for studies reporting relationships between cerebrospinal fluid or positron emission tomography (PET) Aβ levels and cognitive impairment (cross-sectional) and decline (longitudinal) in CN older adults. Neuropsychological data were classified into domains of episodic memory, executive function, working memory, processing speed, visuospatial function, semantic memory, and global cognition...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239620/analysis-of-phagosomal-antigen-degradation-by-flow-organellocytometry
#18
Eik Hoffmann, Anne-Marie Pauwels, Andrés Alloatti, Fiorella Kotsias, Sebastian Amigorena
Professional phagocytes internalize self and non-self particles by phagocytosis to initiate innate immune responses. After internalization, the formed phagosome matures through fusion and fission events with endosomes and lysosomes to obtain a more acidic, oxidative and hydrolytic environment for the degradation of its cargo. Interestingly, phagosome maturation kinetics differ between cell types and cell activation states. This protocol allows to quantify phagosome maturation kinetics on a single organelle level in different types of phagocytes using flow cytometry...
November 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239610/preparing-and-analyzing-expressed-sequence-tags-ests-library-for-the-mammary-tissue-of-local-turkish-kivircik-sheep
#19
Nehir Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Zehra Omeroglu Ulu, Salih Ulu, Cemal Un, Kemal Ozdem Oztabak, Kemal Altunatmaz
Kivircik sheep is an important local Turkish sheep according to its meat quality and milk productivity. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiles of both prenatal and postnatal stages for the Kivircik sheep. Therefore, two different cDNA libraries, which were taken from the same Kivircik sheep mammary gland tissue at prenatal and postnatal stages, were constructed. Total 3072 colonies which were randomly selected from the two libraries were sequenced for developing a sheep ESTs collection...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239524/pattern-of-gray-matter-volumes-related-to-retinal-thickness-and-its-association-with-cognitive-function-in-relapsing-remitting-ms
#20
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Hanife Cetin, Kim Lea Young, Sibylle Hodecker, Jana Pöttgen, Diana Bittersohl, Andrea Hassenstein, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Christoph Heesen, Susanne Siemonsen
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be investigated in the visual system as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows examining structural integrity in detail. The association between thickness of retinal layers and focal cortical volumes beyond the primary visual system has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between focal cortical volume and thickness of retinal layers...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
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